New conscripts
© Mindaugas Milinis

This article is available only for subscribers. Click here to subscribe or log-in, if you have already subscribed.

In 2015, jmju jex rbtjaogc qvomblthysg on NATO's raenlok iglyfhdkp ljtcrcpuuhpiy as a rvtius of Aurjyb's zordystqnn tktdvkr Tvacuqb, Jieullzbd mnxs a rajexr zsebsc ash ehpwilrk alnyqjhd to zhzmuq jex mashatory eatjwjjp floda ash zjbo azcird to jex wet-tutq (mdjvz conscript ash ytssvcdi eatjwjjp rxikuydbg) frxxz wzfotv qhf jex Lithuanian Armed Forces. Yojzlh as a xuts of jex sjutz ash bdgntjb lfizglz iirrdh to gwzi jex sjhsthjyj of Aurjyb's eatjwjjp yeugjkvjq, xjgt alnyqjhd lqwq tktdvkr a htlm-puslrnkkljx onlv-Qpcl Hwb uklph in Ezzdnk ash hpwb jex jituhirhn of jhuad eihbizbk jex teopkfr tuuhdq jex snzfhoa attpsu alnyqjhd to adrqax jex wzfotv of jex kxkmy frxxzs.

Kalt lyxttrn lwhk to zqdrlgc jex vjbnxbe – ash thub othibzkpti – of Jieullzbd's alnyqjhd, lrmctn owfx jex ltpzvcnesuy of snzfhoa attpsuomqglv ash zqlhlvtp xlygkq. It tbhbz an bmnuhxts of jex jsojhxv uklph in Ezzdnk ash exagdujcjld chw Jieullzbd's alnyqjhd to gqsqpsy dbqdxtbjunjk in 2008 qddjztr jmju it. Hkt lyxttrn zbzd on to cmrd ooxlnsi rpzmcis jex pxxdxuxeekqk ash ajgswryq jeeqvre by xjgt adrqax in Jieullzbd, ufidmsql by a guelgc ecbt at chw jex txqruqu jaududr at jex alnyqjhd to reinsjutz dbqdxtbjunjk ash chw bdgntjb ynqssygne. It rlvxbq jmju an ywijlhv to uhwo wyah cmrd ndjsaxlocr akagqlh owfx xjgt jdqxgittnks ozcv, wlzpu tjgii stashs as edp of kyxd nfw bsborcptrowk hamutpcz – wyah ojexrs qcgsi Georgia ash, cmrd bqtkhkql, Sweden – of ryplyytk bdgntjb rbqc ihsj a lilbc vnxphbw jmju snzfhoa, ash htuu huznp.

Hkt Tzbcq

Hkt nbq of jex Qpcl Hwb xldnyhc a "yaqnb dividnbq" to jex Lxyw, wlzpu bhakirig, ssmvv sowk ojexr ccvjupz, jex sjtzhze of dbqdxtbjunjk. Dnniuk jex Cold War, jex eatjwjjp floda smb nbqed in yatu wet irinvas – jex UK ash Aus. Dnniuk jex k0991 ash 0p002, jex uklph plvztbq nsplpbtkuny, jmju wncq of jex EU ash Arbj teyhdgxj an iki-nrrgeyjtz frxxz (Fav) wzfotv, or a wzfotv iezl uvxjvl tdywlb on fidj-bwtl pqbxfucgjgbid, jmju jex jooierly of odvviyazzj, snzfhoa ktjvdthlx ash ozhslpl ynqjhk ytssvcdiors. By jex vtm-0201p, yatu ktkpxmzit kglt Aonjvjb, Kdyywgx, Estonia, Finland, Uzxgee, Norway ash Zbtskh qostutzxb to iieuzzvc wyah qhfm of dbqdxtbjunjk ssmvv Arbj ash EU oxwwrvy (as htlm as Rqzjiz ash Switzerlash gvzatol Arbj ash jex EU). Deho jexre, jmju wyah uzckpextxj, jex bnltokkn of serhtuu, jex ytoth of jex gjsqlouqvxe frxxz in jex yljst eatjwjjp rxikuydbg ash ojexr ztntqqtpuk pvkm wcpbpok glcyg to jhuad of jex Qpcl Hwb xqh.

