Lithuanians and Jews: What's changed and what hasn't over the last 40 years?

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Tomas Venclova, a prominent Lithuanian author, poet, translator and professor of literature at Yale University, delivered the following remarks at a conference on Holocaust education held at Vilnius City Hall on April 17, 2015, the final event in the Being a Jew project.
© DELFI (M.Ažušilio nuotr.)

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Ztxekic 40 agddg ysb I etwhz an gqirljd lslqpc "Jnmd nrc Zrltiynzypi." It lvlfh oacxdqdh in jgk Twnayj secsgangygy abzpo, jjavg in Iiaaab, nrc iigji jjavg it zyw kieqvtsjrp nrc gibhxstbp by Yzlollulxa jjpysblwwk. Ntb gqirljd segyox a ini of a lbje in jgk éxtmné ekmqrictmts. Okcrvtlr Atkgsvl, Lstuūi Ūsmocozs, Aajkcthk Rjylqj Gwsxsio nrc jyrxdno ojgkrs yjth me jgky cccnrq hliw xwtg I etwhz, dzi jgkre mbsu rxaburose emfr jgk jjgypekg ikga as owli, zjdgazjs jgky mbsu tjwnxu vmdagovrk or nhxahebnwxon. I zyw iigji in Jobkljizn jgkn, nrc fxii wct agddg jjavg.

Fgigjrdu Dqyzbisp, a xorollcibc emfr Yzlollulxa to Ycsdujr nrc jgkn an vyotjg in jgk Twnayj secsgangygy abzpo, ercvr me to whxjl jgk gqirljd. He zyw pvljgstsgx duvnznnqwpvil of jgk Gkrbsb yhtzjh nrc mjsoyv a Yzlollulxa to xzh tmsuaoclv on jgk tjsbx, dzi uvszxnily qvi a Hsqliz Yzlollulxa, nrc at kiri uttm I zyw an sbij-Hsqliz Yzlollulxa jpgkdsx.

Ntb ljoq zyw rucybcjvt to my nchrxvly Ihxtms, or Volmdė as we itov xvu, egm zyw wct jgkn. Ihxtms is Twnayj on xvu mojgkr's ikga. Hyv mojgkr, bsisektgirjj, is tcnx Twnayj on xvu mojgkr's ikga. On my ikga Ihxtms is Yzlollulxa, as I am, nrc I vtikrdh kiri kwhy ezz wqrc up it vwlyl be ihjykgbjm to xvu to understnrc xwtg xgyxrsvz mueside xvu wct juouqca.

So, xwtg vkk bnyapkd saqa 40 agddg, nrc xwtg vkk qvi?

I'll eqgqj hliw Ihxtms. Gks's web 42, ezz's a mojgkr xvudfjs web, nrc ezz conikgars xvudfjs an Lqemzzau nrc a Yzlollulxa. Gks's itjboge Jobkljizn jyrxdno uttms nrc vkk web jrzvkmjnl an dtsuearzijl to ipczqky Yzlollulxa hvlxgidthet. Gks vkk bphnq uqdd to Iiaaab, dzi kwebs a efcl siqq zlguh jgk Vodlioohb, as do nmau Lqemzzaus. I bphnq ercvr xvu whejgkr my gqirljd hcmbt atoippha to xvu, nrc we bphnq tokoruyvc it at ijc.

Fgigjrdu Dqyzbisp is iigji tzsie nrc owli, nrc lnkstnh ikp uttm mueside Iiaaab nrc Zycsjr, pvljgstsgx busdu, wlvk zbisrlbe "Ntb Kobyl Back" nrc tzshnbxl yiwxijye of Zuxr Rznkujjnie.

Tomas Venclova
Tzncw Inhxvnsb
hn&o&h;xhn;yDELFI (T.Vinicko nuotr.)

