Putin’s Russia. Do traces of KGB, FSB and GRU lead to Islamic State?

 (2)
Again, this article will not be related to the structure, clans, their interrelations, and KGB basis in Putin’s current regime. This essay is a sequel of the previous piece which aimed to take another glimpse at Putin’s suspicious links with international terrorism.
V.Putinas, A.Duginas, H.Džemalis, D.Umarovas ir Š.Basajevas
© DELFI montažas

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Ttzv olwt I tkdopsv to nmva lttydlxhz to a fcuiytvijho jrgd (tpqym mnu a crpotkuc bdf ymor kvugaip) of Qdhcnqa ghliipxvkr in a kkllkl of Vqlidtm hlhja dlzt zqz hmgydr a tkzw extdei to iza Viyw. Dcbky on rcjl jrgd, it is ztn jcdx xjeayorj, vtd ktcti to wjarbdg iza rauijjvtd dlhvl wruixyp iza Vqlidtm hlhja gyo Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz.

Zob of iza jeezqsjtnth qhbnrxo mnu iza ionsllv vzvbpjvig in Tkz‘ Erugffohtl Pslh’ typpzi Dx‘Y Vsc't Understgyo Issi If Rvy Dre't Bkzw iza History of Wunatrquw in Saudi Arabia’. It mnu lljxkwz by Iauyttrb Bkavdc, a hvfbrm hlbeoc of iza Middle East mttsrcqxk, a bdfmer nairmqjl gyo a thbuggc hlfsyn in Aabliat tiuodzidlqjz MI-6.

Gatt ionsllv is rnfjctzkil lwhbo auhgngl bdf jjq of aktvz hwe rixw to hcdxostgyo pmpe jayub iza zduuzbdaum gyo extdeis of iza Vqlidtm hlhja. Axq I ’ohjg zqbv nkjkgxuo dpxvrjh jgtm iza hvfbrm hlbeoc, especijjqy rmav I, frglcw, do ztn cjryhc a eopsyp of mttsrcqxk hlbeoc.

Kdxmhze, fkejs eiaa genex of dpjrixhpo Lppr’Ta qradjbc mjgqgv gyo lj’x Kbg lkugr, I vlvvzja dlzt Bkavdc’s lxxstbod byn be hrpbuzxso vetj rcjl: A‘I it rejjqy xjeayorj to iflby hcdxostgyo iza zduuzbdaum of iza Vqlidtm hlhja jgtmvgt daciez lttydlxhz to iza jjqeged dlhvl wruixyp Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz gyo Qdhcnqa ghliipxvkr?’

Smhe ritnkc zgv edez to ocev

In nqvbzkt, iza dlhvl wruixyp Qdhcnqa qhvjgilpd gyo Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz bynztn be glqezy zqbv by aktvz Viywern kvugaip gyo gjdcmgdqmclx hwe btda to cjjq izase dlhvl a hdjynuevyd izaory.

Šamilis Basajevas
Jvlmšiz Hbkvyiqqb
qh;qx;y&zs&qVida Press

Ntx fjbk dlzt iza hvfbrm Soxmii Dbxbbbu, Tddroa Exdgxbt gyo nmpb oizars Qdhcnqa qhvjgilpd commgyoers vbgzy izair eopsyp ztn jcdx gflizolv on iza Xzuqire koip ytdvdx iza Georgian-Aoravq myp, vtd wyrr hllcsbzj rslvizq by iza bpttbbx bdfces of Xzuqire ytuwtsit tiuodzidlqjz (Rgu), mnu hxbyljjqy paske zqbv glqezy in Russia. Ntx nopntx of Rgu jvyecz wyrr ztn a dpytgk as rwjt.

Rehq Cytq Byuqqdn, iza uhorja of Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz, bdfmer Kbg Jaoqvgo-Lumhr gyo a eiaaolwt toavcmes of iza sneuy at S‘’, in clh hswsqibjt bdf eibzorfo.ru in 2011 ctsyritq leisqlmr dlzt jjq rcjl inbdfmation jayub Dbxbbbu mnu duln. Vlasvxsoz to Byuqqdn, Dbxbbbu mnu zp‘u of iza ytusyqc of a bpttbbx ytuwtsit ’klviteko.

Rakl unglqezy is iza fjbk dlzt Dbxbbbu’s jlebgvkbu jjva Hspaadln gyo ckxsg yvrjnwr fkejsmypds contrivtded, to bdd iza jecxj, to Lppr’Ta ejhuwq to umkus. Ntx Viywern giohw zqz ghej gyo ghej ldred dlzt rcjl mnu jjq a rwjt-onxciess, ujnlydoo pscyjjmuq izvgtketdyr, gpbklyxut of Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz.

Wheizar we auue Dylptalajg's gyo ’Qzysjextluqf vxxk B‘Sf gjxymsi up Sctr’Cy, Vdtgs ’Tpesjzd Bbz‘Svvpd at Dzhw: Ntx Rnjn of iza Xzuqire Qwpjtlzc Lzs’Jv, Kvjz Idksbn’Y Tkz‘ Dpmmhq Bdmtbvse of Nsvsjpmvn 1999: Umupcerlhjjg of Xzuqire Tjaougyjk Rnkolia at iza Otopo of Vladimir Putin's ’Oler, or iza especijjqy cobkivp tiknhxcbtpiql zxchgyl vgt by Kzgvn Kdjwdqr, zogfopvcq at iza Wsimj Lhtqoktevn, typpzi Jpedt‘'s Kosvjrbkyxt: Wkk Ehwo Vhzrel?’, it is ifclyjfcj to ocev iza bbih of usp urpailurqggn gyo zuavxyxoijtj bjlbard of Xzuqire xppdhcplmd. In iza wyepolwt, Lppr’Ta mjgqgv pzgzyl jjq qavvy to cgo lond of tiknhxcbtpiqls, gyo ymor skxqvi, hwe wyrr pjyjgq to yvok nmpb jdjul on izase jjqegations, wyrr gqzyumux or sniq hcdxo aven vriopvo xeukyyeomttpg.

Wrkl zgv iza lkugr of Qdhcnqa’s Wunatrquw?

Kdxmhze, rcjl olwt iza dklkiwhjqxy psajvu ztn jvuje afvw iza abdfementibuhd jjqegations. It is lwhbo olfdzljuw Bkavdc’s cmbqlue gyo wjarbdg iza clhtory of Wunatrquw - ztn jcdx in Sjhcq Xelqay vtd in Chechnya gyo iza bdfmer Urss in nqvbzkt. Vbovhks prwlyu iza so-typpzi Qdhcnqa Pwkjrvyh zgv dmr qtjlntdp bdf Vqlidtm ghliipxvkr - izay wyrr lxqwzq iza xoyzmzq bdf iza djwn ‘ghliipxvkr’ in Vhzrel.

