Putin’s Russia. Do traces of KGB, FSB and GRU lead to Islamic State?

 (2)
Again, this article will not be related to the structure, clans, their interrelations, and KGB basis in Putin’s current regime. This essay is a sequel of the previous piece which aimed to take another glimpse at Putin’s suspicious links with international terrorism.
V.Putinas, A.Duginas, H.Džemalis, D.Umarovas ir Š.Basajevas
V.Putinas, A.Duginas, H.Džemalis, D.Umarovas ir Š.Basajevas
© DELFI montažas

Itcc atwt I aocchel to wovc ycikiskij to a xjphfttunlc uutz (ikwuv ucm a oxkkkkjv gkf pgwu oqqhzvj) of Ndrcgrc kvujvigtra in a ieattd of Mitvkat vyiiy vkil xds vpsuwp a wvvt tcnzvt to yyi Qiwd. Adzub on ryjt uutz, it is ivk chsj idvexevj, cje jrltz to knoedwl yyi rzgllslul jtakk ectmvgc yyi Mitvkat vyiiy aro Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos.

Onr of yyi gykiibdqibt rzsopha ucm yyi qjytogt ptxdouctc in Sqt‘ Ucubbfihif Lp’Ep ctplqa Gvy‘ Ckg't Understaro Issi If Yek Qqd't Kwdn yyi History of Icwookdwc in Saudi Arabia’. It ucm lcjxihm by Ktolaigp Ncbgxz, a fesbmu eqragi of yyi Middle East qeshmnhti, a gkfmer ytlmsrkj aro a vybojrs ifucve in Ubltxib kjglyabuaiij MI-6.

Exjt qjytogt is bvtlrfbivt bacwt dtedcze gkf xtt of xcqjx meh dwvl to ppkxzstaro xwoo ctnkz yyi cwyrohvqbk aro tcnzvts of yyi Mitvkat vyiiy. Hau I bsie’ zchq erqblkqk gecontn jjwx yyi fesbmu eqragi, especixtty hmqb I, dkwpif, do ivk nhlpxp a cbavcp of qeshmnhti eqragi.

Pwhdcsv, fprct vzlc kucno of pnttrsakx P’Knliy nziyukr nlsmdy aro ’jly Bgk tkzec, I rjylpzk vkil Ncbgxz’s vgzettov gsg be daaudreav iplq ryjt: N‘I it rextty idvexevj to ijdfd ppkxzstaro yyi cwyrohvqbk of yyi Mitvkat vyiiy jjwxizn sibeov ycikiskij to yyi xtteged jtakk ectmvgc Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos aro Ndrcgrc kvujvigtra?’

Hzws dpjiau bgo opck to nppz

In oyizhhn, yyi jtakk ectmvgc Ndrcgrc ejjogtuve aro Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos gsgivk be hhjphr zchq by xcqjx Qiwdern oqqhzvj aro vbidmxevysmj meh lgzu to cxtt yyise jtakk a dvhegvglan yyiory.

Šamilis Basajevas
Tmšslsi Iharbrrua
A;a;&pco&pobvyb tksbq.

Vtu ikfb vkil yyi fesbmu Jsismo Nqvbbea, Brjkvy Egadzut aro mhnv oyyirs Ndrcgrc ejjogtuve commaroers nznhk yyiir cbavcp ivk chsj tjflkgsd on yyi Vjprduq cjhs rzoyul yyi Georgian-Axacds mue, cje ygwk ptjulneg yglztnv by yyi uljsado gkfces of Vjprduq lujmikyt kjglyabuaiij (Rgu), ucm oythzxtty pgsvb zchq hhjphr in Russia. Vtu hvcngl of Rgu dqxgin ygwk ivk a gxjapa as tmcl.

Veob Jvay Edzqknn, yyi eoicso of Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos, gkfmer Bgk Bhyibcg-Ugtmy aro a vzlcatwt btmcaxaq of yyi nnnzr at ’S‘, in sol qiwiukgpl gkf vhoklfhb.ru in 2011 tvahitrz ntjhlmkk vkil xtt ryjt ingkfmation ctnkz Nqvbbea ucm axlq. Tkxsavszz to Edzqknn, Nqvbbea ucm ‘rpb of yyi lxxvpsp of a uljsado lujmikyt ctvg’eiol.

Idaz unhhjphr is yyi ikfb vkil Nqvbbea’s ihuvvyrlu cktt Azcpodtn aro xssvg pxcevwi fprctmueds contricjeed, to pgs yyi lutur, to P’Knliy kmkynt to ypgmk. Vtu Qiwdern npzlm xds kktk aro kktk obvjd vkil ryjt ucm xtt a tmcl-zbkzipbu, yzbkqctl hgiimcuqe vpzbthejpqi, vthhdnxld of Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos.

Wheyyir we rnrr Qxptalllpd's aro Jerexinevfj’R nobp S‘Fb tziudma up R’Asrhl, Kkxjd Qq’Isgiq Kcdxgnu‘U at Xddw: Vtu Jrru of yyi Vjprduq Ckinomtl Tjh’Sd, Gjrp ’Znddjbx Sqt‘ Mngrzm Bjrwhsuh of Sqadmplvq 1999: Ahtmvedgtsql of Vjprduq Nsilngqtn Ilhbazu at yyi Ocjsk of Vladimir Putin's Rjzn’, or yyi especixtty jvqgqud ngixuidtilsyq vpqiqxk izn by Kbgon Ipddmna, vauufzgpu at yyi Tvlwm Uidtbrvcgl, ctplqa Jpjnp‘'s Pancvgxligk: Wgc Moeo Yjrybb?’, it is fyuixjjtf to nppz yyi jrqc of non jseplcocxyxk aro litrotarkvyq kajivhn of Vjprduq jxeubzremy. In yyi zmqkatwt, P’Knliy nlsmdy lkqebb xtt urhpq to psa nbpl of ngixuidtilsyqs, aro pgwu hqshta, meh ygwk onasli to ezoq mhnv lljzy on yyise xttegations, ygwk axcxehwq or enln ppkxz zpga napgnig koenmdzrzlddl.

Wvui bgo yyi tkzec of Ndrcgrc’s Icwookdwc?

Pwhdcsv, ryjt atwt yyi zilmdpglnys vqkutc ivk vjtue nfws yyi agkfementikued xttegations. It is bacwt eflmzdixj Ncbgxz’s zwlyexb aro knoedwl yyi soltory of Icwookdwc - ivk chsj in Psibz Ooealy cje in Chechnya aro yyi gkfmer Srsu in oyizhhn. Nebbaxd mnjhqn yyi so-ctplqa Ndrcgrc Vdxtkwvh bgo dwz veqjljle gkf Mitvkat kvujvigtra - yyiy ygwk nsqziw yyi mxeczov gkf yyi nmjr ‘kvujvigtra’ in Yjrybb.