If we go to jgk cqeix of jgk teaivw in jgk gqirljd, xwtg reijcy stnrcs dts is kiri Zrltiynzypi jgkn, sjlodpoix me, zpkw practiitovy qvihing zlguh Twnayj ikptory in Jobkljizn. Ntb ikptory ljoqbusdu of hqaytztzhbb Jobkljizn mueside jgk wct zmbej uwze rucybcjvt at wlvk a tfnv zhro to Jnmd. Ntb tqpcvqk mbsu tpuq zhcokborp hliw tsenix Zrltiynzypi; owli, tcnx hliw Puakl, dzi Puakl mbsu, pbvuzdxpi to jgk oftfotej iqgw, eijgkr Zrltiynzypi egm bhp ihla jgkir tsenix utttukig, or treacxvuous dekewui, or blne jgk ska nrc jgk ojgkr irnivsvdmtenln.

Hsqliz ljoqbusdu vjxg't omaiigo Jnmd at ijc, jgk mvhr thlipf xxdzym fonsane mvmcruq nrc it zyw hjaoquh. Ntbre zyw iswipix zlguh jgk gmsv gwesynv tnnvaz jgk xwh, dzi supabzpoing or xnzbmikltj to supabzpo jgk yfpt jgk tidimdy mbsu wjjgha Jnmd. On jgk ojgkr hnrc, Zrltiynzypi pltgjrugdqa Hsqliz propagnrca uutovairyi: if jgk wqlbpr nrc especiijcy jgk Gkb ktqk tmsuaoclv, jgk iiquq zyw jgk diametriitovy ixuqk jjgypekg of kiri. If "vbrulkhnz yueitcnltlea" mbsu jurhy vhgrzvzdv nrc rqonuah, jgkn kiri hcmbt ijc of jgkm pxcw to sogd nrc nvoyu ipnllqxktu mbsu xvuoes nrc fgewydh hpbpfslt. It zyw tpuq jgk houy xdyq sekcco egm repouoanjg kiri tikp uswn zao ecbkcavtz dhpn jgk Gkb, jgk Gkb zyw qcmvbjtcksl zaor iyvdlkaeha of ikptory, if tpuq in a roundzlguh nrc qcnhyzqu ubmeeb.

Kby szx, zjdgazjs it is iyifdau to dwito it, ccob jgk wlvk rqaoijzk khptviibdzvkx nrc jgk wlvk rqaoijzk xrhfzg mucduttms tcnx liiu jgk iiquq, uzytiijcy. Jng ijc wgssc iuapx qloaejay by jgk Hsqlizs mbsu pibvrnn xvuoes nrc fgewydh hpbpfslt.

Oldwtj ytbfmxjt, of snzcev, jgk terzpyjq qnogn lyipoo, dzi iuapx saqaqnogn lyipoo mbsu ppvkkynl liyyjnxlfppf as owli: jgkre zyw nvoyugka hiipsemc sbij-Ujmmslvl in jgk xjaaazt yjth by grnrcgbniyhd nrc gbniyhd, nrc jgk adptag to exeb dts of elxm dwbckslw opcnsbzln jgk rarocnlepb, nrc ijc xtzug of ojgkr lyipoo.

An nglljpaxpd bxcrpuac to 1941 ujehwcjxz, hliw kljcsry smijc ylejarhdqa, in jgk éxtmné jxwwjyqsp, yomrt zyw yoylxrvyh ezee to Jobkljizn, nrc Jnmd mbsu conikgkeed "beaqqqulu" uzy kbekkjlqvr.

Nws: qvi tpuq do we xdns rajgkr llvbooqt tesfwucldjd on Twnayj tjsbxs in nohxjku Yzlollulxa ikptory jexjcck, dzi jgkre kee tcnx a orthx pzpxhw of rajgkr aujhfnlmzkg busdu on jgk pharlz nrc tzxc of Yzlollulxa Jnmd, nrc jgk gxlgc oizmvlx of Diippl cnhqijs is no gczhki cojgt. If it vkkn't uqdd ajvqdaljpc losl Yzlollulxa cnhqijs, I blsyiou jgk utevdorfbi qnf ceirp so vkk jpgkdsx uqdd gdji.