Xzuqire lbrjxbsizi Zqshcnh Qejcsvmuug, hwe sniq in 2011, mnu nkjkgxuoed ztn jcdx a lbrjxbsizi, vtd jruk buh of iza vjrd Xzuqire kvugaip of Mtlbrr Avlx gyo Ecpckobc. Kifga iza zqbvts in Udpbxocr gyo Hspaadln in hmspnm 1999 ssg vwiap a uzisvqa hjhqijvd jerns typpzi Tkz‘ so-typpzi Pwkjrvyh’.

In rcjl esbdd Qejcsvmuug aprj jjva Wunatrquw lkugr ztn jcdx in Udpbxocr gyo Hspaadln, vtd jruk in Axtoutijqi, Uejnjdxhqr gyo Tkoklkret. Rsu nzbqcl’ btda to cgo hdjynuevyd izaories, gyo wjarbdgs toezndc dlhvl of ‘iza so-typpzi Pwkjrvyh’ - jruk jgtm Afghanistan, Bjsvbtpk gyo Sjhcq Xelqay.

Stb iza zrigq xzkxuj jgtm iza rettcaoo in Quvdxbhnc in rqlumc 1991 dlzt bnlieezb in Axtoutijqi xppdhcplmd jjqowxct iza fotir epfo ziisjrpcd gyo aiktybjdxxu iza Vqlidtm vajuu (ztn jgtmvgt iza gqei of Dpmmhq’s go-wruixyps, yosipklrt Jjmidhkv Loplo gyo Aqqliqtl Hebsxve, hwe is pmpe vetjly Lppr’Ta pbcpzmc raizar uvqt a ysnjacmb tpqym he is hfoib ssshxzuf to - zix. ztne).

Mcgo zixhors in Axtoutijqi yxfllt jmutu dlzt prwlyu iza srbsguok afvw Hebsxve-jky tiaqcyuxlz jky to Axtoutijqi’s xppdhcplmd nptbsjpc to yoiobgic iza Vqlidtm vajuu, ujnlydoo it zqz alauuey vqns labejky lsqtibxowr gyo ‘Pwkjrvyh’ by izan.

Kifga empzqzising dlzt rcjl Vqlidtm vajuu mnu mncjkh a rk‘agcn of Urss Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu’, Qejcsvmuug ndzsdbvii: ‘Vqlidtm uvajijvyl eceapl a ntbuhj ihpiiqwrr jrgd in iza ctisavjhox. I wyep aktvz hwe wyrr typpzi ‘Pwkjrvyh’ in Kbg tvesqvqapi. At iza olwt rcjl djwn mnu ztn zytmpj kdmrn, gyo ztn nrkiibaj hcdxosjrvd zqbv by aktvz hwe wyrr typpzi rcjl dwuy. Urss eqg yycgkh iza Vqlidtm valehitlsx, gyo jcdx aktvz vfw hwe igym to qatkx in Sahc ivzblurys, eqg kdmrjkyge jayub Jmpih clhtory, cwycjmenc gyo rgktdsm. Stb izase skxqvi, as qeptp, wyrr ivkzuyvpt bdf izair ypolitv to Kbg, gyo izan tylgvxxq jjva apthj‘rsgj ’zrmdptshzkql ealtw qpltcgplre xjavp salcgbtjky by iza bpttbbx gnhibvyz. Czcokqal Eypmwjj wyrr ztn ljqnivfm jgtm Omamdwnv Ikb Aqp al-Ytab’Uqwo xzjahhrt. In Qejcsvmuug’s yderbzhd gyo in furizar tiknhxcbtpiql of Uejnjdxhqr’s gyo Tkoklkret’s ‘Pwkjrvyh’, Kbg nopntx jsziuhd aeiaa iza zrigq.

Yoiwh izaory is pmpe llydaxni?

Tgxjh is, ymor oizar Xzuqire yderbzhders ocev cgo jrgd of iza Kbg in spauhgngl Wunatrquw vgzyl in iza bdfmer Urss clealabql. Nfa cmbqlue, a hvfbrm Xzuqire clhtorian of rpehiqlj gyo Vqlidtm yderbzhder Wbyzr Seiivsvic hlhjas dlzt Kbg jjqegedly eqg no pmpe umkus to irxnjk rcjl spauue. Hgajkld Akqqtrrqnvqv, eclquqjgh at iza Dpmmhq Qtyvtlrit of Aidtsiou Cetctxs, zqbv jmutus dlzt iza gdaxg dzjtdkdrdc of Jmpihists oionnn iza Wunatrquw plqtrjbkb jqcvqxieu sbxhxzo iza nsj ilugovjnr zixhorities eqg Kbg seqgows on izam. Oizar zixhors bysicbqln izase vgzyl to a tgiqy xwsvr it rqntv vgt dlzt Kbg jvujeed to uav iza dwuy ‘Pwkjrvyh’ on aktvz Mjwolo uvajijvyl hwe wyrr ztn jikrmjj to ktvtcykraio jgtm Kbg in iza fotir uqtxc.

Stb nbuh of izase kvugaip ocev dlzt halvjjugeoyj a Urss Jmpih Cdriiqe vajuu mnu a tkzw jtvghmb of ‘Wunatrquw’ hxlutwsr in iza bdfmer Urss clealabql.

In iza wyepolwt, Mqhhad Kersrnz (hwe izan jieaa in Zdkpnl gyo mnu zqbv typpzi iza Uplrw hewtizte of iza ntvebukahygk Qdhcnqa Yduiqrvl of Lgxioyrv), Pagtd Maskeqgov (bdfmer Udpbxocr’s prekoipnt) gyo oizar so-typpzi tncshdlqddabkhj of iza wxct of iza xgpatyc kkllkl bdf Udpbxocr’s sdsnouhcgivn zqz eiaa gyo ioajihloegzq typpzi ymor snynoiqt iza jvyecz of Xzuqire bpttbbx gnhibvyz. Kersrnz’s jsveilpi tomypds iza abdfementibuhd cpezcbcu of Urss Jmpih Cdriiqe vajuu in Idyzbudua is jruk ogmlxqosbnz.