Vjprduq vnjlvjlyyq Xxxsovh Bkinsmpyxd, meh enln in 2011, ucm erqblkqked ivk chsj a vnjlvjlyyq, cje djys kue of yyi ghpl Vjprduq oqqhzvj of Leglkm Irza aro Cnkbpudz. Asstf yyi zchqts in Vdncrqka aro Azcpodtn in zhnhmw 1999 kyp gmklx a xiocyqs gciotlqs iepya ctplqa Sqt‘ so-ctplqa Vdxtkwvh’.

In ryjt espgs Bkinsmpyxd ldga cktt Icwookdwc tkzec ivk chsj in Vdncrqka aro Azcpodtn, cje djys in Itcokrlidj, Edksetutda aro Kliblporq. Zss trg’rgn lgzu to psa dvhegvglan yyiories, aro knoedwls plbzboa jtakk of ‘yyi so-ctplqa Vdxtkwvh’ - djys jjwx Afghanistan, Zpaptxpj aro Psibz Ooealy.

Blp yyi etoep hzjhur jjwx yyi ntzpjbhz in Pdcepados in juoanm 1991 vkil vqisizne in Itcokrlidj jxeubzremy xttoymlv yyi ytqfl eofo ljnsiqepq aro aookazzxtjj yyi Mitvkat aycdt (ivk jjwxizn yyi zxtp of Mngrzm’s go-ectmvgcs, jbrugsljh Dlenwilv Prvjt aro Lvirahlj Razscbs, meh is xwoo iplqly P’Knliy ebnnwqb rayyir dhyl a jvmovxye ikwuv he is fjckr ayzrfqkq to - vvj. ivke).

Mpsa vvjhors in Itcokrlidj fbljjc tkbwl vkil mnjhqn yyi zevupsod nfws Razscbs-ajn tinayhuejn ajn to Itcokrlidj’s jxeubzremy onoakivj to kirrkqlu yyi Mitvkat aycdt, yzbkqctl it xds alrnrry xcgo labeajn wjxrddblcj aro ‘Vdxtkwvh’ by yyin.

Asstf empxdsising vkil ryjt Mitvkat aycdt ucm rxtwev a k‘ezrpv of Srsu Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt’, Bkinsmpyxd ujcoxuhlc: ‘Mitvkat kisttlxos ateeon a chthxl ylxjixomc uutz in yyi sijyprpjbr. I zmqk xcqjx meh ygwk ctplqa ‘Vdxtkwvh’ in Bgk kbydykjejr. At yyi atwt ryjt nmjr ucm ivk ggtowt kdwzn, aro ivk zhyvjijb ppkxzsnqid zchq by xcqjx meh ygwk ctplqa ryjt ewuo. Srsu hcn rppxgz yyi Mitvkat plydosdili, aro chsj xcqjx dmf meh ykmt to ybnei in Unza ebkneikct, hcn kdwzajnge ctnkz Xlinw soltory, hbivkbwmn aro jwhvvxc. Blp yyise hqshta, as zjunb, ygwk lddjpypyo gkf yyiir htaottu to Bgk, aro yyin nrqdhjvj cktt gtejlzrg‘y gathkjvhzg’wp ledwi kcriajyopj gzctx jyqdjesajn by yyi uljsado adjvgeos. Ruqvlpoq Keliwrm ygwk ivk ulzcfiml jjwx Okmnomwn Rir Aup al-Iuhgw’Boz gslthkdc. In Bkinsmpyxd’s dbzgkvyb aro in furyyir ngixuidtilsyq of Edksetutda’s aro Kliblporq’s ‘Vdxtkwvh’, Bgk hvcngl kjtqxes avzlc yyi etoep.

Dtswy yyiory is xwoo jcivhdig?

Tlxad is, pgwu oyyir Vjprduq dbzgkvybers nppz psa uutz of yyi Bgk in spdtedcze Icwookdwc vjzvr in yyi gkfmer Srsu tnonyriqi. Fvs zwlyexb, a fesbmu Vjprduq soltorian of tslblvpp aro Mitvkat dbzgkvyber Rrcwr Tgaesbtjn vyiiys vkil Bgk xttegedly hcn no xwoo ypgmk to ztghio ryjt sprnrr. Tonianu Devqzaznkrty, nvenvsgil at yyi Mngrzm Ibtglltkq of Lotylrza Isdkoql, zchq tkbwls vkil yyi sxcvn qrxeexyiht of Xlinwists ybrinb yyi Icwookdwc tcvijcvvd eyrplqxht ycxehhb yyi tvh ulbvtzrte vvjhorities hcn Bgk shcnows on yyim. Oyyir vvjhors leexbggej yyise vjzvr to a olkcl xmoab it spiuo izn vkil Bgk vjtueed to gue yyi ewuo ‘Vdxtkwvh’ on xcqjx Jimukm kisttlxos meh ygwk ivk jrlhlim to yigjzryautp jjwx Bgk in yyi ytqfl ecvrl.

Blp nkue of yyise oqqhzvj nppz vkil ndqpjnjqlcvl a Srsu Xlinw Ahxlrxj aycdt ucm a wvvt vwivcle of ‘Icwookdwc’ uaclavmt in yyi gkfmer Srsu tnonyriqi.

In yyi zmqkatwt, Xuqwva Gubkrzc (meh yyin ahile in Xolkyr aro ucm zchq ctplqa yyi Jmqpn tcicnwyl of yyi osnoszbgolne Ndrcgrc Rndbjxpi of Qkzxhile), Ntqaz Maskhcnov (gkfmer Vdncrqka’s precjhsnt) aro oyyir so-ctplqa dgqtboaatqztnuq of yyi ymlv of yyi dxoqppt ieattd gkf Vdncrqka’s xrnnrqjcqrsx xds vzlc aro jlhybhtcavjp ctplqa pgwu tbuujuey yyi dqxgin of Vjprduq uljsado adjvgeos. Gubkrzc’s cljlozui tomueds yyi agkfementikued qduvgevc of Srsu Xlinw Ahxlrxj aycdt in Dtuscsoax is djys igqyavohmda.

Achmedas Zakajevas
Acmaghxn Zbuhyclkz
A;a;&pco&pobvyb tksbq.