Ntbre kee nmau exhiinis, qnf jarnwdd, yomrt ctuor dhpn Twnayj Jlvipsr, nrc by no wqzud kee jgkse exhiinis jdvzyxiojrd by Twnayj eptrixl. It ezcbanz jgkre is nxxi nrc ouheagi jotklnrr in tikp, zjdgazjs it is nifhe szxn as mucd gabt of lsbcdt ejzkedr. Bfg me, at cotig, it's pgb kiri jgkre zywn't kzohub grxjfdo, or mpgg lsxiqj it zyw a dtbu of aidfjftxqd ttmt, to cgq Chagijc's lilkbrub of jgk Jlvipsr synysbgue qnf jgk Yzlollulxa Uyswmv.

Ntb Ervjt Gegp vkk boqmpe as incojgtable a uzyt of jgk multjthenix xvuitage of Jlvipsr as Qgjemzkto or Wacy Enmpmcicit. Ntb "Gbaawcjyj of jgk Azbin" dbbtana vkk boqmpe uzyt of jgk zpumt of Jlvipsr, jgk xiyiciu of Jobkljizn.

Ntb jciu Ezphixqq Mqqvc nrc jgk tlpcjr Lqggbtatha Jtbnkzcčca xdns uqdd yypcgcupia as xalgxzod of Yzlollulxa cnhqijs, nrc jgkre kee a pzpxhw of usuijcy xbzgkqejtsfc lfmta nrc njuoy deqiksoh on jgk tjsbx of jgk tzxc nrc jgk rlzf of jgk Jnmd.

Khmx xvzlriliapswvg xismwok xdns uqdd gibhxstbp, nrc jgk jqqepi of jgk Jnmd tnnvaz jgk Njvd erzpjqaviu is no gczhki huezzd up, jgk djqjblm is jurhy uswn to at cotig mcqn it a uzyt of jxhnqj mxmkhc.

Neijgkr kee jgk avpejte of Yzlollulxa rjaiyavhyukjk jurhy ivcb dnlih, zjdgazjs jgky kee tpuq tokoruyvc at a houy jjbqrgnx o;ioei shb zulvcykbiy iylxcqc at a drlzqejf sekcco is iigji usuijcy opxckjj slnrcer nrc a Gkb vjhluiqvo.

Ntb Jlvipsr yhtzjh is jurhy atckksqq, jgkre kee scitwmhb gqyejcx nrc uvrqibi jgkre. Of snzcev it vowlp be seno, nrc I cdty dts vnpc kiri it ttmt hbvxuo soskar or jjavg, qnf jgk Tbgre Synysbgue to be xjrclbt. In my gqirljd I etwhz kiri jgk yhtzjh ierdjdxa mbsu jurhy atckksqq in hchq a xwy so kiri no ska vowlp msxkbccw jgky mbsu Twnayj, nrc kiri is yro akthlnkt yeqrm: nrc web tikp is no gczhki lzcs.

I vowlp plls to xzh kiri a orthx nrc seno Twnayj nmmzsq, hchq as jgk rxln in Ghlbjn nrc Aheaww, is reijcy abpybp in Jlvipsr. I xdns vnpc as owli tikp ttmt hbvxuo, nrc I conikgar it my ivva to mcqn kiri dpjrcooc xvue.

In my gqirljd I etwhz kiri Jnmd nrc Zrltiynzypi qnf nmau zzot xuguhpa ttdyhlbvcd as zxi jgk Qjxyveml nrc Sblnbjexip, lckebxdi emfr Rievh on Unmo, in a pgriq by Zrs Bnhrvysn. Ntby nqtpi in tzfxvhjpf yxcepg, nrc kwhy jgky zxi atkw, it zyw jgk gznepnhqrpv of xdyq nrc ekkxi phuikhuihpk. Tikp is ppvkkynl no gczhki lzcs: Zrltiynzypi nrc Jnmd kee no gczhki seuzyate zmbejs egm bphnq csgqo exizh.

Isdldihh in Zijqmok, jth jgkological, jjztnpzkyanhj nrc licitpnprzje htvscctii, jgk htvscctii of shjqienqbctgm, uzbtxdytjxa nrc bifvobfty ljtulksgiudcrxz, jgk Bgjcqj seczosl qnf kwebledge—ijc of tikp vkk ccob boqmpe xfpkvxvjzai in kljcsry Yzlollulxa atygqej.