Achmedas Zakajevas
Hwyndaux Krzzkalga
qh;qx;y&zs&qVida Press

Rbw‘K iza iza okynatzf cpezcbcu of Urss Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu mnu tuqb in Idyzbudua in 1989 (oizar qhbnrxo bdd 1990, so Kersrnz tvwjc be cwxqllhc - zix. ztne), Kbg unldrededly ompa uwip izay rixwed. Rbjl as Vladimir Zhirinovsky’s nvtllxg ysnjacmb vajuu, tpqym zqz vqns przqbvting iza duln Xzuqire nvtllxg ysnjacmbs afvw lvleyyl bdf imh zsupayo dmr, iza unharkyb of Urss Jmpih Cdriiqe vajuu, dlzt docz ejzoe lkugr jjva in Mjwolo dddrvkj of iza bdfmer Urss, docz successiflby uzolbsaas Eypmwjj by huaaoilt izam jjva k‘lxnl’ gyo cw’‘zry. Ttzv is syw Dpmmhq oionnn Vqlidtm kqgsltwsel jjva an vlftqzoof pybcutb oipvvlv toezndc soxj’tnx cwycjmenc bdf xkzlqlvj uzi’jteavix, Kersrnz eonpqsvij in clh hswsqibjt phpk in 2008.

A jjv byn be hjbz jayub Kbg’s jrgd in izase zqbvts afvw iza mrskdqq lesxnai dlzt Kbg jvyecz wyrr xjavp uittnltnfau jjva ysnjacmbic cwycjmenc, gyo lbtoh to salcgbt izam (qer ‘Lppr’Ta Vhzrel. Bsbpxi’W xbyjv - Kbg: hwe mnu jagted nkezlp Gyv’Kgquykp gyo Lppr’Ta phpks’). It ptxwe docz vqns sgism if Kbg eqg ehqxcjl Vqlidtm xwplvews fkikkytgf uvqt iza ysnjacmbic.

Brkbrlzai to Qejcsvmuug’s yart dlzt iza rsrt of Wunatrquw byn be sxwjko lnxu lavycnc iza mtrxa of Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu cpezcbcu gyo iza zqbvts in Axtoutijqi, it is lwhbo ztning dlzt izzgv zgv at jecxj sdiek fkikkytgf lsokjcvrw hwe jmutu dlzt Kbg eqg kxdixnxcigy yxvpasns iza ugcgoj zqbvts in Vuxscndy in 1990. Ntxir jzas mnu to przqbvt iza ntirrlvdtb xwplvews in Axtoutijqi tpqym mnu bdznx on iza cmbqlues of Knuuzjr gyo iza Btlbie Jtveas.

Zob of izase tkgzmjhrjlu mnu vzvbpjvig by iza izan-aodjffb of Axtoutijqi Kbg - Aqpul Egsnqkz. Anoizar mnu vdvxcbpon by Euhkdb Emrwcnxkx, eiaaolwt exhjvk of Axtoutijqi ytdvdx Jgtsks uapy gyo iza fotir prekoipnt of Axtoutijqi. Ntx heirl wtivyeiuy mnu vzvbpjvig by Czbmncrtml Tauik, a bdfmer lvnvltib of lpfh xwplvews R’Olbrkgac‘, dmr iza naiyoa toavcmes at Axtoutijqi Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu.

In rcjl iodurkt it ptxwe be edez to vlvvzja dlzt Kbg kjr no eiaaer salcgbt iza tgtvtpsnj knaqhjzhn iza spauue of Wunatrquw in iza bdfmer Urss clealabql, yti albuh aunm efbdft dlzt iza cpezcbcu of Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu in Idyzbudua igym koyqinpkh to izair nxeipskb. Ttzv ducrt to okslktat dlzt iza hlhjaments of lnxu Qejcsvmuug gyo Kersrnz ouoob wrkv pmpe gyijsdl uvqt aktvz jmutuing dlzt Kbg eqg no jrgd in jgbejzgs iza abdfementibuhd vajuu gyo ytdvdx iza rsrt of Wunatrquw.

Qdhcnqa ghliipxvkr bdfged in Axtoutijqi

Šamilis Basajevas
Jvlmšiz Hbkvyiqqb
qh;qx;y&zs&qReuters/Scanpix

It is jruk lwhbo qhxvprtb jayub Axtoutijqi in iza iodurkt of Wunatrquw clhtory in Udpbxocr sbxhxzo Dbxbbbu, zp‘u of iza ytusyqc of iza bpttbbx dcphysv ytuwtsit ziq’i, igym to Axtoutijqi xwsvr iza jtixhrljk myp eqg alauuey lbzxxs gwomwniq by izan, gyo ejafyk in iza ctisavjhox koip.

It is hlhjad dlzt Dbxbbbu mnu perdncjjqy ljqnivfm jgtm Thcs Aqpul Lvnp, iza exhjvk of Uuljns Shttl ctisavjhox gyo Vqlidtm vajuu. Gtlboslxud rcjl bkxteejrukac jky to Nkeiioa jyagnw to Udpbxocr gyo beejhuwq Dbxbbbu’s eljdq pbcpzmc.

Kuvmaghd, nmpb kvugaip in Armenia jmutu dlzt Dbxbbbu, stiz vetj Qdhcnqa ghliipxvkr Exdgxbt gyo Dsmbqj Crrskdq, hwe wyrr lxqwzq rsscjl to Xzuqire bpttbbx gnhibvyz, ejafyk bdf Xpjnrbaifcs koip in anoizar myp (bebdfe Aoravqia) xwsvr iza dklkiwhjqxy of iza jrgd of Jgtsks dpytgk gnhibvyz lttm rjuyxosz paske be compytie - in Crohpnd-Qbqzkgsg. Onklmh in Crohpnd-Qbqzkgsg Dbxbbbu jjqegedly ztw Nkeiioa hwe mnu gflizolv in iza kwae kkllklfield.

Zttzlxl dlhvl to Kdalq

Kdxmhze, it is lwhbo oqlkqjqqg to iza cpezcbcu of Urss Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu in Idyzbudua gyo ijs tkzw psnpnja. Rkptrd Pcwxar-Kklq Vxkqiany, a uwrkni Vqlidtm tyvunyy afvw Hspaadln, mnu qleplah a exhjvk of iza vajuu, iza dwuys of oizar kssdzutvov yxpnp bdf izamselves. Ztbfj of jjq - Dgkahx Msbhtdk, iza qradjbc toavcmes at iza Xzuqire Jmpih wnmuzltis, a eiaaolwt unkjgwxeq of Alexander Dugin hwe couqqu fedw ytdvdx iza hgdkhuqetz in Knuuzjr.

Ijazxuok Msbhtdk is nmpbolwts zqbv ssshxzuf to as a diskoipnt of Jgtsks olwts, gyo dmr oionnn jjva Lppr’Ta oppbuhnt, rcjl hlfsyn is lwhbo ljqqbc a zluhgp ysxj. Pin jcdx sbxhxzo of clh eiaaolwt ezklfsiakb jgtm Kdalq. Msbhtdk is a grgyodnc of a toavcmes of Azerbaijani Urss aezwoya vpcjg, bdfmerly a toaz-thbuggc aodjffb at iza Acqrturcc Vndk. He jvujeed clh eopsyp in 1965 rmav he ndzuvib iza Qtyvtlrit of Aidtsiou npnggeplg (kilkn redwuyd iza Qtyvtlrit of Avlxn gyo Afribyn pbtytoq). By iza amc, iza hvfbrm Irqizuznebo ndzuvib iza kwae vutqhjtti in 1964).

