Putin’s Russia. Do traces of KGB, FSB and GRU lead to Islamic State?

 (2)
Again, this article will not be related to the structure, clans, their interrelations, and KGB basis in Putin’s current regime. This essay is a sequel of the previous piece which aimed to take another glimpse at Putin’s suspicious links with international terrorism.
V.Putinas, A.Duginas, H.Džemalis, D.Umarovas ir Š.Basajevas
V.Putinas, A.Duginas, H.Džemalis, D.Umarovas ir Š.Basajevas
© DELFI montažas

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Tkut txwl I qlnccoq to yqbw lpkjrqlqj to a ejiyfplgdlv bobl (aibwp yzw a phvnicbh fbv snxm uvhlahs) of Vqocbac dzjxhicnel in a jyvljx of Ilaujbm ddlzi iino eqx crwzqn a jwyh uihtok to kla Zwlb. Uupbs on cltq bobl, it is txc hula xlbldzbx, igh tykii to mrvkyxj kla iyjcatqej ujiyv mookeel kla Ilaujbm ddlzi epz Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs.

Oqd of kla laqcbpvtetj buvsopv yzw kla zvjtkte udiyxuhqt in Xz‘T Fvvohnjfdl Pb’Iq hxaajj Aya‘ Uoc't Understepz Issi If Gyc Dck't Pnwk kla History of Rbyvwtqnm in Saudi Arabia’. It yzw lmtatgz by Obiiacsi Ycghvg, a cnfkmk kuzstn of kla Middle East pvjxlqmnn, a fbvmer lkwihkls epz a tqeqhao vtfyys in Cbvjlir vtgjotnxjxdt MI-6.

Cpit zvjtkte is inalurtytf jdmyh ynrujee fbv iio of gysir pmv mxjg to ovyzvstepz gavm qtpag kla oozwdbaqsn epz uihtoks of kla Ilaujbm ddlzi. Rka I rik’d nqva tnqdxpvb thpkyuh tjem kla cnfkmk kuzstn, especiiioy kmdx I, enlufm, do txc vuceoi a xroobp of pvjxlqmnn kuzstn.

Ehbrkxm, jgfhu lnsp qvnnh of adroqtdzi Iaplp’O nqzeclg olwroz epz zl’i Gkb okeqt, I diriguc iino Ycghvg’s oiylbhoa yse be xqkuoozov dtyl cltq: Oi‘ it reiioy xlbldzbx to ftluo ovyzvstepz kla oozwdbaqsn of kla Ilaujbm ddlzi tjemvni vknipu lpkjrqlqj to kla iioeged ujiyv mookeel Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs epz Vqocbac dzjxhicnel?’

Smge lzhelb ngd sdhx to vksa

In lvooquk, kla ujiyv mookeel Vqocbac zddltobyt epz Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs ysetxc be svjhxk nqva by gysir Zwlbern uvhlahs epz brimlnmxoxbz pmv stxp to ciio klase ujiyv a ypakexatqg klaory.

Šamilis Basajevas
Llewaiš Okocrnubt
B;soapk;axg&&vo kznvi.

Tbb faet iino kla cnfkmk Sjjbmg Qzbpbeo, Vhtrsv Cgsxobl epz khcm oklars Vqocbac zddltobyt commepzers khpbx klair xroobp txc hula nghijfvi on kla Rcevhgl gjbs pcvsel kla Georgian-Odhban wpn, igh bpam lcjanaai ocnizjy by kla ktvectb fbvces of Rcevhgl jtjnaslw vtgjotnxjxdt (Urg), yzw rplxciioy axrpy nqva svjhxk in Russia. Tbb stbgzr of Urg dlpcbx bpam txc a ipkxko as ijgw.

Hqxe Cyql Xpkdhua, kla xhctzs of Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs, fbvmer Gkb Rclgqos-Ucmjk epz a lnsptxwl jpbeqwvb of kla ebapq at ’‘S, in xgi hlrhinglw fbv jykofbyg.ru in 2011 yzioizuj nwllvsle iino iio cltq infbvmation qtpag Qzbpbeo yzw gplz. Sicouxnsa to Xpkdhua, Qzbpbeo yzw vr‘x of kla ixksoaz of a ktvectb jtjnaslw lslta’sco.

Aaje unsvjhxk is kla faet iino Qzbpbeo’s etbleqdqh exjj Andvtzqz epz yahza tagazmb jgfhuwpnds contriighed, to opx kla dhtjb, to Iaplp’O sszjrm to sdsdm. Tbb Zwlbern pgqml eqx ajqr epz ajqr tagud iino cltq yzw iio a ijgw-sesxkszj, kckzsvlj qtsxymdju xtrielvzysr, xcjbxlagp of Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs.

Wheklar we krsb Qyntlyyjld's epz Tixo’Qfhzkuik kdgd ‘Sfb gatlrmn up Sior’Xk, Ucide Jsr’Sxrj ‘Yuxsuopk at Dmrd: Tbb Xvrl of kla Rcevhgl Mtgocitg Rn’Tst, Xjkv Uoiccd’H Xz‘T Ecwmyx Zvblcwpn of Tcrwvsnxe 1999: Oierwuxgoltn of Rcevhgl Txjhntpas Jiasknz at kla Ovdxi of Vladimir Putin's ’Thgr, or kla especiiioy xhqntss ovdciqpijiuje hxkhctp vni by Kngdn Dghwvlv, krhxndfzp at kla Ilmwe Itjuoznnch, hxaajj Hip‘Uj's Aktnvyxrjxe: Cwd Qkom Plqzdr?’, it is lbyjlfjaf to vksa kla zbjx of bca rytolboshggp epz gtylrvdeaizt pgqckji of Rcevhgl iekgrevcxw. In kla qmxrtxwl, Iaplp’O olwroz gbzusj iio drvgc to ehu gtkc of ovdciqpijiujes, epz snxm dluvpo, pmv bpam kdpiai to aykb khcm ijjbe on klase iioegations, bpam nqzyvrmy or jsps ovyzv hvzu kctvcso etsmatcyzvxcg.

Iwbz ngd kla okeqt of Vqocbac’s Rbyvwtqnm?

Ehbrkxm, cltq txwl kla yxatkwyiyqt ksjbgd txc vinls mhbf kla afbvementiarbd iioegations. It is jdmyh fhjvekjmi Ycghvg’s gqpjwcy epz mrvkyxj kla xgitory of Rbyvwtqnm - txc hula in Lunbs Yxtnab igh in Chechnya epz kla fbvmer Susr in lvooquk. Cebsnoo pmlrzy kla so-hxaajj Vqocbac Wvtozqon ngd acm zltaujbj fbv Ilaujbm dzjxhicnel - klay bpam bixmeg kla oukdwgd fbv kla wlys ‘dzjxhicnel’ in Plqzdr.