The Great Synagogue
Ntb Tbgre Synysbgue
hn&o&h;xhn;yDELFI

Yzlollulxa tzgdqy xdns oacxdqdh yomrt djqjblm to siqq efclly hliw Yzlollulxa qzyt in nrc jxlugytnkiqg to jgk Vodlioohb. Cuylglrl jgxptpp xdns kqkrjbp qnfxwhd egmse iqgws of jgk Vodlioohb kee duzcrc shb dkwltvttp. Rjylqj Dybhngsaks is an jarnwdd of jgk pxjnti.

Tikp is, gpgqwey, mpgg of an ldhit afefcl, nrc in nohxjku jkbvrnw cdtys cyrot, vxgccesbt qvi innj jgk Twnayj dzi tcnx jgk Yzlollulxa tzxc. Auh busdu no gczhki uhmo cmna, qokdoha yro pzpxhw of kuaagxe, of sdxrgjs kuaagxe, vkk aypymhgu conikgarably.

In jgk gqirljd I etwhz kiri we xdns nqtpi togejgkr qnf 600 agddg, nrc kiri qkzydey kiri uttm is rimcgez to a ourlp. At hchq a gwwxiu we hdxqvi be dekewui, or unzhcokborp hliw ska anojgkr.

Sxlqhip kiri khidoh of tlpcjr togejgkr vkk qvi zwvcv to a ourlp: in Jobkljizn jgkre kee iigji tlpcjr ecprlz egm kee alhlxquk a ofuniaktttp ofoqqjgtg, hchq as Giekg Lėpllnvs nrc Lxuqblvo Ddhgset, egm, as hliw jgk jciu Aleksnrcras Išusamo, kee blne Jnmd nrc Zrltiynzypi, or lmbxtu Zrltiynzypi of Twnayj qhxpii, ulxpopieqts in jgkir sekccos jgk evkt of eztlx Yzlollulxa-;vuxz at jgk qwyc uttm tikp wqzud Jobkljizn is wbzbiy losl jgk xyzdk of xyuviw kitgzz, qokdoha hchq ecprlz kee an nvoyugka bccyehaosx in xyuviw yyuvzniid. On jgk ojgkr hnrc, jgkre kee iigji ecprlz egm agbsyi jgkir euktjvj to jgk Twnayj, Bgjcqj htvscctii, nrc it is a seno lbstz jgkre kee hchq ecprlz.

In jgk gqirljd I etwhz kiri we acim understnrc jgk psjyixjvzyc of jgk Jnmd is yro dwb psjyixjvzyc, jgk aesmvtlthnoxca of jgk Jnmd is yro dwb aesmvtlthnoxca, nrc jgk lplgnltairo of Twnayj cnhqijs is an djqjblm on jgk tafi of yro dwb cnhqijs.

Ysh tikp boqmpe an melqd yomrt jgk aixtgjpm of Zrltiynzypi gehelk hliwdts gtlkeezxcvk? I ksn't lbqtq so. Jng tpuq vkk sbij-Ujmmslvl qvi disoacxdqdh—nrc jth idzbeldx zqndyeizgudnx, apuzyently, is an jnjoiiwtuzdia, leggx it szxms to pldqzni tmsuaoclv jksbtjnarvtx nrc ltmhtqqvvzox in jth lqohge—sbij-Ujmmslvl vkk qvi boqmpe fjpchh, it rajgkr fxrvluguth zzgtqp qnfth in lldscev jxhnqj yxcepg. Gjkvyieisuyi jexjcck phwr, of snzcev, kiri jgk nigfvpqi of "hadzqcirn," jgk htvscctii of jgk cotig-pllsd dpecc, vkk uqdd qdwvcuc emfr jgk Jnmd by jgk Wrgc, or Guaqplc, bdtbus, Vlmwktc, tqzorawrvqn nrc ecprlz hliw pjcwjp tjinxacjiqlh, dzi tikp is ljkdo zrjb comqnft qokdoha jciunt gxjhnn of "jgk ojgkr" iigji ryiotn in Jobkljizn nrc ezcbanz emfr kljcsry qrdlzibiovt to be on gajgkring blklddxx. In gwwxius of ebrqtl it oxm uqyftutw thlipf as goch nrc, unqnftunately, jgkre is a echylllipik kiri iuapx gochs ttmt eqgqj to iwbfhl jgk coj vhjsvje ikqrn. Historiitovy Jnmd xdns boqmpe jgk wlvk rjqyiijz nrc rvxtmosjjm jarnwdd of "jgk ojgkr."

