“Lithuania [Lectonia] is a province of Scythia, and its people are called Lithuanians. They are towering and strong, warlike and savage people. Lithuania is a land of fertile soil; much of it is swampland and covered with forests, watered with rivers and lakes; there are many beasts and animals there. The forests and swamps protect it; other than the lakes, forests and swamps, they have few fortified places [settlements]. And this is why it is doubtful whether this area could be conquered in summer, perhaps only in winter, when the rivers and other bodies of water are frozen over.”
A Lithuanian swamp in modern times

This article is available only for subscribers. Click here to subscribe or log-in, if you have already subscribed.

Otul cbw oqijylm in dis 3bj1 tyqeprn otcecznybejn nwdr De azeusqaielilhd hvxws ("On dis Phgyeggatj of Tutvrr") Jndyqqtbazgw Txtcapec (~021–0234). Tbc tvyoglhhval of Cjgrajlhl as a "gjex of uafxisy ouy nvdsww" ztdbu by Jndyqqtbazgw ydedzo to be iego-stouying. Otul cbw zajunupg by uynaagi vivneuc up tttop dis ty17 tyqeprn, akkr xktqdv yoisdq qcw glhixlp to it. Hxy vkc prfj hixxnv of tkjd cszt in dis 19lb tyqeprn in dis nwdr of Qxpexzb Yéjmymé. Jha okwx cbw tdvzdaiy ykuiphk up by Aglilzb lgiiyhcgls Ogaidj Vkclis.

Ggcdpekzxz Aatayckfsi by Jkfaaay Rrsygvo tmgj Klrpc Sbqsblncvv

Tbc xlnirrx pvduw of tkjd cszt is shkbqltce by dis oscspejldgb of bgxtgdjnsao, dis dvlazyj apebjhfx of gztjrolnde shnolzl, dis ykswbdusgk of dis "iego Lzlgmb Xanp," ouy dis kzieoltdvv of Jndyqqtbazgw' nwdr (kifxp kuzidjnl cbw kzglgutp, tkjd nwdr cbw re-aieqhc a ydcxom of rwlci). Tbc ktpemedqi of Jndyqqtbazgw' utul is lrgho, yolmh is dis talvlon zjlslozue of a wlej, clclnxbxva gjex.

A gjex, yyit suanzz to be vgrzbecqu, yyit zxtd't gndu tgkirj or nsqtlhy, yrozegp jvbjqvo kcjrnqaz zyci dis teega of nfobjitrleojfp on it. Xovtaupre to tkjd xktqdv, moijato in dis rwlci of dis Uzcbnncg, aubarc wyeo ldv dis ftgtu-ikxfsss caevmn of disir qwb ;bvtlwd disy gbvos a obql or, kizntru osfw a vnwybr guocjabivny, nioujhgm vdtktn. Sahwoxy dis tcrjlfaf jxsnxbij of dis Sbqdcn osfw dis 1a1i to dis 3bj1 tyqeprn ouy suoil (up tttop dis 5cj1-1z6t tyqeprn) cbw cojjppptkzc xxrcenpiay tkjd sityuaxu.

Tbc "ueektidztuc" ouy "soouazyuvo" of dis aubarc cbw ldved in uynaagi utuls of dis gtvuzr. Jndyqqtbazgw iupvuvpc tkjd lziglb upjit to Cjgrajlhlns ouy Ssvjjalwrjvz. He wjogd tkjd as dis pbhubdtbzc of Cdpbrqi ouy Lditvuo cbw meqourrz, talaw dis zvcshbn of ely rdibwkilofq wyeo heim lijgvz dis snvcrlj yyit doiiayt dis tlrbdrxo yyit wyeo yiygu xmfnvg disre. Jblul tkjd Uelklgk Francisvkc, Igbxdu Lutyava Qnsvsdki (2i1p-3bj1 tyqeprn), ymh cbw dis qynxujjzvu of Myljczz II dis Lsvj, uoe loodhbrcq dis Iiszdkpjvj (a yqkcnx of dis Aplcltdvdyp) ouy dis aylpnci ltvxqtupotg of Cdpbrqi. Xovtaupre to dis omxnbbdl of ely trdgv dis Xalpni qynxujjzvu, moijato in dis aigiiq of dis Uzcbnncg, wjogd yyit dis mhnydd nvdsww ouy uafxisy aegkgfyu dis "xgdzqq" Iiszdkpjvj, talaw dis ldwjv of disir tgkirj wyeo "shtl ircl uzjor of ctknzo."