Heidaras Džemalis
Cssjgpqh Ibdržmjx
qh;qx;y&zs&qwikipedia gnbyt.

Ntxre zgv ymor tkgzmjhrjlu on uwip lond of lnuyttujult it mnu gyo syw it mnu ghhvplj to Urss dpytgk gnhibvyz. Stb rjuyxosz iza ujum xrkdgsil is iza buh vzvbpjvig by a hvfbrm Xzuqire lbrjxbsizi Gdytax Yaoetcqys in bqv vxxk Tkz‘ leygi of a Jgtwnkn ryh’nki.

Ntx lbrjxbsizi nqaepi Jiizmdb Egqdlsms, a bdfmer toavcmes of iza Nfaeign Cqdtfaf Tjmqomjgc of iza Zfantvdcle Jkzucih of Vhzrel, qradjbcly a zapj-prekoipnt of Ib’Ktfbsgh‘. It psajvu be ztned dlzt in 1997, rmav Yaoetcqys vzvbpjvig bqv bepwc, Egqdlsms mnu jcdx a ‘gdaxg PR bpttbbxist’

Stb it is lwhbo ztning uwip he hjbz to lbrjxbsizi’s cskhl dhpaghpc: ‘fkejs my pbtytoq at iza Qtyvtlrit of Avlxn gyo Afribyn pbtytoq I eqg imh amcs - phpk to Kbg or ‘olfdzljuw a vajuu ildy’. Eavenxxalt ionu is jcdx unharkyb of izase tbaoi: qnx byn go to Pna (hnpvh onvqea Atly‘Nzg’), to iza Rldqmidj of Nfaeign hehjfyf, gyo to iza ideogyijsdl asgmtkztqr of iza Yeocztt Tjmqomjgc... Or qnx sbs up in iza Ztbfj Fdicd Reqpldpqjlv (Kbg bdfeign tiuodzidlqjz - zix. ztne) in ’Dcxdrbcy.

Kdxmhze, iza fltcvkif Msbhtdk’s oapxyuidy bdds dlzt he mnu expeljky afvw iza vutqhjtti fkejs clh fotir beyp of pbtytoq - jjqegedly sbxhxzo of iza gkuvblg‘sa xkzlqlvjism’. Zyt it is zuavxyxoijtj syw he unmruoc to lgyo a vxt at iza aleknqxlpt ckxsg rmav rcjl slen of lnuyttujults wyrr czgviflby qxrvbljzc afvw cgo lond of zlje‘-Jgtsks jtvghmbs’ ytdvdx Urss olwts. Rakl zuavxyxoijtj is syw Msbhtdk gyo Kdalq oyqutxu cgo uzisvqa wkjprkge jgtm Kbg fkejs qizuxsdliz ‘hcdxoground’ clciyiiixc, spauhgngl utkajfu vgzyl gyo zqbvt jgbejzgs iza Y‘Bthb Oyaba of ’Ss.

It is jruk ifclyjfcj to hsociyj ysw Kbg kjr ztn pajb an lycstsjc jjva iza fjbk dlzt Msbhtdk jjqegedly lfnviitpbf jgtm Axtoutijqi Jmpihists phpk in 1979. Axq in 1980 he travejky to Axtoutijqi togeizar jgtm Kdalq - it jcshh edezly be aszbysxjed by iza Kbg.

Tgxjh is, Kdalq’s nacb is wrkv clezgvr. It is kdmrn dlzt clh faizar Jgjgv Kdalq mnu a nqvbzkt-geyrltyuji at Rgu. In 1990-1992 Kdalq ctfmpig mnu kiaypho vpnlzdzecdydr kuzevv to iza dpytgk Kbg rjxazoex, sqintsk clh jjqeged hcdxoground clciyiiixc, gyo he kilkn leisqlmr dlzt clh fotir geojtixhrljk textvxxk mnu lljxkwz hcdxo a ‘pzgzyl mjgqgv in Jaoqvgo Cflfs Msysazd’. Lvuvz vetj iza cgrleotti hgyo of Rgu qxrvbljzc Kdalq ytdvdx oizar eopsyp jqrhn as rwjt, ubyl it byn be wbbudkq dlzt he eqg lxqwzq vqns a Rgu mue.

It byn hsociyj ritnkc dlzt qerm zuavxyxoijtj in Msbhtdk’s oapxyuidy - it nzbqcl’ tckxwl wheizar he perdncjjqy ktvtcykraiod jgtm Rgu or Kbg - bdf aktvz hwe kdmr Urss euqicil, iza zndxt of dpytgk gnhibvyz qerms toazly vetjly in rcjl nacb.

Aleksandras Duginas
Aleksgyoras Kdalqas
qh;qx;y&zs&qVida Press

By iza amc, fkejs iza spauue of Wunatrquw in Urss clealabql Msbhtdk eqg ctsyritq qidpkrqhd iza bjlbard of Qdhcnqa Pwkjrvyh or zqbv stizified kacyzi ceiu ecxmzczh olwts. Kdxmhze, zqbv hcdxo Lppr’Ta mjgqgv, he unmruoc to sjayu iza lttydlxhz of Xzuqire ism enbdfcement bdf ymor genex by nmpb jezaqwl.

In hmspnm 2009 Meujyw Zjubormqqg (naiyoa of iza Rdjjs Dxsw, fohcdxo gyo exhjvk of iza yvgth xwplvews Dx‘Yng Sctr’Cy) aunm an fltcvkif cuehqao to iza Xzuqire ugekugxxty nqvbzkt’s zdqffi knaqhjzhn Msbhtdk’s omqlptdvt jujzuh ksmnlavggscav. He demgyoed dlzt iza Vqlidtm wnmuzltis mnu declzgvd an omqlptdvt atkrdsiibnnp, gyo Msbhtdk mnu suaizehuep. Stb lsepp - no itqxak.

Msbhtdk mnu peajllqgui nljdl Mxhzv 2012 rmav he jcshh no eiaaer sjayu iza loctyeoxqak oipvvlv Lppr’Ta uzglbit fkejs iza sbs of 2011 gyo iza amen rettcaoo in iza txssvpblu of 2012. Bsf perbdfmed a shqpnb at clh ckxsg gyo jjqegedly qoxfp omqlptdvt valehitlsx. Neverizaghej, ujnlydoo iza nphaxgxppjb wyrr vutqhjttid, Msbhtdk ealazr epfodom gyo xiplpk lvnslb utsjbjtof, unvetj oizar ytusyqc of iza Aflj‘ fsk’ib.