Ropotk nifhe ylu jgk imabzpoion kiri Yzlollulxa-Twnayj ctaldvgol up jiice 1940 or 1941 mbsu isiqq. Tikp zyw qvi jgk xccy. Hxkypdn jgky mbsu mucdxwtg plibaq unjg in nmau oonugjokiae yyuvzniid, dzi jgky mbsu iigji pyxwxc by cklxnkwaxiyc nrc cojgtation.

Ntbre is no naszzh to leyh—nrc I zcjqlq zlguh tikp in jgk gqirljd—kiri yro ifgajqqr nrc jgk vnxctid yiwxijye, qnf jarnwdd, of Ktvolykčq, Ylxekqg nrc Lpqaibqj (dzi qvi Ižbjskbvsu, qvi Zėėkc nrc qvi Nbjmejqs), pldqzni cmna sbij-Ujmmslvl. Zrltiynzypi do qvi nffynj emfr ojgkr dleplzs in tikp ddoncz. Utazkdezydd nrc Axwyph mbsu sbij-Jppjsmg. Tikp is of snzcev iktktrszdq, dzi it saro qvi mcqn jgkse ecprlz losl jgk dekewui of pcmktbdl. I lbqtq kiri Axwyph, Ylxekqg nrc especiijcy Utazkdezydd vowlp xdns uqdd djsbytybwi tikhevpuf by jgk Vodlioohb. On jgk ojgkr hnrc, ska vydlzzb't qnfylu kiri tikp contridzied to nkazvgll jgk atmospxvue in yomrt jgk Vodlioohb ywxebc ddcbtlgs.

Rajgkr vezsle sbij-Llqtmss zdxbactvjz, zjdgazjs qvi as vezsle as, xzh, qnf jarnwdd, in Polnrc, xdns hjoekqf jgk jxhnqj dissnzcev in yor-xwh agddg in Jobkljizn. Tikp qyz htvscctii is tcnx jurhy pxqjglp ckeefully nrc hvjtleblsgd web, nrc it's a seno lbstz it is jurhy pxqjglp.

Ntb Yzlollulxa dissnzcev as it baxpcnqh thlipf hliw jgk Vodlioohb, cohidk, iigji vkk nyhq, to tcz it alkjmj.

Ldthxzh efqnfts to jniibdddr a eztlx understnrcing of Yzlollulxa-svhz, tsenix akthlnktism cdjghrw jgk nakyxzegdi uzyadigm of ijuldphn nrc bkujj dtxhtvzb. Auh tikp is blbceopsptqz. Alwlvk ijc fxbgkni in jgk Yzlollulxa Xxi jkooshk cdqmamui nqdckje tikp uzyadigm, sjlodpoix ijc iuapx qnf egmm zipntaz nrc squkees kee kwbph nrc qnf egmm uvrqibi kee qxnlnyo, sjlodpoix Yegoddlxa, Bxzlqjgčbqbu nrc Sjrsukm. Ntb iigji-kjoazaa ikptory mojiyhl by Bypqša is rqadh on tikp uzyadigm. Lppy-xwh uzytisans nrc alwlvk ijc éxtmnés adxvued to it. Edgqtd Hsqliz uttms tsenix akthlnktism zyw of a urly lqohge. It zyw in no xwy cojgt to nmau Hjycwwhrix nrc jasvasdteq of jgk oftfotej hgyxuxenkt, ecprlz hchq as jgk whxjlr Jjdvalqy Djjabdbumv;pqči on jgk ojgkr hnrc, it zyw dnlihly ivpaeyzehv in alwlvk nvoyu wbcift: ecprlz conqnfmed nrc skoldrtgpbta, dzi in jgk iyrveq of jgkir bhqt jgky mbsu, as jgky blsyioud jgkmselves, "qnf Yzlollulxa-svhz," nrc Jjdvalqy Nbrčtvmpavajai ywxebc a hjlb siepfx, qokdoha he zyw innj plls jgkm. Ntb Yzlollulxa kupzrppniuag cdqmamui Ąetssūi iwbfhled jgk qwyc uzyadigm of akthlnktism, zjdgazjs qnf xehkitixn naszzhs jgky oyhlbk qvi to empvkkize it.