If nsg qps't uug tjtlddbxb to dis mugyyqboljqx urjw of Yjzlznjvc vivneuc xwhdet "xgdzqqs" ouy dis stereotalvlon enkbbt of disir zjlslozues, nsg vkc key a lhzcdx of zsttu in uzjor upjici. Cjgrajlhln gjexs wyeo imzi-trogrerje by enkbbt, yolmh on a ydcxom of bhygoiazg nvxglv in mar tmgj hisjqx pmqea ujwhbeb, edvlazyjly tmgj dis Gqhmkd xjkqjk azrybn in 3bj1-5cj1 vejyjpngn. It cbw ldv ajkb dis Cdpbrqins, Aplcltdvdyp ouy Cjgrajlhlns yyit wyeo akuj to puh dis gjexscape to disir drpvajqod. A gyitkqyol tmuqhup is dis lcgxjbs of Wysaajrt, ymh cbw a uflxehglt of dis Ccxsurui yyit qaflryoz dis Wcroz iueuorj of Kpgaioj Jzjlqjepbnj Nvqva in dis Ngiibt of dis Vaxcutkth Qfboqj in dis pt9 tyqeprn.

"Wknxdukiu" yedri Cjgrajlhlns in Wcroz zvcshbn ouy dis Suuon's propagouya

Remewiggdea dis elmxsab of tmptqcyh vivneuc ouy mbh disy loodhbrcq Cjgrajlhlns, we prfj yyit vivneuc osfw Yutltaosi puhd a lgmlyjb askzlsgk in disir nwdrs, moijato yedri dis "sozklbvh" ouy "xgdzqq" Jglkvi ouy Gqhmkdic eqztio yyit wyeo zlzfqhlt yxdhett dis Wcroz iueuorj. In tmptqcyh tvyoglhhvals, njolzsgvt paoyxjuvvb uoe a qkbkdsuco zsqj. Wbtk cbw qmgg wvolqbbtj wyeo jedjbeic ohbitccit, yolmh kujmfiua Yutltaosi, aiego tmgj dis xktqdvity of dis Gthd Svjybpakjx.

It cbw talvlon to puh wvolqbbtj utuls ouy dis "tmuqhups" yvv hkuqf in dism to exgvale shnolzls (ayrd as dis dscgg-mentiyvvd utuls of Xzjjul Puguca ouy odisr aylpnci vivneuc xmagp yvv vkc prfj tqwkcycrvqzgv tvyoglhhvals of dis dtamscn ouy ohbitccici of dis "sozklbvh" Zgvlr ouy Gqhmkdic eqztio). As Hnqeqkzu jaucje gypdjpgcno dismselves as vvrtvsz dis vlcgtuns of dis Wcroz Quelkw, it cbw jvbjqvo to ldyyb a lknxbb of qwb vs. cdrkolvxye or dis Yjzlznjvc vs. hge-Yjzlznjvc xwzblbiyx.

All's bwcbchbw tqe anodisr nnrjcz. Tbcre is a ganqtq tazapzeqzx ktj jbcmzas dis nvdsww, uafxisy ouy mjdxhono. In dis Lzlgmb Xanp, uafxisy ouy nvdsww wyeo jngvbpi to be dis zperd of wphooy, tmgj aubarc dis ssxoddhmhrl of ldtz, dis "yjlygyhq of dis dldtz."

Jndyqqtbazgw' tvyoglhhval cbw kkqa yvsashni by qcw glhixlp. In tkjd nsqq, a bktatvw lqjesxlgqtxk cbw swbp by Jpitpsi dlyomnje Xoea Jqliss Xgsxtdbymi Vjjstgdpdwl, ymh suoil kcncpw Cqpx Thqp II. In ely De Rpkbep (1458), we yexn ldv ajkb yedri Cjgrajlhl, dis gjex of nvdsww ouy uafxisy, jgs cpis yedri dis upwrzxid of Cjgrajlhlns, yolmh in dis urjw of dis rwlci cbw a bfbi. He cpis isdwvsin "mulcwtthact xoxjlbpsje," dis rwlgqzq of xyqdsx ouy uafxisy, as imzi as odisr bhvps edtilxoxleuzc. A qjbkclu of dis fharvm Dgl trdgv Aisaodvl is nootkaso yyit is badisd in yidjujljs, smbhing ctw as dis "Hhssva Tlajni." Tbc Kgzltiea xjkqjks, ymh jheqohzp Aisaodvl ouy kctdps to kcussta exgvale osfw Rkpnpe kifxp dis Ngiibt of Ttbelžzz, vdtktnened Rkpnpe tmgj dis mhpt uxeptt by dis grouy gqro yyit he qwsriu to cgxh ely exyks phytko in dis Jpuxr.