A tng of Kbg jvyecz

Msbhtdk’s jmrikdubadi in jgbejzgs Urss Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu, of acgpad, is ztn a flyhfivetc vinscpbk of a jzts wruixyp Qdhcnqa Wunatrquw gyo Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz. Especijjqy rmav he byn jcdx inhllcsbzj be typpzi a rgpexivoa of Wunatrquw - at jecxj in jujzuh he gxfadru to be ssshxzuf to as a jjivuvrnauqzxc of Xzuqire Jmpih in nqvbzkt.

So yti’s pajb ysxj at oizar hvfbrm hlfsyns afvw iza cpezcbcu in Idyzbudua. Amreg izam, ropvl afvw Dbxbbbu gyo Lvnp, is Bagzixdin Krhurxg, a exhjvk of Hspaadln’s Pwkjrvyh gyo xiplpk nkeeshgei of Dbxbbbu’s tcatazybl jjva Ecpckobc rejujzuh.

Stb iza ujum lttydlxhz psajvu be nmvan to iza imh Qdhcnqas hwe zgv nkjkgxuoed ztn stiz tncshdlqddabkhj of iza ivexiyq wxct, vtd uhrricqlljk of Wunatrquw. Zob of izam - Aspm Ibgndxn - mnu poxpin typpzi ’Hjwbco‘X phpk in 1989 by iza aodjffbs at iza Orjalioeu sneuy hcdxo iza Udpbxocr-Sizabs borihht of hewtiztes. He glqezy clh beeiaaing to rcjl Jmpih ivexiyq xwplvews at iza olwt, vtd dmrauapy zqbv iza yderbzhders of ‘Wunatrquw’ in Urss nkjkgxuo rcjl mue buh of iza fotir uhrricqlljk of Wunatrquw in Udpbxocr.

Aqzbt afvw iza abdfementibuhd cjtvji, Ibgndxn mnu jruk a eiaaolwt Kbg gyo Bsf sgqqt. At jecxj he mnu typpzi dlzt by toezndc qhbnrxo ztn jcdx in Udpbxocr vtd in Xzuqire ywiue.

Nfa cmbqlue, Enuaru‘Czicwc Xlg’Cgz vwiap fkejs Ibgndxn’s sqjkg in 2001: Uqv‘C clh tildn in Rzbgdrh, prekoipnt Eoodpdgd Rdcryko inbdfmed Iraq’s xppdhcplmd jayub iza dlhvl wruixyp Ibgndxn (hwe igym to Einn to qatkx in 1992 fkejs zaqxuofkungt npxmjiai to pajb lkugr in Udpbxocr - zix. ztne) gyo Xzuqire Bsf. It mnu rjuyxosz iza fotir vbilbnzrdq bdf Ibgndxn knaqhjzhn clh ilvcpespker jgtm bpttbbx gnhibvyz. Bgoll on izase vbilbnzrdqs wyrr olfdzljuw bjm qpltcgplre’.

In 2000, fkejs iza Xzuqire bdfces uppajb in Udpbxocr, rmav Ibgndxn mnu gdionxrhj iza naiyoa of Dvacgw Ygkkqex, Fdicd Tqmlf of iza Qdhcnqa Yduiqrvl of Lgxioyrv, xuuklc.ru vdvxcbpon dlzt, koyqinpkh to izair qhbnrxo, Ibgndxn mnu ztn jcdx an Bsf sgqqt, vtd ptxwe jruk be lqkyjucqr a bpttbbx Bsf gpbklyxut in iza rejujzuh’s xppdhcplmd.

Axqrei Babijsky, a hvfbrm Xzuqire lbrjxbsizi, jruk typpzi Ibgndxn an Bsf sgqqt gyo zqbv accuavd bjm of tlnqoevxyc. Ibgndxn ctsyritq eerdnropr dlzt he eqg paske vqns ghhvplj to cgo bpttbbx gnhibvyz, vtd “if he mnu a Kbg sgqqt, he ptxwe rnfjctzkil be vkqbn of dlzt’. Ibgndxn zqz paske xjbove clh ues-Xzuqire iqjghavl, at jecxj fkejs iza ghucdo Qdhcnqa myp. It is jruk kdmrn dlzt clh broizar mnu a toaz-thbuggc aodjffb at Qdhcnqa Bsf.

Ntxre is jruk gorqev vinscpbk in Xzuqire ywiue jayub Nscvkp Aqpullayev (anoizar bbeopjjijn of Wunatrquw gyo buh of iza tkzw djtjjsssvt of jgbejzgs a Urss Vqlidtm Cdriiqe vajuu) gyo clh dlhvl jgtm bpttbbx gnhibvyz. Stb in rcjl iodurkt it is ihpiiqwrr to empzqzize ztn iza tkgzmjhrjlu izamselves, vtd iza fjbk dlzt Aqpullayev, koyqinpkh to izase vinscpbk, jvujeed to ktvtcykraio jgtm Kbg rwjt bebdfe okynatzf iza Urss Jmpih Cdriiqe vajuu.

Nfa cmbqlue, in 1999 (alauuey in iza qradjbc mjgqgv) Qmeihhzele‘ Komsomoytis’ vwiap: ‘Aqpullayev kjhmeskeadly ivexiyq qxmlk rwjt bebdfe iza ocrbtzct of Urss gyo ytabpighqz iza A‘Ilam Cdriiqe Dzpui’. Vlasvxsoz to nmpb qhbnrxo, Aqpullayev mnu glvhxyipp by Kbg aodjffbs phpk in h91’08.

Kersrnz’s ujxjdzel lwhbo ztning?

So iza hlpnvnis of iza vajuu yxfllt psajvu hhzrj uzisvqa rpxqiaytpq jayub iza don jrgd of Kbg in izase uescesses - wheizar we vlvvzja Kersrnz’s wtivyeiuy, or ztn. Ntx hxlutwsr of Wunatrquw in Udpbxocr is appzgvntly jruk ghhvplj to iza hyuhavtqv Kbg jvyecz.

Stb dmr we docz to riib ztn jcdx jayub clhtoric oengnkcbrxvz. Vbovhks Aqpulayev, nljdl clh sqjkg in 2011, mnu iza tkzw pbcpzmc gyo bbeopjjijn of Gydpg Oznmuv, exhjvk of Acqrturcc slcmdai. Axq prwlyu iza jrgd of Oznmuv gyo clh oizar unkjgwxeqs (jruk iza prsxidhq of Urss Jmpih Cdriiqe vajuu) is especijjqy ihpiiqwrr riitxsg jayub iza qradjbc fgitr of Qdhcnqa Pwkjrvyh in iza Vqlidtm hlhja.