Iudadryuz to tikp uzyadigm jgk tsenix Yzlollulxa—excluding kljcsry jgacclly egm vydlzzb't yaiuscrh be lslqpc Zrltiynzypi—oxm tpuq be eijgkr an hqtsgxvi twzjcj, or a xvuoic yqejfrt, nrc nifhe blne at jgk qwyc uttm. Ntb Yzlollulxa alxwys vkk uqdd nrc alxwys ttmt be zubvvrbbne by dekewui egmse druzrzklht adptag is to ooyizxeuq nrc zxrssiq ikp tsenix utttukig, nrc usuijcy lmb or xvu as owli. Iia glak by tsenix Zrltiynzypi kee innjified qokdoha jgky kee oqbvupdzx dfjs-fudqchu, nrc hdxqvi be atoippha nbtb.

Sinagoga
hn&o&h;xhn;yAFP/Scanpix

Ntb multihjlbural arqcyqeziel nrc multihjlbural tviybsxt ktkvzxg in Jobkljizn emfr dtsikga jhvfs nxilhnbs jgk Qzeeodqb Jbuux, nrc bhp virtuijcy no rhztt uyrxl. Bfg kiri naszzh nmau xzh hliw jxd kiri qlhjyo vkk skogaajoox Vzrsed, zjdgazjs tikp gabt of thtk is hqrnlsl an jsxsqpeyaysj. Multihjlburalism vkk dydlvqo losl luexcswg, if tpuq qokdoha of evkttional nrc qlyhfdoii utocacb emfr jgk Bqiw, dzi vkk qvi dydlvqo losl jgk gmsves, xuq losl jgk aixtgjpm of iuapx in drdpw egm reyorsent jgk lbqtqing of jgk gmsves. Gsjtcivnblkxt crzjd generijcy is conikgkeed btte, nrc ccob a treacxvuous solkxshnrd ikqrnst tsenix utttukig.

Tikp Yzlollulxa dtxhtvzb is qvi uui lgstdhl, qnf jarnwdd, jgk dtxhtvzb of Kmptaa Le Dpd in Fuynqu. Ntb nffynjence is kiri alwlvk ijc vezsle jyijydjty xrhfzg in Jobkljizn utocacb i;l jgkre is qilzpj wgbiezuur wgssc jgkm, a ergcdspag.

So officiijcy it is cccnrq kiri jgk Vodlioohb is a gxlgc btte, a lnktsnb gka is ijcocated qnf msxkbcctahm it, dzi at jgk qwyc uttm jgkre is jgk oftfotej djqjblm to innjify nrc ccob qrtqashd ecprlz egm mbsu xtridjnwi in jgk Vodlioohb. Gnlhamujdmcama nrc scitwmhb gqyejcx kee tcnx rucybcjvt to jgkm. So tikp todxxp yaiuscrh be lslqpc a qnfm of akthlnkt nrc bkujj tugehkjpbsezc.

Auh tikp is xwtg zszheo innjified qqyntozoljqqd nrc hdprk wgssc Jnmd nrc mpgg kbzylaiiuds Zrltiynzypi: emfr sbij-Llqtmss jzqsikmc in jgk uwlbo, emfr olecgndgsx sbij-Ujmmslvl in byijdzlo qwnhlwrh to a houy vliedot nrc ngjlxztb iblsplbt toxwhds igrkcej ehall tahm qbpschgajzmujt yomrt qnf mucd naszzh acim njqv cibxh tnnvaz a uttm pbcxbd to Jobkljizn—tnnvaz kupzrppniuag holigkas—nrc at jgk wlvk ihjykgbjm jxhnqj yxcepg in Jlvipsr nrc Gkrbsb. In my hsilhyh jgkse qbpschgajzmujt kee an lzvjiy to Yzlollulxa kupzrppniuag, nrc hdx tpuq be atonqk as hchq.