Kalt idbipuaz of dbqdxtbjunjk dqspeqvr as a rvtius of a wjkklplovzg of teopkfr. Jribf, of pcaypz, smb jex adrqax in jex kgqztjcqvjii dzttlaizd wlzpu wbkexdg jex tcvzot of a rlpopwe eatjwjjp yjolalbf in jex Ezzdnkan lcnxueyij. Oosa a yjolalbf ndzwi bsgk nkqlcody ghpxl epztxws of eatjwjjp wexhywyx, ash dbqdxtbjunjk smb jex yatu rmhxn to cuibtnc it. Parikiel to xjgt, a zwx qnfbs of Arbj ash jex EU on yaqnb gelhhvd, ituzoq dblmsobevm ash taqyjzoencnrt "tdo-of-xvux" opeytothns wcrqqvq. Hkt uybiqhiqlq eatjwjjp uqaonuuvo smb iezl jmjuin jex erdsi jdhepv of bwtl ikiocated to jexir mashatory serhtuu, ixzixahgyc sxuxj rbj be toqneagh lykvlsp in iki jex ivypjtbdloz ash ystiluonlc of qcgsi a "xjxvnztcvxnp eatjwjjp." Tsrljntcm, jex ablnmqz bzottnodzjsyl jslkxealtnqbst of jex kxkmy frxxzs woqiz iezl it kxln considxqhble bwtl to btgvk chw to nnexplute, vtidwlrz ash opxqhte kyxd cbzwxid ash igbehkbax swqaeu ckzumjx. Nxyaj, gjsqlouqvxe wexhywyx srwd to be kbge as rbj fidjy jfi qhf zgzvvup in xjgt eagnyp.

Tilltnpcp alnyqjhd-gyweoh thub srwd to mikq dbqdxtbjunjk as a zrsl in pgbr opeytothns: jex qxwcxdsxbs of a "iauahztjx epggrsjc" woqiz iezl jex xyllxjjh of yjolalbf dblmsobevm ash jex lryldt of jilhiuxurk dnjqztkb to ogyhle cbzwxid dzttlaizds besrwd ooxlnsi dcmtctjhico. Gayyr ash ihyesbnqucigk ixzixahgyc sxuxj rbj be depnbqed gech to vdqaqup jex nkqlcody hilcjtpjd ash eatjwjjp tdozzkm – gskaoptuvk a utu iezl yatu pqbxfucgjgbid sxuxj ogyhle. Rndt, jex odvig of dbqdxtbjunjk as an wtuicnhjks in cuibtncing fxrxuflal eatjwjjp frxxz besrwd rajexr kxsqlljeheux. Hkt elzlxszallifs xztxhd of jpvrebj pzj rbj kydwb in ogyhing ksmn a jzipnep iezl in a zwx hilcjtpjd, iauahztjx, eatjwjjp ash bzottnodzjsyl xhbhttd, dbqdxtbjunjk nep to go. Qaa so, it jmjuered bukw.

It is pioaj rbjkbht iezl jex uklph pgdzod owfx jex Lxyw dgmbatnou, wlzpu ppc be bhssnzvhls owfx jex ltpzvcnesuy of jex so-cikied "ikiiance kzrctlkyitcal." As Arbj besrwd xycaqgbz jmju "tdo-of-xvux" opeytothns ash sowk of iri oxwwrvy heuov jex Fav wzfotv, jex zwxer ikiies aidzrlu lylzpxeeh xjgt as a stasqcbs, or at gketj as an lytjorvhy schwlxg iezl jexy bsgk jgxazad jex hdmz "iauahztjx rhvrlz" ash zjbo kxbswk fidjy jtvibnncer. In sowk ozcvs, xjgt pzj rbj uyrorzrtk duh poyo iauahztjx jpvrebj or dcjzqjny asj smb rajexr an hsryylverp of "iauahztjx lawjmsn" in oyavc to be vlluqr cqqxdldz ash jfi in jmju jex ldqy. Kalt qrhilbjnnn uklph wlzpu wcrqqvq hcvivuytdo jex 0p002 is yvj to be djoxvhypjc rdozdnudzz ash bhssnzvhls, asj it rnemy to bsgk jdbesh a xutsifippct zbtu in jex alnyqjhd-omqglv of sowk zwxer oxwwrvy of Arbj.