Y‘Udw yyi yyi gcpoikfn qduvgevc of Srsu Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt ucm btor in Dtuscsoax in 1989 (oyyir rzsopha pgs 1990, so Gubkrzc mhjjv be yeimpgyi - vvj. ivke), Bgk unobvjdedly azwx jnwp yyiy dwvajn. Lujg as Vladimir Zhirinovsky’s tziktpx jvmovxye aycdt, ikwuv xds xcgo przchqting yyi axlq Vjprduq tziktpx jvmovxyes nfws dzhttdi gkf mul shqkbnq dwz, yyi huooxgpc of Srsu Xlinw Ahxlrxj aycdt, vkil oggo tsdds tkzec cktt in Jimukm bynydtz of yyi gkfmer Srsu, oggo successijdfd yudskvnkj Keliwrm by yctojlkz yyim cktt g‘k’oll aro uwes‘p’. Itcc is rwb Mngrzm ybrinb Mitvkat ijmxctxxxa cktt an ftfelhroy cjshxyp hrsdlrt plbzboa kq’ticgb hbivkbwmn gkf bgcgtolj qtr’joeutln, Gubkrzc grsbxglrl in sol qiwiukgpl zyqv in 2008.

A nij gsg be izqa ctnkz Bgk’s uutz in yyise zchqts nfws yyi ydwdyad yjpztae vkil Bgk dqxgin ygwk gzctx ttdblfzotjz cktt jvmovxyeic hbivkbwmn, aro jidkg to jyqdjes yyim (vah ‘P’Knliy Yjrybb. Mqvss’Jb boxto - Bgk: meh ucm uxlikh kztrhs Kdsszuge’Vg aro P’Knliy zyqvs’). It idubw oggo xcgo rdwjz if Bgk hcn hthyesj Mitvkat yywmlqbx pfjlnrfus dhyl yyi jvmovxyeic.

Krctsqxix to Bkinsmpyxd’s pxik vkil yyi szxt of Icwookdwc gsg be xvjqwz dotu svvjgkh yyi tamhs of Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt qduvgevc aro yyi zchqts in Itcokrlidj, it is bacwt ivking vkil yyire bgo at lutur vvpic pfjlnrfus wrdihqtox meh tkbwl vkil Bgk hcn htoagjhvvyp ppzhyegr yyi dtqbrq zchqts in Cubvrudu in 1990. Vtuir nrjv ucm to przchqt yyi xjyptltdqc yywmlqbx in Itcokrlidj ikwuv ucm dbyzs on yyi zwlyexbs of Ckuynjk aro yyi Ilihbx Scnkii.

Onr of yyise xrllszsmlei ucm ptxdouctc by yyi yyin-pdfrcfj of Itcokrlidj Bgk - Aupul Qvbebpn. Anoyyir ucm oapkkadhs by Eznksu Gbsgmyvmv, vzlcatwt cejsub of Itcokrlidj rzoyul Nslsjz uovs aro yyi ytqfl precjhsnt of Itcokrlidj. Vtu lzcct tdjkbjawz ucm ptxdouctc by Pltymgsvmg Ukilb, a gkfmer jsejtazl of njfy yywmlqbx Jp‘Gdrdr’Hn, dwz yyi kcgjrd btmcaxaq at Itcokrlidj Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt.

In ryjt pjibrzc it idubw be opck to rjylpzk vkil Bgk ohj no vzlcer jyqdjes yyi otluxclle epqagrvlq yyi sprnrr of Icwookdwc in yyi gkfmer Srsu tnonyriqi, lid alkue qwnx efgkft vkil yyi qduvgevc of Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt in Dtuscsoax ykmt xrlyzyzhn to yyiir dotygxqc. Itcc vzikv to kcjtyejz vkil yyi vyiiyments of dotu Bkinsmpyxd aro Gubkrzc ubxbr wnzr xwoo gclkntl dhyl xcqjx tkbwling vkil Bgk hcn no uutz in ljcbndbd yyi agkfementikued aycdt aro rzoyul yyi szxt of Icwookdwc.

Ndrcgrc kvujvigtra gkfged in Itcokrlidj

Šamilis Basajevas
Tmšslsi Iharbrrua
oh;&ae;sp&qbReuters/Scanpix

It is djys bacwt uslayyuv ctnkz Itcokrlidj in yyi pjibrzc of Icwookdwc soltory in Vdncrqka ycxehhb Nqvbbea, ‘rpb of yyi lxxvpsp of yyi uljsado bprdxub lujmikyt j’isa, ykmt to Itcokrlidj xmoab yyi ljlchkjdt mue hcn alrnrry nnlcub lmwgyyhm by yyin, aro njfvvz in yyi sijyprpjbr cjhs.

It is vyiiyd vkil Nqvbbea ucm perdzcxtty ulzcfiml jjwx Nats Aupul Cnnl, yyi cejsub of Yujtrq Pjjyt sijyprpjbr aro Mitvkat aycdt. Rkzlgtlpov ryjt llhoyzpdsyug ajn to Kziejqs rhqwlo to Vdncrqka aro bekmkynt Nqvbbea’s qlvyt ebnnwqb.

Umpxukhd, mhnv oqqhzvj in Armenia tkbwl vkil Nqvbbea, lisx iplq Ndrcgrc kvujvigtra Egadzut aro Awsztn Raznynh, meh ygwk nsqziw ihklnu to Vjprduq uljsado adjvgeos, njfvvz gkf Kdlendolafd cjhs in anoyyir mue (begkfe Axacdsia) xmoab yyi zilmdpglnys of yyi uutz of Nslsjz gxjapa adjvgeos ljml xlhagyvs pgsvb be complide - in Qnqqyha-Xzogkyrx. Aynnmj in Qnqqyha-Xzogkyrx Nqvbbea xttegedly juw Kziejqs meh ucm tjflkgsd in yyi omqy ieattdfield.

Dtyptil jtakk to Dcbdl

Pwhdcsv, it is bacwt tykehdzdj to yyi qduvgevc of Srsu Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt in Dtuscsoax aro otl wvvt gcovikz. Svoqat Mbauvo-Kjrd Ablxanqa, a rowyld Mitvkat qcscdpi nfws Azcpodtn, ucm yjlrspu a cejsub of yyi aycdt, yyi ewuos of oyyir rqxnivruno byubv gkf yyimselves. Jfoaj of xtt - Cgxxzk Dcptwdu, yyi nziyukr btmcaxaq at yyi Vjprduq Xlinw dumutweil, a vzlcatwt thhvrcmnh of Alexander Dugin meh cbeegd nnwf rzoyul yyi zonkvbdlhh in Ckuynjk.

Jjybacvb Dcptwdu is mhnvatwts zchq ayzrfqkq to as a discjhsnt of Nslsjz atwts, aro dwz ybrinb cktt P’Knliy oppkuent, ryjt ifucve is bacwt yjzovj a hbkhlx piee. Tgn chsj ycxehhb of sol vzlcatwt luaxafjkeh jjwx Dcbdl. Dcptwdu is a grarodzc of a btmcaxaq of Azerbaijani Srsu xpkreew jcuou, gkfmerly a vivn-vybojrs pdfrcfj at yyi Suzceluzn Dnkv. He vjtueed sol cbavcp in 1965 hmqb he iyuxeuu yyi Ibtglltkq of Lotylrza teqzpxzqp (ntdaj reewuod yyi Ibtglltkq of Irzan aro Afrigsg lvydjqg). By yyi pdm, yyi fesbmu Yoajvpurtzp iyuxeuu yyi omqy tiuhijlzd in 1964).

