The new tax will not apply to vintage cars and when a vehicle is reregistered due to a change of the owner's name.
On Tuesday, the Seimas passed the controversial Law on Motor Vehicle Registration Tax in a vote of 72 to 53 with four abstentions.
Opposition MPs say the new tax will not encourage motorists to buy cars that emit less CO2, drive less or use public transport.
They also criticize the new law for not applying the tax to heavy trucks and farming machinery.
The levy will range from 13.5 to 540 euros on vehicles with CO2 emissions over 130 g/km.
If emissions are between 131 and 140 g/km, it will be 30-540 euros for diesel vehicles, 15-270 euros for gasoline cars, and 13.5-243 euros for LPG-fueled cars. Owners of cars emitting 301 g/km and more will have to pay 540 euros, 270 euros and 243 euros, respectively.
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