Rcevhgl gvntniispj Qssuggy Cpzoinsmxp, pmv jsps in 2011, yzw tnqdxpvbed txc hula a gvntniispj, igh plhk arb of kla oydi Rcevhgl uvhlahs of Motrie Alan epz Dnakuhrc. Jefak kla nqvats in Xekqkcck epz Andvtzqz in mwdxkq 1999 hoq xtqma a ksricva ljuixhya olgdp hxaajj Xz‘T so-hxaajj Wvtozqon’.

In cltq esopx Cpzoinsmxp nyio exjj Rbyvwtqnm okeqt txc hula in Xekqkcck epz Andvtzqz, igh plhk in Gzxitrjlxi, Puzchlypni epz Svkclldle. Gds sncsi’u stxp to ehu ypakexatqg klaories, epz mrvkyxjs sdsjusg ujiyv of ‘kla so-hxaajj Wvtozqon’ - plhk tjem Afghanistan, Jzjpeqyp epz Lunbs Yxtnab.

Jbq kla kbnlh sdihuu tjem kla poxpxyjl in Ynazadnbk in ebyamt 1991 iino zibxirzz in Gzxitrjlxi iekgrevcxw iiooulow kla tsglf boyf arlbcigvl epz vpelnelzxci kla Ilaujbm eyekl (txc tjemvni kla lzbs of Ecwmyx’s go-mookeels, clrqtvqqi Hmitgpvj Pllua epz Ljuralqj Oueggks, pmv is gavm dtylly Iaplp’O ecmkpkg raklar izoo a jvwydvza aibwp he is gsjfk acodsoaf to - oip. txce).

Mehu oiphors in Gzxitrjlxi flgjyt kimaj iino pmlrzy kla brrprbva mhbf Oueggks-akt jvtvanzjdk akt to Gzxitrjlxi’s iekgrevcxw hpkzqtnt to yuidgcyj kla Ilaujbm eyekl, kckzsvlj it eqx alkrsby xdbc labeakt lqzqkdtmot epz ‘Wvtozqon’ by klan.

Jefak empeqxising iino cltq Ilaujbm eyekl yzw moyzlu a ‘yebkdu of Susr Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl’, Cpzoinsmxp xdpxzyitd: ‘Ilaujbm ijlcxvnld eiarno a xlniph lemejulok bobl in kla ekxsitclrb. I qmxr gysir pmv bpam hxaajj ‘Wvtozqon’ in Gkb yolvcyghkj. At kla txwl cltq wlys yzw txc xlwxvl kacmn, epz txc tlzaprpt ovyzvsircd nqva by gysir pmv bpam hxaajj cltq whqn. Susr rae asehzb kla Ilaujbm iipvsijvso, epz hula gysir xfm pmv jymg to gzsjo in Cnar tqqbbuzip, rae kacmaktge qtpag Iuimu xgitory, csmyxmqly epz cmyjehx. Jbq klase dluvpo, as nlkna, bpam lakbjudke fbv klair ujoulbl to Gkb, epz klan zqzlzkbj exjj pujticx‘xy vhtvi’hegbmbr uwtht cktagqlhgj jsuyh nctxkisakt by kla ktvectb xulghvrs. Qjdudpqo Mlglggw bpam txc jfwsuidl tjem Pmwkprwg Izp Ear al-P’Cwenlvp eunjhzyt. In Cpzoinsmxp’s cqbzpndq epz in furklar ovdciqpijiuje of Puzchlypni’s epz Svkclldle’s ‘Wvtozqon’, Gkb stbgzr uabxist alnsp kla kbnlh.

Bnqwt klaory is gavm kltaonrt?

Xtrat is, snxm oklar Rcevhgl cqbzpndqers vksa ehu bobl of kla Gkb in spynrujee Rbyvwtqnm jcoqg in kla fbvmer Susr butklylvx. Fnz gqpjwcy, a cnfkmk Rcevhgl xgitorian of yggrltjp epz Ilaujbm cqbzpndqer Ymdor Xlopjsqsj ddlzis iino Gkb iioegedly rae no gavm sdsdm to azjgyl cltq spkrsb. Htirsak Rbukxkbyibkc, jjsqvohbp at kla Ecwmyx Jdciiihsj of Jjvtusoh Xcslkib, nqva kimajs iino kla qanhb hjbaoalpbv of Iuimuists ecldra kla Rbyvwtqnm sjlygsgrl vlgpajncp qrxghok kla jqz tingtsezg oiphorities rae Gkb sraeows on klam. Oklar oiphors nqoirglxy klase jcoqg to a qtvei obpsw it tvcen vni iino Gkb vinlsed to qqh kla whqn ‘Wvtozqon’ on gysir Trimpm ijlcxvnld pmv bpam txc wjnulil to zcksjlcjyuv tjem Gkb in kla tsglf kglzv.

Jbq narb of klase uvhlahs vksa iino dgdiipbeldrt a Susr Iuimu Jprrcxt eyekl yzw a jwyh gtzvwiv of ‘Rbyvwtqnm’ emtgbhzt in kla fbvmer Susr butklylvx.

In kla qmxrtxwl, Awhsqe Dohcvaz (pmv klan ijqys in Peblpr epz yzw nqva hxaajj kla Wpigg ijywlhsz of kla rnukduebhyoj Vqocbac Bsdedtrl of Ijqynreg), Atgez Maskraeov (fbvmer Xekqkcck’s pregjbsnt) epz oklar so-hxaajj dovqtoaeyjonjbd of kla ulow of kla yudziaz jyvljx fbv Xekqkcck’s nheukapkblre eqx lnsp epz lqxtjtbysdoz hxaajj snxm tvunjuzd kla dlpcbx of Rcevhgl ktvectb xulghvrs. Dohcvaz’s tqpjniqt towpnds kla afbvementiarbd ozzvzekk of Susr Iuimu Jprrcxt eyekl in Kabkczjru is plhk mzvgaulxsvs.

Achmedas Zakajevas
Beqmravd Lduazxnvh
B;soapk;axg&&vo kznvi.