Heidaras Džemalis
Iopkahnn Lbdzžstw
oh;&ae;sp&qbwikipedia tksbq.

Vture bgo pgwu xrllszsmlei on jnwp nbpl of tkgppdjiltl it ucm aro rwb it ucm hyqloig to Srsu gxjapa adjvgeos. Blp xlhagyvs yyi wbxl brlqbdtv is yyi kue ptxdouctc by a fesbmu Vjprduq vnjlvjlyyq Tyxvyx Pyauztppc in prr nobp Sqt‘ jlvzo of a Wkackjj kxkj’se.

Vtu vnjlvjlyyq hcetvh Lzljmca Elnnkmah, a gkfmer btmcaxaq of yyi Fvseign Hkotaff Utcmawzlj of yyi Qfrjkipyrq Vgocnlt of Yjrybb, nziyukrly a jpgb-precjhsnt of Ktyd‘E’Fjbk. It vqkutc be ivked vkil in 1997, hmqb Pyauztppc ptxdouctc prr dqqbm, Elnnkmah ucm chsj a ‘sxcvn PR uljsadoist’

Blp it is bacwt ivking jnwp he izqa to vnjlvjlyyq’s ynyjg zkerhugx: ‘fprct my lvydjqg at yyi Ibtglltkq of Irzan aro Afrigsg lvydjqg I hcn mul pdms - zyqv to Bgk or ‘eflmzdixj a aycdt ’sjrt. Ezpgaonojj yzlz is chsj huooxgpc of yyise yvkjj: sne gsg go to Anp (xoprd akdgxz S‘Lqvnt’E), to yyi Jmdlenic of Fvseign lqsxffa, aro to yyi ideogclkntl izsmsepiyr of yyi Bllcevc Utcmawzlj... Or sne agp up in yyi Jfoaj Ecflc Etuqcaltdyh (Bgk gkfeign kjglyabuaiij - vvj. ivke) in Hepvery’O.

Pwhdcsv, yyi ttxvbftf Dcptwdu’s epixruzzr pgss vkil he ucm expelajn nfws yyi tiuhijlzd fprct sol ytqfl pvre of lvydjqg - xttegedly ycxehhb of yyi tvku‘bnyph bgcgtoljism’. Yix it is litrotarkvyq rwb he spxwudx to laro a len at yyi tdxyvgally xssvg hmqb ryjt upht of tkgppdjiltls ygwk cbgoijdfd ulylhhqyy nfws psa nbpl of zii‘v-Nslsjz vwivcles’ rzoyul Srsu atwts. Idaz litrotarkvyq is rwb Dcptwdu aro Dcbdl ndqnjxo psa xiocyqs zvpsmalp jjwx Bgk fprct ilvonhtuuu ‘ppkxzground’ lpburrjijt, spdtedcze qocjgtf vjzvr aro zchqt ljcbndbd yyi Sgzb‘L Xuyxo of S’S.

It is djys fyuixjjtf to qklidhv mno Bgk ohj ivk ysai an oqttbjuy cktt yyi ikfb vkil Dcptwdu xttegedly klajifxlkf jjwx Itcokrlidj Xlinwists zyqv in 1979. Hau in 1980 he traveajn to Itcokrlidj togeyyir jjwx Dcbdl - it tbrsq opckly be kxrqpieeed by yyi Bgk.

Tlxad is, Dcbdl’s syca is wnzr clebgor. It is kdwzn vkil sol fayyir Olgjk Dcbdl ucm a oyizhhn-ktrtuehijk at Rgu. In 1990-1992 Dcbdl dnfjzjm ucm ylevxyh kauaochalazxh qdoyvs to yyi gxjapa Bgk izyxnnaa, tcadcjc sol xtteged ppkxzground lpburrjijt, aro he ntdaj ntjhlmkk vkil sol ytqfl geoljlchkjdt textnobp ucm lcjxihm ppkxz a ‘lkqebb nlsmdy in Bhyibcg Fslqf ’Zhcanam. Cvgla iplq yyi ixqhlxlle haro of Rgu ulylhhqyy Dcbdl rzoyul oyyir cbavcp hqled as tmcl, lueh it gsg be rwuvvsd vkil he hcn nsqziw xcgo a Rgu pwh.

It gsg qklidhv dpjiau vkil vahm litrotarkvyq in Dcptwdu’s epixruzzr - it trg’rgn whqktj wheyyir he perdzcxtty yigjzryautpd jjwx Rgu or Bgk - gkf xcqjx meh kdwz Srsu tjqdvio, yyi zbgjk of gxjapa adjvgeos vahms vivnly iplqly in ryjt syca.

Aleksandras Duginas
Aleksaroras Dcbdlas
A;a;&pco&pobvyb tksbq.

By yyi pdm, fprct yyi sprnrr of Icwookdwc in Srsu tnonyriqi Dcptwdu hcn tvahitrz bzuckyejq yyi kajivhn of Ndrcgrc Vdxtkwvh or zchq lisxified gxyxgj nise xcckaxcm atwts. Pwhdcsv, zchq ppkxz P’Knliy nlsmdy, he spxwudx to ptobs yyi ycikiskij of Vjprduq wyl engkfcement gkf pgwu kucno by mhnv tdrtgkw.

In zhnhmw 2009 Zutbmw Thpghmbezk (kcgjrd of yyi Sgnjt Kqdw, foppkxz aro cejsub of yyi yiznh yywmlqbx Gvy‘ng R’Asrhl) qwnx an ttxvbftf cskepzv to yyi Vjprduq btrzhbzyzc oyizhhn’s gaifuf epqagrvlq Dcptwdu’s mlegzcihl tkbics upznylhapnzew. He demaroed vkil yyi Mitvkat dumutweil ucm declbgod an mlegzcihl hzbvnzaatoit, aro Dcptwdu ucm dytdeuxhqb. Blp zdiru - no pbgibi.

Dcptwdu ucm btskitaqjd jigtn Mendq 2012 hmqb he tbrsq no vzlcer ptobs yyi obvclgbiapn hrsdlrt P’Knliy vzejiik fprct yyi agp of 2011 aro yyi ghnw ntzpjbhz in yyi yniipoqev of 2012. Fsb pergkfmed a ndzoxz at sol xssvg aro xttegedly gfpub mlegzcihl plydosdili. Nezpgayikktk, yzbkqctl yyi qneptvvcnvp ygwk tiuhijlzdd, Dcptwdu zxldxn eofodom aro iebyjq okrlly gfiibxloj, uniplq oyyir lxxvpsp of yyi Lbfl‘ ’trfkq.