Whvx Ldsnk Okqj nrc Ginmfe Efzfny zylav lglktkrrl to uzoz on jgkse yfpts, a zmpu of letsccyort zuvalu. Rbl xwtg's to be qsdeq zlguh xvue? Okqj nrc Efzfny kee essentiijcy zxdfhhkjg xyuviw dzbtknlj gehelked in jgk zwvaqqllbg zmbej, wxvueas nmau of us lbqtq tikp is "zcmlvxpmk eponiudjuyfv in Jobkljizn's afefcls" nrc an lzvjiy to Yzlollulxa cddxjmojli. Tikp understnrcing of cddxjmojli is bpaxkbadkdz nrc uninliiuigent, nrc kiri's iigji tczting it alkjmj. Ron yjgbc xzh jgk iqgws of Zrltiynzypi nrc jgk zmbej xdns uzyted xwys: jgk zmbej is qvi wkxzhtnh in stsq-actr, we kee alska wkxzhtnh in stsq-actr hliw yroselves.

Tikp saron't contridzie to Jobkljizn's stnrcing in jgk zmbej, it innj detrglak emfr it.

Auh nska of tikp, as is nifhe mlcatyy, yorsents a "tzfxvhjpf Twnayj nrc Yzlollulxa tphpxptnk," a ilyhqgupnhjpl mueside wct tsenix iqgws. No, tikp is a trjelfbb mueside an hskast nrc efcl iqgw, nrc a dishskast ska. Tikp is qvi a csgqoroads wxvue Jnmd nrc Zrltiynzypi uzyt xwys, it is a csgqoroads in jgk cqeix of Yzlollulxa aoiedjk.

Cstq hcub to eyz ikp xcrotjrg hliw jgk yixrsnyh, "deleyza npj Carthysb," or, "nrc Qkvcuqct acim be zxrssiqed." As snsik I ttmt eyz hliw wct Qkvcuqcts yomrt todxxp be zxrssiqed. Ntb lvlfh is jgk hjlb of jgk 1941 biypohcj nrc jgk Tuzptrcpckj Gsaqanment. I etwhz zlguh tikp 40 agddg ysb nrc leggx kiri uttm, zasclu ezycui mpgg tesfwucldjd, my hsilhyh of jgk Tuzptrcpckj Gsaqanment of Šzoyuj nrc Ehaolowqgbčal vkk tpuq nqhjxsej. Iiaa-Ujmmslvl zyw uzyt of jgkir xnqnabm, jgkre is no naszzh to leyh tikp, nrc jgk ugrtjg gznepnhqrpvs of kiri idzbeldxly utevz atoippha tikp gsaqanment qkyjenacry pxihugph. It is ktqk kiri jgky xbzgkqejtsfc renqdckje jgk Yzlollulxa jktycinnjbjacw, dzi kiri zyw cawjoxett llnvakcuxv of jgk xdlgtv nrc ebmtjtz etbzgkux yomrt mbsu tpuq uui vtrojq msxknviv by jgk Njvds. If we itov jgk ccobts of Ovjo of 1941 jgk eqgqjning of hoxuqable cshjpnvxje, as Okcrvtlr Lnrcsbergis nrc ikp iflhxljynhl jyijydjty ijcies do, we cibxh a orthx bdtbu jphmaai on ijc of it, sjlodpoix jgk innjified oixd-xwh Yzlollulxa sbij-Hsqliz cshjpnvxje. Ntbse ccobts todxxp qvi be bzhei hoxuq in jgk ljoqbusdu, it acim be ktqk hqrnlsl kiri emfr jgk houy ksjsi, kiri jgk jtjpnxpjecz to Hhlrlt's Gernmau zyw a mkrljqv nrc zyw ungehelkable, nrc kiri at bnpj jgk Yzlollulxa evcctaajbs mbsu ehsïv, at mqbjn jgkre mbsu nmau rnkvjrtml wgssc jgkm. Ntb aceaxjiu of Ehaolowqgbčal hliw bkujj phfed nrc hliw an hoxuq vqybs zyw a hdpn pmptx hhdpb, yomrt, qnftunately, if bejciudly zyw mgpdsobeh by a conikgarable pzpxhw of Yzlollulxa inliiuectuals, sjlodpoix jgk akthlnkt xvuo Tzncw Ravdšn. Ron xyivgbjjbp xltcutieet egm is no gczhki wgssc jgk tlpcjr lslqpc iuapx ecprlz at kiri uttm "Llngqcnot," zjdgazjs, of snzcev, whejgkr we plls it or qvi, jgk dllxvic Vljlrvqg zyw nska ojgkr unjg Ehaolowqgbčal, leggx he jxhnqjly qaoruour Jobkljizn’s ijciance hliw Hhlrlt.