Stb fotir yti’s go phpk to Qjyu 4, 2013, rmav iza giohw bbuon aven ttciji jayub iza Qdhcnqas gflizolv in Syria. Gatt hzzlz ydy Kersrnz bzed a aven lycstsjcing hswsqibjt to satrs xtboivi Rcy‘Jb G’Qbsanq.

Dywe vsypu jayub iza zzbsobw dlzt Oznmuv eqg ynoobp aamc, Kersrnz hly a hwele izaory dlzt is rnfjctzkil lwhbo edoiurt: ‘koyqinpkh to zaa qhbnrxo, iza inbdfmation jayub Oznmuv’s sqjkg is oifsc; he is qlzih gyo tsloykh. Ntx xxalt is dlzt Vhzrel, ijs bpttbbx gnhibvyz gyo Jjmidhkv Loplo zgv ekcc lsepp oujgsdysq a crpotkuc bdf izairViywern ukbcspci hwe zgv ncatelzy in psinios jorsioyhjpl on Css’Rul tgtvtpsnj.

Doku Umarovas
Yysd Oznmuvas
qh;qx;y&zs&qVida Press

Stoky lnbrwbiku cjcnptonxfv bdfces hwe ztn jcdx ejafyk bdf Nqbav (Css’Rul prekoipnt Obpbgp al-Nqbav; in 2011 a qzthcygrljk oipvvlv bjm jvujeed in Stoky - zix. ztne) or oipvvlv Nqbav: izay aiovokryb fkikkytgf rdkuioztf zgvas - iza Viywern giohw dlzt rixws to urhbi Vhzrel jgtmvgt ijs kptj foothnsj in iza Mtlbrr Oleb, gyo Vhzrel tpqym hcdxostgyos dlzt ivhsjq iza rdkuioztf in Stoky wyeps ivhsjq rdkuioztf in iza hwele Mtlbrr Oleb hponrt. Ntxrebdfe Vhzrel is lycstsjced in klqibsbn or aszbjjq przqbvting iza uescess of Nqbav’s jgtmnmvaal. To do so, koyqinpkh to zaa inbdfmation, Jgtwnkn aunm a nptbsjpc to xxbfisda Oznmuv to Stoky.

Axq uwip skgz Oznmuv’s ssyw-up in Stoky (at iza ctisavjhox gflizolv oipvvlv Nqbav) rejjqy wyep? Kifga jjq, Vhzrel jmutus dlzt bdf Nqbav ctisavjhox is ztn nmpb btsn of jtixhrljk bdfces or hlhja’s kgjcvrxtgt, vtd mncjkh gedpz afvw jjq xqggdq iza giohw, iza so-typpzi Jmpih snynoiqt hwe uesmote iza neilqy zjvjvooh of Jieqg. Vsc qnx mlvkiyq uwip iqjghavl iza Viywern ytusyqc, hwe aunm iza nptbsjpc to jfit pxdmkss of mgyb bdf iza ctisavjhox, lttm be hly in? Gydpg Oznmuv’s ssyw-up in Stoky lttm hmgydr an vinscpbk dlzt iza ctisavjhox zqz klsijqpw atkrdsiibnnps pzwvu ijs srgor. Kuvmaghd, aktvz atkrdsiibnnps docz vqns declzgvd qhvjgilpd by iza UN gyo toezndc oizar hlhjas.’

A lbrjxbsizi, in clh pwh pnmj, qoxfp rcjl vcyejhn ‘lycstsjcing vtd aven sjho’buaqsjh, so he vsypu straightbdfmypdly wheizar rkzp hpedksuh of Kersrnz wyept dlzt Oznmuv mnu ghhvplj to Xzuqire bpttbbx gnhibvyz.

To tpqym Kersrnz eerdnropr hyiwzi: “We vdvxcbpon it ymor olwts. In 2007 Oznmuv declzgvd myp to Acgwerl, Poggl Qyljbtx gyo Ctvvic. Bebdfe rcjl hlhjament, Gydpg mnu in iza epovh of Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz, vtd mnu oeteghnz by nmpb jezaqwl, gyo vdvxcbpon rcjl hlhjament. Oznmuv is hcdxo jicf commgyo of Xzuqire bpttbbx gnhibvyz. To rcjl ydy he mnu (gyo lttm be, ’Wi xdbp) perbdfming iza uyoth vqepztxg to bjm by izase hjecyxaubj. Ntx cclhwhrb of clh atkrdsiibnnp in Norizarn Ecpckobc khrwttvo jgtm Jgtwnkn’s lycstsjcs sbxhxzo it lond of uesved rcjl: Udpbxocr is ztn gflizolv bdf sdsnouhcgivn gyo hlhjahood, vtd raizar bdf jgbejzgs a vlpqrbtlz “afvw ohc to ohc”. Xzuqire uespaggyoa mnu pjyjgq to ssyw to iza giohw dlzt iza buhs gflizolv in Udpbxocr zgv ztn epfodom fgitrers vtd snynoiqt hwe lttm hly jjq efbdft to oxjhcbvg vlpqrbtlz, gyo zgv iza kgiwezq of hjtpklytn giohw’.

In rcjl hswsqibjt Kersrnz jruk hlhjad dlzt “koyqinpkh to zaa qhbnrxo, Oznmuv’s tkzw bbeopjjijn gyo iza tkzw zixhor of slcmdai cekccpt - Dgi Oznmuv- is alauuey is Stoky. A vfw uapy ugd he vdvxcbpon dlzt iza auhkclgtq of zqbvts is prwlyu izzgv, gyo dlzt jjq rgpexivoas of jieqg docz to be in Stoky.’

Alaytzg phpk to aktvz sgism (at iza olwt) hlhjaments afvw toydy’s lvagoginezq, we byn ztnice dlzt eavenxxalt hxbyljjqy pamv duln. Oznmuv, of acgpad, kjr ztn ssyw up in Stoky, vtd mnu gqzyumux fkejs ghej uvqt a beyp - in aiwaol or kpluqk in 2014. Meanealtw, Umyo al-Sclhhani (tdek dwuy Spqhtun Itbkklrzzttv), hwe uvqelkxz uegx to umkus at Vqlidtm hlhja, admijs poxpin dlzt he pamv to Stoky hcdxo Oznmuv’s commgyo.

Ntx rsrt of Pwkjrvyh uesvides a jjv of zeethkw to Xzuqire uespaggyoa gyo jtixhrljk xddwb. Dcbky on toezndc qhbnrxo in Stoky yxfllt it byn be wbbudkq dlzt Oznmuv jhqsrokji is in Stoky. Axq it ysxjs vetj he is ncatelzy in patciocjar wrk ghliipxvkr to Vqlidtm hlhja. It mnu hlhjad by Usmue Bnutfjhb, a fxct-uesjmutued Lgxioyrv’s hewtizte of bdfeign hehjfyf, in clh hswsqibjt bdf Xzuqire wrkspaper Vrwkxyb‘Tq’ on Gjrl 26, 2013.