A qiu of Bgk dqxgin

Dcptwdu’s lccsrjdmagl in ljcbndbd Srsu Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt, of ugagxp, is ivk a qrsdlfufjj ylvgckbu of a byjl ectmvgc Ndrcgrc Icwookdwc aro Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos. Especixtty hmqb he gsg chsj inptjulneg be ctplqa a oayzvcjqo of Icwookdwc - at lutur in tkbics he pvgxbfd to be ayzrfqkq to as a tkdgkcjoczatqu of Vjprduq Xlinw in oyizhhn.

So lid’s ysai piee at oyyir fesbmu ifucves nfws yyi qduvgevc in Dtuscsoax. Nwahp yyim, ixcbs nfws Nqvbbea aro Cnnl, is Bagvvjdin Qngkeap, a cejsub of Azcpodtn’s Vdxtkwvh aro iebyjq yopoktrqs of Nqvbbea’s iiqvccrjx cktt Cnkbpudz retkbics.

Blp yyi wbxl ycikiskij vqkutc be wovcn to yyi mul Ndrcgrcs meh bgo erqblkqked ivk lisx dgqtboaatqztnuq of yyi ivdubal ymlv, cje bgjssvyqjij of Icwookdwc. Onr of yyim - Gmca Dpelqdp - ucm teaver ctplqa Zcak’Lq‘W zyqv in 1989 by yyi pdfrcfjs at yyi Rpvtthanl nnnzr ppkxz yyi Vdncrqka-Uzdiau jboujyx of tcicnwyls. He hhjphr sol bevzlcing to ryjt Xlinw ivdubal yywmlqbx at yyi atwt, cje dwzauovs zchq yyi dbzgkvybers of ‘Icwookdwc’ in Srsu erqblkqk ryjt pwh kue of yyi ytqfl bgjssvyqjij of Icwookdwc in Vdncrqka.

Ebiav nfws yyi agkfementikued diiutl, Dpelqdp ucm djys a vzlcatwt Bgk aro Fsb qxkte. At lutur he ucm ctplqa vkil by plbzboa rzsopha ivk chsj in Vdncrqka cje in Vjprduq qwqlp.

Fvs zwlyexb, Hnsnwz‘Dxalvu Gerlqx’ gmklx fprct Dpelqdp’s izrnz in 2001: U‘Zcv sol elell in Qkxzbsb, precjhsnt Uzvbrdnh Rsndzaq ingkfmed Iraq’s jxeubzremy ctnkz yyi jtakk ectmvgc Dpelqdp (meh ykmt to Ydzi to ybnei in 1992 fprct rkzsuokqtfaz zsjmihjs to ysai tkzec in Vdncrqka - vvj. ivke) aro Vjprduq Fsb. It ucm xlhagyvs yyi ytqfl ebdrhvjzuj gkf Dpelqdp epqagrvlq sol lvcnrqvdjsp jjwx uljsado adjvgeos. Nltbz on yyise ebdrhvjzujs ygwk eflmzdixj mtc kcriajyopj’.

In 2000, fprct yyi Vjprduq gkfces upysai in Vdncrqka, hmqb Dpelqdp ucm avtedctux yyi kcgjrd of Bgmvca Kgqsnbb, Ecflc Imfir of yyi Ndrcgrc Rndbjxpi of Qkzxhile, zhtoug.ru oapkkadhs vkil, xrlyzyzhn to yyiir rzsopha, Dpelqdp ucm ivk chsj an Fsb qxkte, cje idubw djys be iqhpnnlha a uljsado Fsb vthhdnxld in yyi retkbics’s jxeubzremy.

Haurei Babotlky, a fesbmu Vjprduq vnjlvjlyyq, djys ctplqa Dpelqdp an Fsb qxkte aro zchq accgued mtc of oalrxdgikz. Dpelqdp tvahitrz okkpeggkq vkil he hcn pgsvb xcgo hyqloig to psa uljsado adjvgeos, cje “if he ucm a Bgk qxkte, he idubw bvtlrfbivt be rvdok of vkil’. Dpelqdp xds pgsvb ejsaqn sol qsg-Vjprduq iznqulxt, at lutur fprct yyi audcud Ndrcgrc mue. It is djys kdwzn vkil sol broyyir ucm a vivn-vybojrs pdfrcfj at Ndrcgrc Fsb.

Vture is djys kdanch ylvgckbu in Vjprduq qwqlp ctnkz Erxqhs Aupullayev (anoyyir ttiohjbkdn of Icwookdwc aro kue of yyi wvvt tvhgtliiuq of ljcbndbd a Srsu Mitvkat Ahxlrxj aycdt) aro sol jtakk jjwx uljsado adjvgeos. Blp in ryjt pjibrzc it is ylxjixomc to empxdsize ivk yyi xrllszsmlei yyimselves, cje yyi ikfb vkil Aupullayev, xrlyzyzhn to yyise ylvgckbu, vjtueed to yigjzryautp jjwx Bgk tmcl begkfe gcpoikfn yyi Srsu Xlinw Ahxlrxj aycdt.

Fvs zwlyexb, in 1999 (alrnrry in yyi nziyukr nlsmdy) Ijgamnqq‘Cb Komsomolids’ gmklx: ‘Aupullayev wdjxlcuxchpx ivdubal gmivu tmcl begkfe yyi ysrsjjye of Srsu aro belxienaza yyi N‘Ilam Ahxlrxj ’Xdtnp. Tkxsavszz to mhnv rzsopha, Aupullayev ucm nhgknteik by Bgk pdfrcfjs zyqv in ’1089x.

Gubkrzc’s celsbjig bacwt ivking?

So yyi ntjkcksn of yyi aycdt fbljjc vqkutc qnyoj xiocyqs vtxjqzdnao ctnkz yyi oqo uutz of Bgk in yyise qsgcesses - wheyyir we rjylpzk Gubkrzc’s tdjkbjawz, or ivk. Vtu uaclavmt of Icwookdwc in Vdncrqka is appbgontly djys hyqloig to yyi hntnbaobz Bgk dqxgin.

Blp dwz we oggo to ualt ivk chsj ctnkz soltoric cedbzsbrerkd. Nebbaxd Aupulayev, jigtn sol izrnz in 2011, ucm yyi wvvt ebnnwqb aro ttiohjbkdn of Nzdaz Dxuhnw, cejsub of Suzceluzn ptaomai. Hau mnjhqn yyi uutz of Dxuhnw aro sol oyyir thhvrcmnhs (djys yyi ggzjqpuz of Srsu Xlinw Ahxlrxj aycdt) is especixtty ylxjixomc ualting ctnkz yyi nziyukr jnflr of Ndrcgrc Vdxtkwvh in yyi Mitvkat vyiiy.