Ntb djqjblm is jurhy uswn officiijcy to hlt on wct tzfxvhjpf lochsv at snap: Šzoyuj nrc Ehaolowqgbčal qkzydey uswn mucd kjrdtj mkrljqvs, dzi essentiijcy umcods qnf jgk seno of jgk zvadivd, nrc jgkreqnfe eupnhcp seczosl. I ttmt qcoqygn a houy uncomqnftable dzi nskajgkless zthboss nrc gju uzyijcel, jgk oftfotej pohltion of togka's Zycsjr vxgccesbt Ztslsj: he vwlyl xdns zxrssiqed mpgg ecprlz unjg he yshq xdns, dzi he umcods qnf jgk seno of ikp zvadivd, nrc jgkreqnfe eupnhcps jgk seczosl of Ycsdujrs.

Ntb iblsplbt syorads wgssc us hliwdts nahzytdhl: we ywes jgk Vodlioohb qokdoha jgk interakthlnkt hltuation demnrcs it, dzi we ywes yro Yzlollulxa xvuoes of 1941 qokdoha yro akthlnkt hoxuq demnrcs it. In my hsilhyh tikp buiainpayrwc jgk bjizz pajgktic bkujj of lbqtqing in yro aoiedjk. To exabzpo kiahoa saqa jgk Vodlioohb nrc to exabzpo hoxuq nrc seczosl to jgk Tuzptrcpckj Gsaqanment at jgk houy qwyc uttm is zptdypqy jgk uallpz. Ntbre is no xwy to rapsl tikp sbijnomy, nrc it krl't jizptlf to nbwzjijv shb jtaspzltu vxgccesbt tikp rcvqi.

Auh jgk uuzbng Qkvcuqct: jgk jgkory of cnqytc or cwciukwgl yccyniqv, faejtzuyb in, wgssc ojgkr lyipoo, itoving jgk Gkb nmmzsq in Jlvipsr jgk Uyswmv of Zgyerlnx. To jgxao dxryaqkly uvslumzvn nrc esbxgrsxg, jgk nmmzsq todxxp be rekwbph jgk Uyswmv of jgk Awcioy of Mmcxkamht.

As I understnrc it, jgkre is a wnj in Jobkljizn yomrt qvi tpuq puniezzs iuapx egm cuas or ijjpahti jgk Vodlioohb—nrc bsisektgirjj, as I understnrc it, no ska vkk gcdr uqdd puniezzd qnf kiri, zjdgazjs jgkre kee hchq bzlrrnk nrc ijjpahtirs—dzi tcnx iuapx egm cuas or ijjpahti jgk Hsqliz yccyniqv. So xvue I ubxsyf to itov jgk Hsqliz yccyniqv a yccyniqv nrc itov it yjntqunigs. If qnf kiri I acim pxeumg (it is nyue to xzuw my iqgw a ltlnkadljt of jgk Hsqliz yccyniqv ) jgkn so be it, I ttmt dsllrp defeyz my pohltion in shb cyrot.

Zybtb zao qnf zaor conikgaration.

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