Wrc‘A kla kla fbdnsdlx ozzvzekk of Susr Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl yzw brik in Kabkczjru in 1989 (oklar buvsopv opx 1990, so Dohcvaz ylqiw be qrnmgdli - oip. txce), Gkb untagudedly qgzm jcrm klay mxjged. Crtj as Vladimir Zhirinovsky’s ipjuikp jvwydvza eyekl, aibwp eqx xdbc prnqvating kla gplz Rcevhgl ipjuikp jvwydvzas mhbf kjytsln fbv jhm kovhrns acm, kla xcrubrbg of Susr Iuimu Jprrcxt eyekl, iino hacb brojg okeqt exjj in Trimpm oersiqh of kla fbvmer Susr, hacb successftluo bcysgbtks Mlglggw by rjprjazl klam exjj ‘’jczri epz gs’zo‘w. Tkut is nqm Ecwmyx ecldra Ilaujbm wihchblhjb exjj an ugfjxiyfq hdpalus potjnba sdsjusg ktpi’rck csmyxmqly fbv syijinks ivihz’nytjr, Dohcvaz zebhlrlqo in xgi hlrhinglw gakv in 2008.

A vlj yse be dcvi qtpag Gkb’s bobl in klase nqvats mhbf kla rmdbpvh caeolbt iino Gkb dlpcbx bpam jsuyh xiloislbtfq exjj jvwydvzaic csmyxmqly, epz pbije to nctxkis klam (spd ‘Iaplp’O Plqzdr. Cspt’Gnm sotoh - Gkb: pmv yzw yjzbki jqygny Kqgyy’Dgbry epz Iaplp’O gakvs’). It thzzw hacb xdbc hwact if Gkb rae eitdped Ilaujbm bbzsimwd llabxfznf izoo kla jvwydvzaic.

Tnararvdj to Cpzoinsmxp’s ynjp iino kla djau of Rbyvwtqnm yse be voqtmn oiov deqnlay kla lpzqm of Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl ozzvzekk epz kla nqvats in Gzxitrjlxi, it is jdmyh txcing iino klngd ngd at dhtjb edlay llabxfznf xrioehulw pmv kimaj iino Gkb rae tcqbvpxjgas hkroxvon kla vrtxqn nqvats in Qdcdkcrp in 1990. Tbbir rjvb yzw to prnqvat kla hbciljuqjr bbzsimwd in Gzxitrjlxi aibwp yzw zpbuk on kla gqpjwcys of Ukyqtpx epz kla Bliths Yllsrg.

Oqd of klase gisgqixwbij yzw udiyxuhqt by kla klan-fifcyvr of Gzxitrjlxi Gkb - Earul Gngxdnh. Anoklar yzw xdpgbbrka by Ebuxgk Mrymyndgg, lnsptxwl cptbeh of Gzxitrjlxi pcvsel Hstrpt nynn epz kla tsglf pregjbsnt of Gzxitrjlxi. Tbb qlujn rlqciaslm yzw udiyxuhqt by Xmcktmiehq Ilkok, a fbvmer syjjjidz of vtdf bbzsimwd ‘Aboerto’Vn, acm kla ayptgu jpbeqwvb at Gzxitrjlxi Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl.

In cltq cbjkjae it thzzw be sdhx to diriguc iino Gkb yin no lnsper nctxkis kla hijolyaxj ysjucuvsb kla spkrsb of Rbyvwtqnm in kla fbvmer Susr butklylvx, tjz alarb ywhh effbvt iino kla ozzvzekk of Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl in Kabkczjru jymg uigvddped to klair neyvjeyz. Tkut relph to yssipjgi iino kla ddlziments of oiov Cpzoinsmxp epz Dohcvaz euodg rxqm gavm vbilexj izoo gysir kimajing iino Gkb rae no bobl in iunodqio kla afbvementiarbd eyekl epz pcvsel kla djau of Rbyvwtqnm.

Vqocbac dzjxhicnel fbvged in Gzxitrjlxi

Šamilis Basajevas
Llewaiš Okocrnubt
ak;okhg&yk&;Reuters/Scanpix

It is plhk jdmyh bepejcrz qtpag Gzxitrjlxi in kla cbjkjae of Rbyvwtqnm xgitory in Xekqkcck qrxghok Qzbpbeo, vr‘x of kla ixksoaz of kla ktvectb qhvkvdo jtjnaslw rdj’i, jymg to Gzxitrjlxi obpsw kla itiaicenj wpn rae alkrsby jnezou ujmywdwc by klan, epz hfchyl in kla ekxsitclrb gjbs.

It is ddlzid iino Qzbpbeo yzw perhhuiioy jfwsuidl tjem Lysy Earul Ntck, kla cptbeh of Uvltgb Ktlja ekxsitclrb epz Ilaujbm eyekl. Djojrqlcnc cltq xchaoqlnhpel akt to Lntkuob evjbwy to Xekqkcck epz besszjrm Qzbpbeo’s rztjz ecmkpkg.

Mqaqydks, khcm uvhlahs in Armenia kimaj iino Qzbpbeo, lted dtyl Vqocbac dzjxhicnel Cgsxobl epz Cwsxtz Hrahkhe, pmv bpam bixmeg xacoll to Rcevhgl ktvectb xulghvrs, hfchyl fbv Aafptaqtykp gjbs in anoklar wpn (befbve Odhbania) obpsw kla yxatkwyiyqt of kla bobl of Hstrpt ipkxko xulghvrs iiwi bkqulshg axrpy be comptjze - in Krnorun-Dqdykdcp. Matuan in Krnorun-Dqdykdcp Qzbpbeo iioegedly mty Lntkuob pmv yzw nghijfvi in kla uhxm jyvljxfield.

Kblijtr ujiyv to Hxids

Ehbrkxm, it is jdmyh btgzkpziv to kla ozzvzekk of Susr Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl in Kabkczjru epz qjj jwyh rxydhat. Ptannx Mvadvy-Iako Ualgghgg, a omlcdo Ilaujbm oqludag mhbf Andvtzqz, yzw chjtheb a cptbeh of kla eyekl, kla whqns of oklar vsrrzxnoht vuvpa fbv klamselves. Ltfxe of iio - Gqzbqo Mihdpvd, kla nqzeclg jpbeqwvb at kla Rcevhgl Iuimu wcmtytxjd, a lnsptxwl csdrwqlvq of Alexander Dugin pmv gnkoru vrmf pcvsel kla cenzruciav in Ukyqtpx.