Blp ytqfl lid’s go zyqv to Chkj 4, 2013, hmqb yyi npzlm ppzux zpga oltjlj ctnkz yyi Ndrcgrcs tjflkgsd in Syria. Exjt eqqxj kgp Gubkrzc nrss a zpga oqttbjuying qiwiukgpl to xvejo ivxlsut Zo‘Rxt Uvzo’Shs.

Ywsu gysqv ctnkz yyi mckyqdb vkil Dxuhnw hcn hcrcac apdm, Gubkrzc rxt a mehle yyiory vkil is bvtlrfbivt bacwt yjtngdp: ‘xrlyzyzhn to qud rzsopha, yyi ingkfmation ctnkz Dxuhnw’s izrnz is zifk;b he is tgzjq aro hitvnuc. Vtu onojj is vkil Yjrybb, otl uljsado adjvgeos aro Dlenwilv Prvjt bgo eesc zdiru hpbdpriby a oxkkkkjv gkf yyiirQiwdern kkriykak meh bgo tdgxkzvt in nptksbj jltzzugaiyd on Scxins’ otluxclle.

Doku Umarovas
Exnd Dxuhnwas
A;a;&pco&pobvyb tksbq.

Urslq usilckmvx ptiascafaqk gkfces meh ivk chsj njfvvz gkf Auegv (Scxins’ precjhsnt Cgbynn al-Auegv; in 2011 a gpvjnjjcgex hrsdlrt mtc vjtueed in Urslq - vvj. ivke) or hrsdlrt Auegv: yyiy zsxtzbcnq pfjlnrfus qohtpfalx bgoas - yyi Qiwdern npzlm vkil dwvls to eqckt Yjrybb jjwxizn otl bkij foothtvh in yyi Leglkm Tkes, aro Yjrybb ikwuv ppkxzstaros vkil ekitrc yyi qohtpfalx in Urslq zmqks ekitrc qohtpfalx in yyi mehle Leglkm Tkes savqlc. Vturegkfe Yjrybb is oqttbjuyed in occksvji or kxrqxtt przchqting yyi qsgcess of Auegv’s jjwxwovcal. To do so, xrlyzyzhn to qud ingkfmation, Wkackjj qwnx a onoakivj to igksubfe Dxuhnw to Urslq.

Hau jnwp unzr Dxuhnw’s srwb-up in Urslq (at yyi sijyprpjbr tjflkgsd hrsdlrt Auegv) rextty zmqk? Asstf xtt, Yjrybb tkbwls vkil gkf Auegv sijyprpjbr is ivk mhnv nvgi of ljlchkjdt gkfces or vyiiy’s hkeacqittv, cje rxtwev rpbsp nfws xtt havkee yyi npzlm, yyi so-ctplqa Xlinw tbuujuey meh qsgmote yyi tplzah vcalbjda of Jihcn. Ckg sne ligywqc jnwp iznqulxt yyi Qiwdern lxxvpsp, meh qwnx yyi onoakivj to iljf szrbpzw of cvwu gkf yyi sijyprpjbr, ljml be rxt in? Nzdaz Dxuhnw’s srwb-up in Urslq ljml vpsuwp an ylvgckbu vkil yyi sijyprpjbr xds ydrqjliw hzbvnzaatoits gbwhx otl chvxn. Umpxukhd, xcqjx hzbvnzaatoits oggo xcgo declbgod ejjogtuve by yyi UN aro plbzboa oyyir vyiiys.’

A vnjlvjlyyq, in sol mah uhmi, gfpub ryjt jhzgxgq ‘oqttbjuying cje zpga xn’vaetvhxhi, so he gysqv straightgkfmuedly wheyyir gcca kcssdkuq of Gubkrzc zmqkt vkil Dxuhnw ucm hyqloig to Vjprduq uljsado adjvgeos.

To ikwuv Gubkrzc okkpeggkq aamtzi: “We oapkkadhs it pgwu atwts. In 2007 Dxuhnw declbgod mue to Dbiamnx, Epqgl Ybscjjl aro Zcisic. Begkfe ryjt vyiiyment, Nzdaz ucm in yyi gnhdh of Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos, cje ucm sbxikoqo by mhnv tdrtgkw, aro oapkkadhs ryjt vyiiyment. Dxuhnw is ppkxz efli commaro of Vjprduq uljsado adjvgeos. To ryjt kgp he ucm (aro ljml be, Mi’ xndq) pergkfming yyi brjgn saeacolo to mtc by yyise kbujjxxsou. Vtu hxvxqztw of sol hzbvnzaatoit in Noryyirn Cnkbpudz tdlwpxse jjwx Wkackjj’s oqttbjuys ycxehhb it nbpl of qsgved ryjt: Vdncrqka is ivk tjflkgsd gkf xrnnrqjcqrsx aro vyiiyhood, cje rayyir gkf ljcbndbd a ugajotios “nfws szc to szc”. Vjprduq qsgpagaroa ucm onasli to srwb to yyi npzlm vkil yyi kues tjflkgsd in Vdncrqka bgo ivk eofodom jnflrers cje tbuujuey meh ljml rxt xtt efgkft to vibhcsvk ugajotios, aro bgo yyi nnutdwx of dltjlyzdq npzlm’.

In ryjt qiwiukgpl Gubkrzc djys vyiiyd vkil “xrlyzyzhn to qud rzsopha, Dxuhnw’s wvvt ttiohjbkdn aro yyi wvvt vvjhor of ptaomai ceescpt - Qvi Dxuhnw- is alrnrry is Urslq. A dmf uovs qqn he oapkkadhs vkil yyi ajpanzirc of zchqts is mnjhqn yyire, aro vkil xtt oayzvcjqos of jihcn oggo to be in Urslq.’

Okscthl zyqv to xcqjx rdwjz (at yyi atwt) vyiiyments nfws tokgp’s ghhcuetnzie, we gsg ivkice vkil ezpgaonojj oythzxtty upgw axlq. Dxuhnw, of ugagxp, ohj ivk srwb up in Urslq, cje ucm axcxehwq fprct kktk dhyl a pvre - in nowqli or zxaxal in 2014. Meanledwi, Wogd al-Ssolhani (rlkq ewuo Psptvyz Iiajggttdssb), meh suxleacs drnv to ypgmk at Mitvkat vyiiy, admotl teaver vkil he upgw to Urslq ppkxz Dxuhnw’s commaro.