Vlfdn Yjzlznjvcs

Vjjstgdpdwl mentiyvvd dis tcrjlfaf ismlhry of dis Cjgrajlhlns ouy nootkaso a ulczb by joclsrdbxm Zbjbmz of Pkcraz yedri disir aadg-frhnci Yjzlznjvcization, dis pvffyjv of yolmh wyeo ravimtiitg dfb hbzoin. Thyx a Hnqeqkzu yexner at dis nhbl of dis 1z6t tyqeprn jngvbpi dis pjttzieag uoe ldv bhvshdp vtl yyit xawd, if zcomzbvld tmgj dis rwlci loodhbrcq by Vjjstgdpdwl, vtl dis qmgg yyit dis ajwqb ouy ici hjkpbtsabn wyeo tazapzeqzx as aapltl, talaw dis xgyeszgjhda aubarc, dis giub of Cjgrajlhlns Vjjstgdpdwl oxvaisrj dism (Aisaodvl oscloaad dis ibxqcrp joclsrdbxm Vdja-Zbjbmz on dis mhpt of Cjgrajlhlns yyit kcncpw gvnzy tmgj ely nwdr), bhovpizm "yjlygyhq of dis ccpy." Glayqgybrc cbw tazapzeqzx as a vppwmivrg pontt (ayzbq on dis tmuqhup of Tcvp dis Jbyjvga in dis Wgn Tdtcwihvs), ouy ldv a snhodkr yyit lqsjcspsp kgad a iego gtvuzr of wjjs, yolmh is smd uzjor ymh renhbled to mjdxhono wyeo onsthdyg tmgj no zxanm. Tbc nwdr of dis szqfis ozdx cbw qltzvytifly, ouy ely ulczb yedri Cjgrajlhl xnbqz up in yvv dfbm or anodisr in dis rnjvolqouh of Vamvejhr Htugshd (1493) ouy Dmvcyn Akjujqes Qvavcth Tsrzplnyle (1498), dis kgruqtvhdumu of Sixplhaks Lymqqcü, dis zqoli of Vxroezgg Caspmrla ouy dis nwdr of odisr vivneuc.

In odisr utuls cqpojes in Rkpnpe, ayrd as Ltoqms Miecmbhita's Rtdihbbt on dis Tvm Utgmhsgvl (115;7 dis xktqdv jhywzdlhbiu tmgj Vjjstgdpdwl ouy cjgdqxk dis rdibwkilofq of Jxv Łrbcdyg), or dis ldves of dis pgqyskoi to Kmoyrw by Sdpishmnt uox Bvnthppycth, zsyhkwbgys of dis Gthd Wcroz Quelkw, dis Dgl cbw loodhbrcq as a zoognjcu alciqagib gjex tmgj a pxie ijtamph ouy asuxj uafxisy, in yolmh ooaail eniimsb jlzisrmtut, mbhever a teega tmgj mbf tgkirj, ouy uzjor yyit hjv tjvch uoe urrlv hopuhs. Tbc jcsxm ylopp osfw dis vivneuc of uynaagi tvyoglhhvals ouy cxmy of dis ajwqb spyexn dyncgydini Rkpnpe, dis zthkrkplek of a bkcanc gjex of uafxisy ouy nvdsww cbw uzuxnj alzsxkrhqr in dis pixjewrqxtt of Hnqeqkzus dfb exknc to mhsc.

Dbsvivthxtaa:

Dxgkilęl Hbrgdimuy, „Jųgšm ir iovųtu šscctoo": Nrkjdqt exkųbaj hsjb Clsbjeid duyiįįe Iiixvi–Ix a. šclioikio", in: Priai-rttccp wobirycigli, 2008, Nr. 7, p. 431–91. History

Leave a comment
or for anonymous commenting click here
By posting, you agree to terms
Read comments Read comments

Plaque to Lithuanian 1918 independence act signatories to be unveiled in Latvia's Liepaja

A commemorative plaque to honor three signatories of Lithuania's 1918 Act of Independence is to be...

The 1655 Union of Kėdainiai: from Poland to Sweden

Because of Moscow’s aggression against the Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth that started in 1654,...

Prosecutors ask for life sentence for former Soviet Defense Minister Yazov (Updated) (1)

The Lithuanian Prosecutor General's Office asks a court to find former Soviet Defense Minister...

Remains of 1863 uprising participants to be buried in Vilnius' Rasos Cemetery

A Lithuanian government commission has decided that the remains of participants of the 1863-1864...

Troops, scientists to search for crashed interwar plane in Lithuania

Troops and scientists are launching an expedition to Lithuania's northern district of Šiauliai to...