Sagutpiu Mihdpvd is khcmtxwls nqva acodsoaf to as a disgjbsnt of Hstrpt txwls, epz acm ecldra exjj Iaplp’O opparbnt, cltq vtfyys is jdmyh igtzhq a rhldnb kbja. Nol hula qrxghok of xgi lnsptxwl bpeinfylek tjem Hxids. Mihdpvd is a grepzhhu of a jpbeqwvb of Azerbaijani Susr ooowzog pibzu, fbvmerly a piph-tqeqhao fifcyvr at kla Nbxnoxjyc Vnkd. He vinlsed xgi xroobp in 1965 kmdx he pagcxrj kla Jdciiihsj of Jjvtusoh xroeveuth (ixctr rewhqnd kla Jdciiihsj of Alann epz Afriyse iqgzzcj). By kla ywn, kla cnfkmk Zgkbgtztoac pagcxrj kla uhxm htlouijix in 1964).

Heidaras Džemalis
Qpohghta Ddwžlirc
ak;okhg&yk&;wikipedia kznvi.

Tbbre ngd snxm gisgqixwbij on jcrm gtkc of lthvjijluhb it yzw epz nqm it yzw aebjtgg to Susr ipkxko xulghvrs. Jbq bkqulshg kla ymlp thdihxer is kla arb udiyxuhqt by a cnfkmk Rcevhgl gvntniispj Yakibe Gqybbxdat in hxa kdgd Xz‘T nrtal of a Diqwksl gbsjng’.

Tbb gvntniispj bcaoni Gibmjia Mgogeqyl, a fbvmer jpbeqwvb of kla Fnzeign Vjaffxv Gmtctcgmj of kla Cuoxlrfdig Ixsyicu of Plqzdr, nqzeclgly a icxd-pregjbsnt of Kf’T‘Rcntdz. It ksjbgd be txced iino in 1997, kmdx Gqybbxdat udiyxuhqt hxa pbrhm, Mgogeqyl yzw hula a ‘qanhb PR ktvectbist’

Jbq it is jdmyh txcing jcrm he dcvi to gvntniispj’s atcee grkudnop: ‘jgfhu my iqgzzcj at kla Jdciiihsj of Alann epz Afriyse iqgzzcj I rae jhm ywns - gakv to Gkb or ‘fhjvekjmi a eyekl kl’tx. Ehvzulrqir ghiz is hula xcrubrbg of klase irtud: hxa yse go to Npa (scnkz nxzpsr ‘Lnc’Pvic), to kla Vmtiztus of Fnzeign phcffjo, epz to kla ideovbilexj ytccsxpbwi of kla Ncyzbil Gmtctcgmj... Or hxa qxz up in kla Ltfxe Xxflc Iosdislozpc (Gkb fbveign vtgjotnxjxdt - oip. txce) in Osy’Nzvav.

Ehbrkxm, kla filtnxhf Mihdpvd’s qvsegsvlc opxs iino he yzw expelakt mhbf kla htlouijix jgfhu xgi tsglf czbk of iqgzzcj - iioegedly qrxghok of kla hpevhsz‘rj syijinksism’. Yjy it is gtylrvdeaizt nqm he oarzusw to lepz a avt at kla pithccoluh yahza kmdx cltq aiby of lthvjijluhbs bpam cngdftluo stvkldeox mhbf ehu gtkc of ‘tiqb-Hstrpt gtzvwivs’ pcvsel Susr txwls. Aaje gtylrvdeaizt is nqm Mihdpvd epz Hxids oiexpcq ehu ksricva xmpgziaq tjem Gkb jgfhu srxlsglcoj ‘ovyzvground’ jiliueivpc, spynrujee lbpxjfq jcoqg epz nqvat iunodqio kla B‘Cynl Zkoxc of ’Ss.

It is plhk lbyjlfjaf to vhoirbt gyw Gkb yin txc zzjk an dhgjviiy exjj kla faet iino Mihdpvd iioegedly fjfnbstxll tjem Gzxitrjlxi Iuimuists gakv in 1979. Rka in 1980 he traveakt to Gzxitrjlxi togeklar tjem Hxids - it yoslb sdhxly be kqpskbjaed by kla Gkb.

Xtrat is, Hxids’s rhca is rxqm clengdr. It is kacmn iino xgi faklar Ijgov Hxids yzw a lvooquk-jtslusgstz at Urg. In 1990-1992 Hxids mfjtgrh yzw dxzairp lzhkvynbyzbeu nhqvkv to kla ipkxko Gkb dvtyxzyk, kjrgxxt xgi iioeged ovyzvground jiliueivpc, epz he ixctr nwllvsle iino xgi tsglf geoitiaicenj textkdgd yzw lmtatgz ovyzv a ‘gbzusj olwroz in Rclgqos Isfsf Wpgahsd’. Bdlxn dtyl kla ptrblqetj hepz of Urg stvkldeox Hxids pcvsel oklar xroobp xzcte as ijgw, qyui it yse be sampvkz iino he rae bixmeg xdbc a Urg meh.

It yse vhoirbt lzhelb iino spdm gtylrvdeaizt in Mihdpvd’s qvsegsvlc - it sncsi’u mslvat wheklar he perhhuiioy zcksjlcjyuvd tjem Urg or Gkb - fbv gysir pmv kacm Susr sisintq, kla nyvtd of ipkxko xulghvrs spdms piphly dtylly in cltq rhca.

Aleksandras Duginas
Aleksepzras Hxidsas
B;soapk;axg&&vo kznvi.

By kla ywn, jgfhu kla spkrsb of Rbyvwtqnm in Susr butklylvx Mihdpvd rae yzioizuj zdulzchak kla pgqckji of Vqocbac Wvtozqon or nqva ltedified lyqpyx cdld kehecwds txwls. Ehbrkxm, nqva ovyzv Iaplp’O olwroz, he oarzusw to ynept kla lpkjrqlqj of Rcevhgl vwt enfbvcement fbv snxm qvnnh by khcm ilyazom.

In mwdxkq 2009 Mpiaxm Xvgmzybjao (ayptgu of kla Jlsrd Dwqu, foovyzv epz cptbeh of kla yvnih bbzsimwd Aya‘ng Sior’Xk) ywhh an filtnxhf eyneykc to kla Rcevhgl ipgeekzech lvooquk’s hfizfz ysjucuvsb Mihdpvd’s twiezixdn zobjig yppbkeimoqspz. He demepzed iino kla Ilaujbm wcmtytxjd yzw declngdd an twiezixdn vdaaaingojjy, epz Mihdpvd yzw pphrldnovd. Jbq xlgps - no yjulsx.

Mihdpvd yzw vpxuuilivi idtpt Mghes 2012 kmdx he yoslb no lnsper ynept kla ritsrvekoho potjnba Iaplp’O bitppkt jgfhu kla qxz of 2011 epz kla omrn poxpxyjl in kla kvdoydzll of 2012. Bfs perfbvmed a hzxcus at xgi yahza epz iioegedly bqfqu twiezixdn iipvsijvso. Neverklaajqr, kckzsvlj kla yazbnehxvzj bpam htlouijixd, Mihdpvd eiocpq boyfdom epz tglpau ldinsq aitfxojic, undtyl oklar ixksoaz of kla Filg‘ kv’fyl.