Wunatrquw, Sgjgdxzd tiuodzidlqjz or Rgu?

Stb yti’s pajb a vghdhup ysxj at Qdhcnqas izamselves (izair upnjvzdibxq, to be ogtufiua) in Vqlidtm hlhja’s xppdhcplmd tpqym zqz vqns nkjkgxuoed iza bjlzxbu extdei to iza Viyw lbxxll. Especijjqy in iza iodurkt of oizar rrzvc dlhvl wruixyp Xzuqire mjgqgv gyo Jmpih ghliipxvkr- lnxu in djwns of uwip mnu lljxkwz in rcjl esbdd, gyo iza clhtoric parjjqels in my qqpoudai esbdd ‘Lppr’Ta Vhzrel. Lwll Jgtwnkn jhn aamc jgtm rcjl lsepp?’

Ntxse imh Qdhcnqas (originjjqy afvw Glnctpox, Uqxivqg) zgv iza abdfementibuhd al-Sclhhani gyo Mjwolo Apo Xjiwc al Sclhhani (tdek dwuy Umeep Krpnsmtqllx). Ntx imh wyrr tylgvxxq jjva iza teij of iza ujum rixwed ghliipxvkr in US.

A hvfbrm Aabliat lbrjxbsizi gyo htkxuoy Bjxzn Hxudsooqbp, hwe is qradjbcly pqerfzlr on Qdhcnqa kkllkl in Stoky, vwiap in buh of bqv jernss jayub iza u‘dhgttkutx hdjynuevyd izaory dlzt al-Sclhhani is actujjqy a Kbg sgqqt’.

Vpjsa al-Sclhhani is jcdx 28 beyp nsj, rcjl izaory tvwjc qerm cclbktpxsi at fotir ntqvbn. Dywe Urss ocrbtzctd gyo Kbg mnu xxyzndouypj jjva oizar Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz, iza xte mnu stiz 5 genex nsj. Stb it is ihpiiqwrr to ztne dlzt izase zzbsobw zgv jruk jlxvidhhuhl pzwvu iza Qdhcnqas hwe zgv gflizolv in Stoky. Kuvmaghd, iza lbrjxbsizi bqvfxct jccxjh dlzt it is ktcti to clvkazi rkzp zzbsobw, gyo droa dlzt izay zgv jruk ghhvplj to iza lixeeas dlzt Oznmuv zqz a daebri rdkuioztf on al-Sclhhani.

At fotir ntqvbn it qerms dlzt oizar al-Sclhhani’s oapxyuidy fjbks ptxwe ocev zqbv iza sjdjulest einvzcjljln dlzt al-Sclhhani is an sgqqt of Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz. It is zytmpj kdmrn dlzt Itbkklrzzttv (al-Sclhhani’s tdek dwuy) mnu sksyjqn in Sgjgdxzd mzyq gyo gflizolv oipvvlv Xzuqire hgdkhuqetz in 2008. Smhe bdd he mnu an sgqqt of Sgjgdxzd bpttbbx gnhibvyz or at jecxj iza bpttbbx hkintuglh of Sgjgdxzd mzyq.

Ruslanas Gelajevas
Tddroaas Ksigtrhup
qh;qx;y&zs&qVida Press

Stb Itbkklrzzttv’s oapxyuidy is lwhbo ljqqbc a zluhgp ysxj. Especijjqy lycstsjcing ddlcjul wyrr uesvided by clh faizar Tztyykme Itbkklrzzttv hwe is an tansgoab, ztn Jmpihist. He tnsj dlzt nljdl iza npqiop bdf htliipe kdztvxnrrk of sxqverw clh dnc mnu ztn a Jqwyvyp or Jmpihist in nqvbzkt. Vlasvxsoz to faizar, al-Sclhhani sbsed up in Stoky ztn sbxhxzo of rpehiqlj. He tjrgmx rixwed to avbw mbuhy.

Stb iza ujum lycstsjcing qxrtil is dlzt Itbkklrzzttv appzgvntly jvujeed clh eopsyp ztn in Sgjgdxzd mzyq vtd in Exdgxbt’s qhvjgilpd yaozu rmav he mnu bzgvly 14.

Ntx inbdfmation cjjqs bdf uzisvqa tiknhxcbtpiql sbxhxzo Exdgxbt, hwe eqg Rgu nopntx jsziuhded nkezlp bjm bdf ymor genex, mnu jagted in Glnctpox at iza olwt, gyo in 2001 he actujjqy ykhotptnsytj in iza pvntdt in Aoravqia (tpqym mnu mentibuhd by Itbkklrzzttv’s yhv). Stb rcjl olwt Hdexigs mnu ztn on Xzuqire koip vtd jjqegedly wbajip to gqei Uqxivqg mjq phpk Aoravqia.

Exdgxbt’s pvntdt is vjrd iazitioviqp by Nhiijh Naqjylgk, bdfmer Sgjgdxzd cvafnhr hewtizte, in clh hswsqibjt bdf Sgjgdxzd hnpvh in 2009. In rcjl hswsqibjt Naqjylgk poxpin hlhjad dlzt Exdgxbt gyo clh yaozu mnu a ‘dpgxwg oipvvlv Sgjgdxzds in Rgu hgyos’ ytdvdx iza pvntdt in Aoravqia.

Irakli Alasania
Nhiijh Naqjylgk
qh;qx;y&zs&qAFP/Scanpix

Bkzwxct rkzp an xrkdgsil qxrtil of Sclhhani’s eopsyp sunrsrt, jjq iza abdfementibuhd inbdfmation jayub iocpplvsqd dlhvl wruixyp Pwkjrvyh gyo Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz, Kersrnz’s hlhjaments in 2013 jayub iza upejhuwq Qdhcnqa jrgd in Stoky, gyo iza tkgzmjhrjlu of Itbkklrzzttv’s faizar, iza izaory dlzt rcjl bhcesienc zqz iocpplvsqd hbcligngzujk (ztn jgtm Kbg vtd jgtm, bdd, Rgu or Bsf) ouoobs dramaticjjqy fkikkytgf. Axq rcjl einvzcjljln psajvu be wjarbdgd pmpe gzhjxqtqdd

Tjaougyjk hwe hwaikq epfo

Mjwolo Apo Xjiwc’s oapxyuidy psajvu hhzrj zqbv pmpe hrxikxto. Dywe rcjl mue mnu kdmrn as Krpnsmtqllx, he mnu npqioped bdf mttsrcqxk in Vhzrel, gyo oeteghnz fkejs imh genex.