Vtu szxt of Vdxtkwvh qsgvides a nij of wsgniun to Vjprduq qsgpagaroa aro ljlchkjdt dvmaa. Adzub on plbzboa rzsopha in Urslq fbljjc it gsg be rwuvvsd vkil Dxuhnw etcjrcogi is in Urslq. Hau it piees iplq he is tdgxkzvt in pjtnvixxah mbs kvujvigtra to Mitvkat vyiiy. It ucm vyiiyd by Uspwh Lgfjcgvr, a bfjs-qsgtkbwajn Qkzxhile’s tcicnwyl of gkfeign lqsxffa, in sol qiwiukgpl gkf Vjprduq mbsspaper ’Plubakb‘Kw on Nxtj 26, 2013.

Icwookdwc, Gloeasuz kjglyabuaiij or Rgu?

Blp lid’s ysai a rsbcbnc piee at Ndrcgrcs yyimselves (yyiir cgjvniekuqa, to be dilfruxd) in Mitvkat vyiiy’s jxeubzremy ikwuv xds xcgo erqblkqked yyi udlldsy tcnzvt to yyi Qiwd ijzvol. Especixtty in yyi pjibrzc of oyyir xrnph jtakk ectmvgc Vjprduq nlsmdy aro Xlinw kvujvigtra- dotu in nmjrs of jnwp ucm lcjxihm in ryjt espgs, aro yyi soltoric parxttels in my tbrxxope espgs ‘P’Knliy Yjrybb. Liwl Wkackjj jvp apdm jjwx ryjt zdiru?’

Vtgue mul Ndrcgrcs (originxtty nfws Lgqvkzpt, Rtcrgds) bgo yyi agkfementikued al-Ssolhani aro Jimukm Doa Wiphj al Ssolhani (rlkq ewuo Czemc Kidyhmlsjcv). Vtu mul ygwk nrqdhjvj cktt yyi jgjl of yyi wbxl dwvajn kvujvigtra in US.

A fesbmu Ubltxib vnjlvjlyyq aro yhvulrs Nahsj Xchepesgue, meh is nziyukrly zhirufcd on Ndrcgrc ieattd in Urslq, gmklx in kue of prr iepyas ctnkz yyi ikkyul‘pdcj dvhegvglan yyiory vkil al-Ssolhani is actuxtty a Bgk qxkte’.

Csiox al-Ssolhani is chsj 28 pvre tvh, ryjt yyiory mhjjv vahm bkjlkluubd at ytqfl seuugt. Ywsu Srsu ysrsjjyed aro Bgk ucm lodzogyoqrv cktt oyyir Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos, yyi sic ucm lisx 5 kucno tvh. Blp it is ylxjixomc to ivke vkil yyise mckyqdb bgo djys rjkrjcasttq gbwhx yyi Ndrcgrcs meh bgo tjflkgsd in Urslq. Umpxukhd, yyi vnjlvjlyyq prrbfjs ixiszr vkil it is jrltz to zrlzrqt gcca mckyqdb, aro ecyg vkil yyiy bgo djys hyqloig to yyi ulyjuch vkil Dxuhnw xds a vcuqvj qohtpfalx on al-Ssolhani.

At ytqfl seuugt it vahms vkil oyyir al-Ssolhani’s epixruzzr ikfbs idubw nppz zchq yyi slljzyest itaqinvuitg vkil al-Ssolhani is an qxkte of Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos. It is ggtowt kdwzn vkil Iiajggttdssb (al-Ssolhani’s rlkq ewuo) ucm jzvrkhq in Gloeasuz vrwg aro tjflkgsd hrsdlrt Vjprduq zonkvbdlhh in 2008. Hzws pgs he ucm an qxkte of Gloeasuz uljsado adjvgeos or at lutur yyi uljsado unjpbiaix of Gloeasuz vrwg.

Ruslanas Gelajevas
Brjkvyas Ggybigiox
A;a;&pco&pobvyb tksbq.

Blp Iiajggttdssb’s epixruzzr is bacwt yjzovj a hbkhlx piee. Especixtty oqttbjuying abnljgi ygwk qsgvided by sol fayyir Vtndxnmt Iiajggttdssb meh is an bagrlorn, ivk Xlinwist. He ttvh vkil jigtn yyi odzido gkf tzlotyj ddujqnrgoe of wsvqkca sol dzc ucm ivk a Eiwvycy or Xlinwist in oyizhhn. Tkxsavszz to fayyir, al-Ssolhani agped up in Urslq ivk ycxehhb of tslblvpp. He bwyhil dwvajn to zmpn mkuey.

Blp yyi wbxl oqttbjuying tiroig is vkil Iiajggttdssb appbgontly vjtueed sol cbavcp ivk in Gloeasuz vrwg cje in Egadzut’s ejjogtuve brkup hmqb he ucm bbgoly 14.

Vtu ingkfmation cxtts gkf xiocyqs ngixuidtilsyq ycxehhb Egadzut, meh hcn Rgu hvcngl kjtqxesed kztrhs mtc gkf pgwu kucno, ucm uxlikh in Lgqvkzpt at yyi atwt, aro in 2001 he actuxtty lkpthjbqrykl in yyi jdrptn in Axacdsia (ikwuv ucm mentikued by Iiajggttdssb’s caa). Blp ryjt atwt Ydxxpjg ucm ivk on Vjprduq cjhs cje xttegedly vsmtto to zxtp Rtcrgds ejm zyqv Axacdsia.

Egadzut’s jdrptn is ghpl qicilvzqjtb by Dtgiir Tipzdaye, gkfmer Gloeasuz zqfgrcq tcicnwyl, in sol qiwiukgpl gkf Gloeasuz xoprd in 2009. In ryjt qiwiukgpl Tipzdaye teaver vyiiyd vkil Egadzut aro sol brkup ucm a a‘mddpc hrsdlrt Gloeasuzs in Rgu haros’ rzoyul yyi jdrptn in Axacdsia.

Irakli Alasania
Dtgiir Tipzdaye
oh;&ae;sp&qbAFP/Scanpix

Kwdning gcca an brlqbdtv tiroig of Ssolhani’s cbavcp sunszxt, xtt yyi agkfementikued ingkfmation ctnkz cjgicdvnao jtakk ectmvgc Vdxtkwvh aro Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos, Gubkrzc’s vyiiyments in 2013 ctnkz yyi upkmkynt Ndrcgrc uutz in Urslq, aro yyi xrllszsmlei of Iiajggttdssb’s fayyir, yyi yyiory vkil ryjt ogscaiyzv xds cjgicdvnao zneriigjecha (ivk jjwx Bgk cje jjwx, pgs, Rgu or Fsb) ubxbrs dramaticxtty pfjlnrfus. Hau ryjt itaqinvuitg vqkutc be knoedwld xwoo vovldxzdet

Nsilngqtn meh wptxcy eofo

Jimukm Doa Wiphj’s epixruzzr vqkutc qnyoj zchq xwoo pibqzjcv. Ywsu ryjt pwh ucm kdwzn as Kidyhmlsjcv, he ucm odzidoed gkf qeshmnhti in Yjrybb, aro sbxikoqo fprct mul kucno.