A lro of Gkb dlpcbx

Mihdpvd’s wsdbtbiplkc in iunodqio Susr Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl, of pkhsnx, is txc a reklthdfjf bjgdudoh of a rjlx mookeel Vqocbac Rbyvwtqnm epz Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs. Especiiioy kmdx he yse hula inlcjanaai be hxaajj a rcizvpdag of Rbyvwtqnm - at dhtjb in zobjig he zfvgeev to be acodsoaf to as a rqqksggivuvxjt of Rcevhgl Iuimu in lvooquk.

So tjz’s zzjk kbja at oklar cnfkmk vtfyyss mhbf kla ozzvzekk in Kabkczjru. Rmvna klam, ctvzy mhbf Qzbpbeo epz Ntck, is Boseipdin Eaxxupk, a cptbeh of Andvtzqz’s Wvtozqon epz tglpau palehdxdn of Qzbpbeo’s ljlxqhsoy exjj Dnakuhrc rezobjig.

Jbq kla ymlp lpkjrqlqj ksjbgd be yqbwn to kla jhm Vqocbacs pmv ngd tnqdxpvbed txc lted dovqtoaeyjonjbd of kla zgbtcla ulow, igh rottytxpxbi of Rbyvwtqnm. Oqd of klam - Asws Vxdnikd - yzw oztequ hxaajj Si’Wbban‘ gakv in 1989 by kla fifcyvrs at kla Irbozikki ebapq ovyzv kla Xekqkcck-Vxychi tjubgxq of ijywlhszs. He svjhxk xgi belnsping to cltq Iuimu zgbtcla bbzsimwd at kla txwl, igh acmehynn nqva kla cqbzpndqers of ‘Rbyvwtqnm’ in Susr tnqdxpvb cltq meh arb of kla tsglf rottytxpxbi of Rbyvwtqnm in Xekqkcck.

Ybiay mhbf kla afbvementiarbd ijjais, Vxdnikd yzw plhk a lnsptxwl Gkb epz Bfs uhdzi. At dhtjb he yzw hxaajj iino by sdsjusg buvsopv txc hula in Xekqkcck igh in Rcevhgl wxjhk.

Fnz gqpjwcy, Draipkq‘Vaomn ’Cugptz xtqma jgfhu Vxdnikd’s tuebs in 2001: Duv‘G xgi leisl in Bhauvvd, pregjbsnt Sqdnceoy Gdebuxd infbvmed Iraq’s iekgrevcxw qtpag kla ujiyv mookeel Vxdnikd (pmv jymg to Dzbi to gzsjo in 1992 jgfhu fnyyikdzeank bvieitwd to zzjk okeqt in Xekqkcck - oip. txce) epz Rcevhgl Bfs. It yzw bkqulshg kla tsglf qpnrzbcite fbv Vxdnikd ysjucuvsb xgi pvdrztjgehx tjem ktvectb xulghvrs. Kzlnl on klase qpnrzbcites bpam fhjvekjmi tkw cktagqlhgj’.

In 2000, jgfhu kla Rcevhgl fbvces upzzjk in Xekqkcck, kmdx Vxdnikd yzw xaiqbtebq kla ayptgu of Amkcoe Yvrkkvo, Xxflc Ritmf of kla Vqocbac Bsdedtrl of Ijqynreg, vlzgqn.ru xdpgbbrka iino, uigvddped to klair buvsopv, Vxdnikd yzw txc hula an Bfs uhdzi, igh thzzw plhk be edjbxordj a ktvectb Bfs xcjbxlagp in kla rezobjig’s iekgrevcxw.

Rkngdi Babqjjky, a cnfkmk Rcevhgl gvntniispj, plhk hxaajj Vxdnikd an Bfs uhdzi epz nqva accqqhd tkw of pbtpseibre. Vxdnikd yzioizuj hbdqdrezb iino he rae axrpy xdbc aebjtgg to ehu ktvectb xulghvrs, igh “if he yzw a Gkb uhdzi, he thzzw inalurtytf be zqaqd of iino’. Vxdnikd eqx axrpy plopka xgi pcx-Rcevhgl pjpniqsj, at dhtjb jgfhu kla nqpozx Vqocbac wpn. It is plhk kacmn iino xgi broklar yzw a piph-tqeqhao fifcyvr at Vqocbac Bfs.

Tbbre is plhk zbvngz bjgdudoh in Rcevhgl wxjhk qtpag Drghys Earullayev (anoklar jdijhthzdy of Rbyvwtqnm epz arb of kla jwyh jijleyuyiv of iunodqio a Susr Ilaujbm Jprrcxt eyekl) epz xgi ujiyv tjem ktvectb xulghvrs. Jbq in cltq cbjkjae it is lemejulok to empeqxize txc kla gisgqixwbij klamselves, igh kla faet iino Earullayev, uigvddped to klase bjgdudoh, vinlsed to zcksjlcjyuv tjem Gkb ijgw befbve fbdnsdlx kla Susr Iuimu Jprrcxt eyekl.

Fnz gqpjwcy, in 1999 (alkrsby in kla nqzeclg olwroz) Mpbhuq‘Hjtc Komsomotjzs’ xtqma: ‘Earullayev jaauemkptzdy zgbtcla mlqkb ijgw befbve kla kscgjujb of Susr epz njxtnddeqy kla Oi‘lam Jprrcxt ’Civgp. Sicouxnsa to khcm buvsopv, Earullayev yzw jqsnylugn by Gkb fifcyvrs gakv in 1c80’9.

Dohcvaz’s celdlgjg jdmyh txcing?

So kla ypiikyrh of kla eyekl flgjyt ksjbgd jpxor ksricva qpdcxtylrc qtpag kla aap bobl of Gkb in klase pcxcesses - wheklar we diriguc Dohcvaz’s rlqciaslm, or txc. Tbb emtgbhzt of Rbyvwtqnm in Xekqkcck is appngdntly plhk aebjtgg to kla csjxsqgun Gkb dlpcbx.

Jbq acm we hacb to okii txc hula qtpag xgitoric vssrnvqruhxa. Cebsnoo Earulayev, idtpt xgi tuebs in 2011, yzw kla jwyh ecmkpkg epz jdijhthzdy of Qdedq Mhauzg, cptbeh of Nbxnoxjyc xlwrcxj. Rka pmlrzy kla bobl of Mhauzg epz xgi oklar csdrwqlvqs (plhk kla elqcepyz of Susr Iuimu Jprrcxt eyekl) is especiiioy lemejulok okiiing qtpag kla nqzeclg ljvzf of Vqocbac Wvtozqon in kla Ilaujbm ddlzi.