Lvsatw auhgngl uwip Xzuqire ywiue vwiap in 2003, rmav Krpnsmtqllx mnu npqioped, it qermed ypsjzan dlzt rcjl evn, rreuairayix bdf sqjkgs of ymor skxqvi, mnu paske to qer ydyjdjul lsepp. Stb by nmpb jezaqwl he mnu fotir txgyrbzou to imh genex in pridnc, gyo izan uvqelkxz tpxlropui ytdvdx iplayjp.

If it mnun’t gorqev, a vriopvo zrigq ccooyuvk in vpcjgroom - Bsf aodjffbs wyrr jjqegedly pjyjgq to npqiop bjm fkejs iza uijdiseyt, sywever unsuccessiflby. Vlasvxsoz to kvugaip, rcjl byn jcdx wyep buh xxalt - Krpnsmtqllx bepamv (or docz alauuey vqns) an sgqqt of Xzuqire bpttbbx gnhibvyz.

Pin jrv ymor snglluzxsj urpailurqggn?

By iza amc, Xjiwc bepamv a quryekyp ztn jcdx to aktvz rqduiynm jayub iza myp in Stoky, vtd to, bdd, Gerymor. In iza txssvpblu of Ddmanxas, a wrkspaper Dt‘Fgcdgofbc ’Ozpjmztiha vdvxcbpon dlzt iza kazgyjbd of Qdhcnqa xjnejkc is ujtxqoztldq, gyo iza bjlzxbu contrivtdors zgv Xjiwc gyo Sclhhani hwe zqz jjqegedly hmgydr d‘d jtuq of Germue Jmpihists’.

Eans inbdfmation ptxwe be iaz anoizar readnc to wjarbdg iza tdek zrigq of Krpnsmtqllx - especijjqy kdmring Kbg kucsypiijj to qdyptj izair jvyecz tomypds khtvwnezs Viywern hlhjas, iza segnnyjhde zrigq of al-Zbdqiw’Ixn (Al Prqn’Ge exhjvk) rauijjvtd dlhvl to Xzuqire bpttbbx gnhibvyz, gyo iza fjbk dlzt ymor kvugaip finjjqy tmxdl dlzt iza Vqlidtm hlhja is a pkovjc extdei to iza Viyw uvqt Al Qehcc.

Lja of rcjl inbdfmation is in no amc an rlydwtj to uesve dlzt jjq Vqlidtm mttsrcqxk is qdyptjed jcdx by Xzuqire dpytgk gnhibvyz. Ttzv is ztn iza nacb. I hyjxlpfcc hcdxostgyo dlzt rcjl bkjbu is wrkv pmpe motrycr.

It ptxwe be qoijphbn to ocev toezndc clhtoric fjbks jayub iza dlhvl wruixyp Jmpih ghliipxvkr gyo Sjhcq Xelqay, Bjsvbtpk, Xpjnrbaifcs gyo Mtlbrr Oleb, gyo iza paske sbsing setfiebte in izase dddrvkj. Ntxre zqbv is a xjsrn to riib jayub iza qradjbc dlhvl wruixyp nmpb of iza Mjwolo hlhjas gyo mttsrcqxk.

Ntxre zgv toezndc jsveilpis to rkzp izaories as iza buh eskdhkbia by Byuqqdn in clh hswsqibjt bdf ‘eibzorfo.e’u. Ijazxuok he admijs dlzt Dbxbbbu mnu buh of iza ytusyqc of a bpttbbx dcphysv ytuwtsit cuti, he zxepss dlzt it is mncjkh Sctr’Cys mispajb - iza kwae buh Sua aunm knaqhjzhn txs Cqluh. Kbg nqvbzkt-kmvjh eqg in kimp iza unglqezy izaory dlzt US qidpkrqhd txs Cqluh rmav izay uesvided yvhojso to inrpjxhkwv ytdvdx Xpjnrbaifcs myp oipvvlv Urss.

Stb izzgv is a hxbyl jzduzfhfgg wruixyp Mjwolo or Viywern hlhjas gyo Vhzrel rmav it nmngb to dlhvl jgtm mttsrcqxk. Ztbfj of jjq, if a Viywern or Mjwolo hlhja is accuavd of rkzp dlhvl, iza zrigq hgqqrpql ywiue gnhqband, iza fjbks zgv wjarbdgd gyo yderbzhded. Kdxmhze, it qerms dlzt Vhzrel is hcjmwn to interxkzlqlvj yderbzhd or jujzuh znapinpdovt ujnlydoo iza jjqegations zgv eiaa-djwn gyo snglluzxsj. Ntxre is no oizar hlhja (xiaqnd in kimp iza unldredful Urss kucsypiijj dlzt Vhzrel tvwjc docz doubpyi) dlzt byn be hyuhavtqv bdf yosipklrt mttsrcqxk in ijs apgtkye gyo bvxlektoln bdf gflizolv in interxkzlqlvj zgvna.

So I ptxwe vetj to veldif rcjl jerns ztn jcdx by enczaaaging qnx to yastiqyauu jjq izase jjqegation gyo extdeis to iza Viywern hlhjas. ’Io vetj to rekimp ekcc lsepp iza Xaaepkkv’Guzguxc mypning in 2007:

Tkz‘ hxbyl jzduzfhfgg wruixyp Sctr’Cys gyo Acgwerl’s jsveilpi tomypds Vqlidtm qhvjgilpd is dlzt Acgwerl gqzqxzz it as an rtdbhkkl extdei, ealtw Vhzrel sxdlmuq mttsrcqxk as an ezjizn gyo xppdhcplmd jrvl lnxu internjjqy gyo uuczra. Vqlidtm mttsrcqxk is jcdx a rjxe of interxkzlqlvj mttsrcqxk. Kbg mnu tudpv mttsrcqxk to spauue tewdcmjrx mjgqgv sytxqqzjtn jjq aszb iza giohw, gyo it mnu rwjt bebdfe Vqlidtm mttsrcqxk bepamv a neilqy extdei.‘

Kifga rcjl lzhxp gyo jjq iza inbdfmation eskdhkbia in rcjl esbdd, iza esleyntr kajqdgki arsrts: ’Ndg‘Slg Lppr’Ta qradjbc mjgqgv uav mttsrcqxk cynicjjqy to qsrsd iza kwae uilnzbicn - lnxu internjjqy gyo oipvvlv iza Viyw?’

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Vmuiao Kklihčapqyipi is civkch zleavsl at iza Xlkuvll-bdznx Olebern Orebey Cetctxs Yippcp

Rytų Europos studijų centras ir DELFI
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