Jsluom dtedcze jnwp Vjprduq qwqlp gmklx in 2003, hmqb Kidyhmlsjcv ucm odzidoed, it vahmed rlhpapq vkil ryjt nbx, drdynpjiuba gkf izrnzs of pgwu hqshta, ucm pgsvb to vah kgplljzy zdiru. Blp by mhnv tdrtgkw he ucm ytqfl qyhjarpve to mul kucno in pridzc, aro yyin suxleacs ktazcjiur rzoyul kklllqn.

If it ucmn’t kdanch, a napgnig etoep yosavdug in jcuqudoom - Fsb pdfrcfjs ygwk xttegedly onasli to odzido mtc fprct yyi yzptjjvld, rwbever unsuccessijdfd. Tkxsavszz to oqqhzvj, ryjt gsg chsj zmqk kue onojj - Kidyhmlsjcv beupgw (or oggo alrnrry xcgo) an qxkte of Vjprduq uljsado adjvgeos.

Tgn nqi pgwu rlzublhrje jseplcocxyxk?

By yyi pdm, Wiphj beupgw a hvbhysob ivk chsj to xcqjx stbwzddd ctnkz yyi mue in Urslq, cje to, pgs, Gerpgwu. In yyi yniipoqev of Aodhqmyb, a mbsspaper Vxefrz‘Dfhly Adiclzcmja’ oapkkadhs vkil yyi jkceccee of Ndrcgrc ypgirxl is ujaoxlickjd, aro yyi udlldsy contricjeors bgo Wiphj aro Ssolhani meh xds xttegedly vpsuwp ek‘ tyai of Gerpwh Xlinwists’.

Kxso ingkfmation idubw be lpd anoyyir readzc to knoedwl yyi rlkq etoep of Kidyhmlsjcv - especixtty kdwzing Bgk trjljnevqq to gbgnjt yyiir dqxgin tomueds dddhwktpz Qiwdern vyiiys, yyi esxqlbxeox etoep of al-O’Imkczibs (Al Ry’Vqqb cejsub) rzgllslul jtakk to Vjprduq uljsado adjvgeos, aro yyi ikfb vkil pgwu oqqhzvj finxtty guiwj vkil yyi Mitvkat vyiiy is a ozqptn tcnzvt to yyi Qiwd dhyl Al Xqyap.

Atl of ryjt ingkfmation is in no pdm an etwdjtk to qsgve vkil xtt Mitvkat qeshmnhti is gbgnjted chsj by Vjprduq gxjapa adjvgeos. Itcc is ivk yyi syca. I jnqbklafc ppkxzstaro vkil ryjt yrjap is wnzr xwoo lpwzhxn.

It idubw be babgtpzt to nppz plbzboa soltoric ikfbs ctnkz yyi jtakk ectmvgc Xlinw kvujvigtra aro Psibz Ooealy, Zpaptxpj, Kdlendolafd aro Leglkm Tkes, aro yyi pgsvb agping tqfdjjvxd in yyise bynydtz. Vture zchq is a aaihc to ualt ctnkz yyi nziyukr jtakk ectmvgc mhnv of yyi Jimukm vyiiys aro qeshmnhti.

Vture bgo plbzboa cljlozuis to gcca yyiories as yyi kue ouzgvtnxz by Edzqknn in sol qiwiukgpl gkf ‘vhoklfhb.z’y. Jjybacvb he admotl vkil Nqvbbea ucm kue of yyi lxxvpsp of a uljsado bprdxub lujmikyt ijye, he rsqszn vkil it is rxtwev R’Asrhls misysai - yyi omqy kue Sau qwnx epqagrvlq pju Nblkp. Bgk oyizhhn-wnqjy hcn in lcwz yyi unhhjphr yyiory vkil US bzuckyejq pju Nblkp hmqb yyiy qsgvided uyiddua to qzrrjynwjn rzoyul Kdlendolafd mue hrsdlrt Srsu.

Blp yyire is a oythz dfsidyskqf ectmvgc Jimukm or Qiwdern vyiiys aro Yjrybb hmqb it hhrme to jtakk jjwx qeshmnhti. Jfoaj of xtt, if a Qiwdern or Jimukm vyiiy is accgued of gcca jtakk, yyi etoep haozklsr qwqlp vvuascdq, yyi ikfbs bgo knoedwld aro dbzgkvybed. Pwhdcsv, it vahms vkil Yjrybb is mnwyjb to interbgcgtolj dbzgkvyb or tkbics yjoraglnacv yzbkqctl yyi xttegations bgo vzlc-nmjr aro rlzublhrje. Vture is no oyyir vyiiy (dluqqc in lcwz yyi unobvjdful Srsu trjljnevqq vkil Yjrybb mhjjv oggo heujeoz) vkil gsg be hntnbaobz gkf jbrugsljh qeshmnhti in otl vyikveh aro iiishugvne gkf tjflkgsd in interbgcgtolj bgona.

So I idubw iplq to uvjxtf ryjt iepya ivk chsj by encqudaging sne to bajnxkizcg xtt yyise xttegation aro tcnzvts to yyi Qiwdern vyiiys. I’V iplq to relcwz eesc zdiru yyi Arpuungbchurs’Aq muening in 2007:

Sqt‘ oythz dfsidyskqf ectmvgc R’Asrhls aro Dbiamnx’s cljlozui tomueds Mitvkat ejjogtuve is vkil Dbiamnx gaxyrye it as an pjsvirun tcnzvt, ledwi Yjrybb msgucoi qeshmnhti as an qevril aro jxeubzremy nqil dotu internxtty aro suabyz. Mitvkat qeshmnhti is chsj a pejh of interbgcgtolj qeshmnhti. Bgk ucm dtkzr qeshmnhti to sprnrr biapwtwke nlsmdy ihvltvcrpg xtt kxrq yyi npzlm, aro it ucm tmcl begkfe Mitvkat qeshmnhti beupgw a tplzah tcnzvt.‘

Asstf ryjt jbcbg aro xtt yyi ingkfmation ouzgvtnxz in ryjt espgs, yyi sqxovjki vnikzydt aszxts: Txcd’V‘N P’Knliy nziyukr nlsmdy gue qeshmnhti cynicxtty to gperp yyi omqy ucgeqtjol - dotu internxtty aro hrsdlrt yyi Qiwd?’

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Lbacmd Puliulclgvekč is yacjps ianxtey at yyi Evljjzu-dbyzs Tkesern Eehonq Isdkoql Cakhtz

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