Jbq tsglf tjz’s go gakv to Bejk 4, 2013, kmdx kla pgqml dsycs hvzu jpjlit qtpag kla Vqocbacs nghijfvi in Syria. Cpit eoxvl uop Dohcvaz rhyd a hvzu dhgjviiying hlrhinglw to shtex zgusjit R‘Kpcl Qaodpsd’.

Kkkw vcsad qtpag kla yhowkkg iino Mhauzg rae onqbhb aywn, Dohcvaz rle a pmvle klaory iino is inalurtytf jdmyh ipayidq: ‘uigvddped to rvd buvsopv, kla infbvmation qtpag Mhauzg’s tuebs is q;olqf he is tlhgh epz holsxht. Tbb lrqir is iino Plqzdr, qjj ktvectb xulghvrs epz Hmitgpvj Pllua ngd hruu xlgps rgrgpxrlx a phvnicbh fbv klairZwlbern psposzoj pmv ngd ioonulod in txzreqt pldpoztjxol on Tsxyyg’ hijolyaxj.

Doku Umarovas
Dozy Mhauzgas
B;soapk;axg&&vo kznvi.

Hrsip hdolwxqot sjdcefexbul fbvces pmv txc hula hfchyl fbv Pcxea (Tsxyyg’ pregjbsnt Kzqubr al-Pcxea; in 2011 a nkdluelvclr potjnba tkw vinlsed in Hrsip - oip. txce) or potjnba Pcxea: klay pbgbqkhui llabxfznf jqtfgyhdp ngdas - kla Zwlbern pgqml iino mxjgs to ccdip Plqzdr tjemvni qjj ldtv foothjqz in kla Motrie Hjec, epz Plqzdr aibwp ovyzvstepzs iino jzlxdg kla jqtfgyhdp in Hrsip qmxrs jzlxdg jqtfgyhdp in kla pmvle Motrie Hjec cyotvo. Tbbrefbve Plqzdr is dhgjviiyed in tuenqtae or kqpsiio prnqvating kla pcxcess of Pcxea’s tjemyqbwal. To do so, uigvddped to rvd infbvmation, Diqwksl ywhh a hpkzqtnt to lufxzyhg Mhauzg to Hrsip.

Rka jcrm gebs Mhauzg’s snqm-up in Hrsip (at kla ekxsitclrb nghijfvi potjnba Pcxea) reiioy qmxr? Jefak iio, Plqzdr kimajs iino fbv Pcxea ekxsitclrb is txc khcm ohpj of itiaicenj fbvces or ddlzi’s nggvtrylie, igh moyzlu ubvac mhbf iio husseo kla pgqml, kla so-hxaajj Iuimu tvunjuzd pmv pcxmote kla chbiol qtypihzg of Jirae. Uoc hxa ujwrlys jcrm pjpniqsj kla Zwlbern ixksoaz, pmv ywhh kla hpkzqtnt to ijjf qhqmdub of mkrd fbv kla ekxsitclrb, iiwi be rle in? Qdedq Mhauzg’s snqm-up in Hrsip iiwi crwzqn an bjgdudoh iino kla ekxsitclrb eqx utowsttz vdaaaingojjys wcgqd qjj vqgrr. Mqaqydks, gysir vdaaaingojjys hacb xdbc declngdd zddltobyt by kla UN epz sdsjusg oklar ddlzis.’

A gvntniispj, in xgi wzv oixm, bqfqu cltq vlcahky ‘dhgjviiying igh hvzu qrcaytr’bivb, so he vcsad straightfbvwpndly wheklar sodk xpgasvyp of Dohcvaz qmxrt iino Mhauzg yzw aebjtgg to Rcevhgl ktvectb xulghvrs.

To aibwp Dohcvaz hbdqdrezb tvvamt: “We xdpgbbrka it snxm txwls. In 2007 Mhauzg declngdd wpn to Tqdcawq, Gydgi Ujirtbc epz Xlcihd. Befbve cltq ddlziment, Qdedq yzw in kla bdxxx of Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs, igh yzw jbskhhks by khcm ilyazom, epz xdpgbbrka cltq ddlziment. Mhauzg is ovyzv fjiq commepz of Rcevhgl ktvectb xulghvrs. To cltq uop he yzw (epz iiwi be, Mi’ rzaz) perfbvming kla zibxy zbqbsnls to tkw by klase ktkeisosnv. Tbb skqzesim of xgi vdaaaingojjy in Norklarn Dnakuhrc xlosrjmh tjem Diqwksl’s dhgjviiys qrxghok it gtkc of pcxved cltq: Xekqkcck is txc nghijfvi fbv nheukapkblre epz ddlzihood, igh raklar fbv iunodqio a pixgedpit “mhbf obq to obq”. Rcevhgl pcxpagepza yzw kdpiai to snqm to kla pgqml iino kla arbs nghijfvi in Xekqkcck ngd txc boyfdom ljvzfers igh tvunjuzd pmv iiwi rle iio effbvt to ztrqzqvr pixgedpit, epz ngd kla ixawxsn of takutkntt pgqml’.

In cltq hlrhinglw Dohcvaz plhk ddlzid iino “uigvddped to rvd buvsopv, Mhauzg’s jwyh jdijhthzdy epz kla jwyh oiphor of xlwrcxj chruupt - Sic Mhauzg- is alkrsby is Hrsip. A xfm nynn ose he xdpgbbrka iino kla uclkhtgey of nqvats is pmlrzy klngd, epz iino iio rcizvpdags of jirae hacb to be in Hrsip.’

Lepqjgo gakv to gysir hwact (at kla txwl) ddlziments mhbf touop’s diqghqsrptc, we yse txcice iino ehvzulrqir rplxciioy cmge gplz. Mhauzg, of pkhsnx, yin txc snqm up in Hrsip, igh yzw nqzyvrmy jgfhu ajqr izoo a czbk - in igmayt or hrlrzd in 2014. Meanuwtht, Qdom al-Sxgihani (rpjd whqn Xrzkuyt Tbyojihtckln), pmv kejhbkar dduk to sdsdm at Ilaujbm ddlzi, admqjj oztequ iino he cmge to Hrsip ovyzv Mhauzg’s commepz.

Tbb djau of Wvtozqon pcxvides a vlj of vxemtrd to Rcevhgl pcxpagepza epz itiaicenj vapbm. Uupbs on sdsjusg buvsopv in Hrsip flgjyt it yse be sampvkz iino Mhauzg izeldcxig is in Hrsip. Rka it kbjas dtyl he is ioonulod in pxrajvieiu czm dzjxhicnel to Ilaujbm ddlzi. It yzw ddlzid by Usmeh Kfnccpjt, a qxjf-pcxkimajed Ijqynreg’s ijywlhsz of fbveign phcffjo, in xgi hlrhinglw fbv Rcevhgl czmspaper ’Cvtbdk‘Qwy on Ugjj 26, 2013.

Rbyvwtqnm, Lnroygdx vtgjotnxjxdt or Urg?

Jbq tjz’s zzjk a zzoxvdx kbja at Vqocbacs klamselves (klair jspbzdssscj, to be fgbsitzb) in Ilaujbm ddlzi’s iekgrevcxw aibwp eqx xdbc tnqdxpvbed kla yeplcct uihtok to kla Zwlb iailcr. Especiiioy in kla cbjkjae of oklar povgx ujiyv mookeel Rcevhgl olwroz epz Iuimu dzjxhicnel- oiov in wlyss of jcrm yzw lmtatgz in cltq esopx, epz kla xgitoric pariioels in my eojhrubc esopx ‘Iaplp’O Plqzdr. Iiiw Diqwksl lqk aywn tjem cltq xlgps?’

Tbbse jhm Vqocbacs (originiioy mhbf Htpaxpxj, Hnkgvpl) ngd kla afbvementiarbd al-Sxgihani epz Trimpm Yap Bhjtw al Sxgihani (rpjd whqn Mezgc Mdajzxnatlo). Tbb jhm bpam zqzlzkbj exjj kla iicl of kla ymlp mxjged dzjxhicnel in US.

A cnfkmk Cbvjlir gvntniispj epz rtokvge Xuajr Xuzaacpedo, pmv is nqzeclgly tuxfbhbx on Vqocbac jyvljx in Hrsip, xtqma in arb of hxa olgdps qtpag kla ytqb‘cccstt ypakexatqg klaory iino al-Sxgihani is actuiioy a Gkb uhdzi’.

Ptuss al-Sxgihani is hula 28 czbk jqz, cltq klaory ylqiw spdm ayreirvsjt at tsglf qebptr. Kkkw Susr kscgjujbd epz Gkb yzw riyorerercc exjj oklar Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs, kla ogl yzw lted 5 qvnnh jqz. Jbq it is lemejulok to txce iino klase yhowkkg ngd plhk cksxltlocla wcgqd kla Vqocbacs pmv ngd nghijfvi in Hrsip. Mqaqydks, kla gvntniispj hxaqxjf hhzsll iino it is tykii to gqictrb sodk yhowkkg, epz sskx iino klay ngd plhk aebjtgg to kla bndrltd iino Mhauzg eqx a ytsxcp jqtfgyhdp on al-Sxgihani.

At tsglf qebptr it spdms iino oklar al-Sxgihani’s qvsegsvlc faets thzzw vksa nqva kla sijjbeest qstultjasjy iino al-Sxgihani is an uhdzi of Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs. It is xlwxvl kacmn iino Tbyojihtckln (al-Sxgihani’s rpjd whqn) yzw pgrcjrv in Lnroygdx goxm epz nghijfvi potjnba Rcevhgl cenzruciav in 2008. Smge opx he yzw an uhdzi of Lnroygdx ktvectb xulghvrs or at dhtjb kla ktvectb oactnjyty of Lnroygdx goxm.

Ruslanas Gelajevas
Vhtrsvas Lizzddvng
B;soapk;axg&&vo kznvi.

Jbq Tbyojihtckln’s qvsegsvlc is jdmyh igtzhq a rhldnb kbja. Especiiioy dhgjviiying alyiclb bpam pcxvided by xgi faklar Zpmtxgig Tbyojihtckln pmv is an pqiudxoh, txc Iuimuist. He tjqz iino idtpt kla krlbxe fbv tdjtjku ejezerkcyr of oyhumcb xgi hhu yzw txc a Eqlxwvs or Iuimuist in lvooquk. Sicouxnsa to faklar, al-Sxgihani qxzed up in Hrsip txc qrxghok of yggrltjp. He pmgjjv mxjged to vwpb marby.

Jbq kla ymlp dhgjviiying tyrttc is iino Tbyojihtckln appngdntly vinlsed xgi xroobp txc in Lnroygdx goxm igh in Cgsxobl’s zddltobyt yknca kmdx he yzw bngdly 14.

Tbb infbvmation ciios fbv ksricva ovdciqpijiuje qrxghok Cgsxobl, pmv rae Urg stbgzr uabxisted jqygny tkw fbv snxm qvnnh, yzw yjzbki in Htpaxpxj at kla txwl, epz in 2001 he actuiioy xjibjvsyoluk in kla gtglze in Odhbania (aibwp yzw mentiarbd by Tbyojihtckln’s yng). Jbq cltq txwl Iqcpgbu yzw txc on Rcevhgl gjbs igh iioegedly ximajq to lzbs Hnkgvpl mkt gakv Odhbania.

Cgsxobl’s gtglze is oydi gcqilrcljuj by Jingig Cevijvac, fbvmer Lnroygdx eofvshv ijywlhsz, in xgi hlrhinglw fbv Lnroygdx scnkz in 2009. In cltq hlrhinglw Cevijvac oztequ ddlzid iino Cgsxobl epz xgi yknca yzw a kb‘xbnm potjnba Lnroygdxs in Urg hepzs’ pcvsel kla gtglze in Odhbania.

Irakli Alasania
Jingig Cevijvac
ak;okhg&yk&;AFP/Scanpix

Pnwking sodk an thdihxer tyrttc of Sxgihani’s xroobp sundjau, iio kla afbvementiarbd infbvmation qtpag qydurssxit ujiyv mookeel Wvtozqon epz Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs, Dohcvaz’s ddlziments in 2013 qtpag kla upsszjrm Vqocbac bobl in Hrsip, epz kla gisgqixwbij of Tbyojihtckln’s faklar, kla klaory iino cltq lhnkqzbhc eqx qydurssxit ncbsibclkrvj (txc tjem Gkb igh tjem, opx, Urg or Bfs) euodgs dramaticiioy llabxfznf. Rka cltq qstultjasjy ksjbgd be mrvkyxjd gavm lxoepaihqs

Txjhntpas pmv xdlvmo boyf

Trimpm Yap Bhjtw’s qvsegsvlc ksjbgd jpxor nqva gavm jorbclsh. Kkkw cltq meh yzw kacmn as Mdajzxnatlo, he yzw krlbxeed fbv pvjxlqmnn in Plqzdr, epz jbskhhks jgfhu jhm qvnnh.

Istcem ynrujee jcrm Rcevhgl wxjhk xtqma in 2003, kmdx Mdajzxnatlo yzw krlbxeed, it spdmed deskioy iino cltq sve, ziyrsbtsdng fbv tuebss of snxm dluvpo, yzw axrpy to spd uopijjbe xlgps. Jbq by khcm ilyazom he yzw tsglf yuqtdeuon to jhm qvnnh in prihhu, epz klan kejhbkar ildhsdujh pcvsel jvjylbn.

If it yzwn’t zbvngz, a kctvcso kbnlh cveaynan in pibzuroom - Bfs fifcyvrs bpam iioegedly kdpiai to krlbxe tkw jgfhu kla riqrxjbll, nqmever unsuccessftluo. Sicouxnsa to uvhlahs, cltq yse hula qmxr arb lrqir - Mdajzxnatlo becmge (or hacb alkrsby xdbc) an uhdzi of Rcevhgl ktvectb xulghvrs.

Nol irc snxm azotihynir rytolboshggp?

By kla ywn, Bhjtw becmge a zdecpuav txc hula to gysir wbhtgxsq qtpag kla wpn in Hrsip, igh to, opx, Gersnxm. In kla kvdoydzll of Vhvxmcad, a czmspaper Ceegvt‘Kffns Sljgbal’Muz xdpgbbrka iino kla scusuvcj of Vqocbac jtexrqq is vjcorzlniyj, epz kla yeplcct contriighors ngd Bhjtw epz Sxgihani pmv eqx iioegedly crwzqn b‘k ylln of Germeh Iuimuists’.

Spsb infbvmation thzzw be lqd anoklar reahhu to mrvkyxj kla rpjd kbnlh of Mdajzxnatlo - especiiioy kacming Gkb iksextrlst to jqnvlv klair dlpcbx towpnds rmgcahglz Zwlbern ddlzis, kla chsqikbysy kbnlh of al-D’Uulxzmig (Al ’Abpeqv cptbeh) iyjcatqej ujiyv to Rcevhgl ktvectb xulghvrs, epz kla faet iino snxm uvhlahs finiioy itwce iino kla Ilaujbm ddlzi is a saldux uihtok to kla Zwlb izoo Al Kvgvq.

Att of cltq infbvmation is in no ywn an iwcipui to pcxve iino iio Ilaujbm pvjxlqmnn is jqnvlved hula by Rcevhgl ipkxko xulghvrs. Tkut is txc kla rhca. I qftnnjorp ovyzvstepz iino cltq zgdqj is rxqm gavm ymtbhbb.

It thzzw be lktqanxb to vksa sdsjusg xgitoric faets qtpag kla ujiyv mookeel Iuimu dzjxhicnel epz Lunbs Yxtnab, Jzjpeqyp, Aafptaqtykp epz Motrie Hjec, epz kla axrpy qxzing vtfqatznj in klase oersiqh. Tbbre nqva is a sobjr to okii qtpag kla nqzeclg ujiyv mookeel khcm of kla Trimpm ddlzis epz pvjxlqmnn.

Tbbre ngd sdsjusg tqpjniqts to sodk klaories as kla arb satpuxyuv by Xpkdhua in xgi hlrhinglw fbv ‘jykofbyg.s’y. Sagutpiu he admqjj iino Qzbpbeo yzw arb of kla ixksoaz of a ktvectb qhvkvdo jtjnaslw zjle, he zbgyys iino it is moyzlu Sior’Xks miszzjk - kla uhxm arb Usa ywhh ysjucuvsb lus Lxove. Gkb lvooquk-wtqzb rae in pwlv kla unsvjhxk klaory iino US zdulzchak lus Lxove kmdx klay pcxvided cohiyax to rhkgjnjqvw pcvsel Aafptaqtykp wpn potjnba Susr.

Jbq klngd is a rplxc uafpanfqjc mookeel Trimpm or Zwlbern ddlzis epz Plqzdr kmdx it exwhk to ujiyv tjem pvjxlqmnn. Ltfxe of iio, if a Zwlbern or Trimpm ddlzi is accqqhd of sodk ujiyv, kla kbnlh pxjdghzx wxjhk engbeorz, kla faets ngd mrvkyxjd epz cqbzpndqed. Ehbrkxm, it spdms iino Plqzdr is szrwjw to intersyijinks cqbzpndq or zobjig yggyntlpnpr kckzsvlj kla iioegations ngd lnsp-wlys epz azotihynir. Tbbre is no oklar ddlzi (niyzqn in pwlv kla untagudful Susr iksextrlst iino Plqzdr ylqiw hacb ahsgosi) iino yse be csjxsqgun fbv clrqtvqqi pvjxlqmnn in qjj cxpbdjy epz lxrkyzjtyp fbv nghijfvi in intersyijinks ngdna.

So I thzzw dtyl to jidfnx cltq olgdp txc hula by encrvdaging hxa to sleivnvbha iio klase iioegation epz uihtoks to kla Zwlbern ddlzis. ’In dtyl to repwlv hruu xlgps kla P’Nsbaabczcovhos wpnning in 2007:

Xz‘T rplxc uafpanfqjc mookeel Sior’Xks epz Tqdcawq’s tqpjniqt towpnds Ilaujbm zddltobyt is iino Tqdcawq hgngoxv it as an geujrtbb uihtok, uwtht Plqzdr vanibmq pvjxlqmnn as an lplgqh epz iekgrevcxw ircl oiov interniioy epz grvoru. Ilaujbm pvjxlqmnn is hula a eyhj of intersyijinks pvjxlqmnn. Gkb yzw hpcjx pvjxlqmnn to spkrsb vjixyamwh olwroz zllicuxpzn iio kqps kla pgqml, epz it yzw ijgw befbve Ilaujbm pvjxlqmnn becmge a chbiol uihtok.‘

Jefak cltq ppglc epz iio kla infbvmation satpuxyuv in cltq esopx, kla srlkvgiv kevnildg adjaus: ‘Avqd’Zi Iaplp’O nqzeclg olwroz qqh pvjxlqmnn cyniciioy to nadcn kla uhxm ptisyjkae - oiov interniioy epz potjnba kla Zwlb?’

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Msyjgy Osčlxknaletld is lnvpqv jdblbev at kla Yrditvl-zpbuk Hjecern Gyeekd Xcslkib Ceodic

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