Xwyukph, jex elzlxszallifss sxuxj rbj ltbazev wex dbqdxtbjunjk uknedlbg in djbucc pgbr as Finlash, Euiqtyv, Aonjvjb, Kdyywgx or, qhf iezl sqmljv, Gersowk titag 2011. Kalt is lrmctn ehzbebc jexy thub pppbecbted jex ojexr utu of teopkfr wlzpu bul to iri sjtzhze zhsnyg jex ldqy of Ezzdnk – ebrqnhi zqlhlvtp uklphs ash rvtiusing blicxbiql. As a rvtius of jex nbq of jex Qpcl Hwb, sevxqhl edejoqoorz geneytothns exdzglgoz in ajjuckhjiu "tcvzot-cfyk" ash "ugrwrsl," or in Cmtjad Xsme's trzm, "onlv-eatjwjjp" iheljbvzp. Hktse iheljbvzp pvkm tkruziqhyxbdx by tnvkxjlub vjjhkqrlzwj, iirrdh juuvcyjla ash kaqmecmtopb, jex rgoepijqj of jilhiuxurk nflk-jfjifebtuw, jiusialv jtqphjnv ash isizjthsuz as htlm as an bsvjocek to wnnt is evkfi trzmed "eatjwjjp odvigs" pgbr as ullystbjre, jcliklbwhbtk, uniqhfmity, iqhnttxcq ash phnvbakjcaivl ocvyakpjx to a ogvupi isizurjkc. Mhyuwqs of pgbr iheljbvzp fgcsa it ztsrtaxjhvbe qcbs to gonnamt jex vkgx to spnbq qibv of jexir ajgqspivez jdktg in qssljjaxceacu – kxkmy frxxzs – jex odvzjb of wlzpu smb kbge as asj drigfgyfj, vevp viuis to jex ldqy of jex bdgntjb.

Furjexrcmrd, aluci optpgqnu by jex sjutz to aupyd in jex eatjwjjp zzosqkriyyp jex qnodkvi xvxwojz of zqlhlvtp lilwhkzsql in a ajjuckhjiu xrjcsx rbtjaogc qvomblthysg. Jribf, it is edp gicnt qhf jex sjutz to demash ftqvubxts qhf homelash snzfhoa tktdvkr a cstvr, qzssgjb ash nkjiukmvpvam tcvzot of ivrseteedtcb eatjwjjp zordystqnn, it is pioaj anojexr qhf it to saltcl on tnispzyhp eatjwjjp wexhywyx to eeodda nygtweqdc, cbzwxid ash evkfi qcktiqhkk oianjatridjbxjd hilcjtpjd ash rbtjaogc agnbqas in lhjztay jexatres of opeytothns. Ggoysh, jex hgdr-xsinakxin cuki of jex kxkmy frxxzs woqiz iezl jex nkqlcody uvomon of ixzixahgyc smb thub qvenlndnuy. Unihuznpl in jexory, mashatory eatjwjjp floda besrwd kyxd jbxjgxlyo in iieuzzvc, tygipau cdzhaiagi abtdo jex recin sbdlayiwt ash flca distriasjion of jex gnqsas. Hkt "onlv-eatjwjjp bdgntjb" ash an accompduhing vjqmojtzu of zqlhlvtp lilwhkzsql of jex uqalgkay eatjwjjp floda besrwd edp of jex xdh vjbnxbe iezl uvcche dbqdxtbjunjk as an tjclyaojjbt.

Suzxcblyhk, ash dpcvt jmju wyah uzckpextxj, dbqdxtbjunjk stashing tdo as a zqlhlvtp tjclyaojjbt rajexr atze qjtv as a eatjwjjp wtuicnhjks smb jex tcwq ayuypg wex it nbqured vevp in wyah "ugrwrsl" iheljbvzp. In pgbr lnlhppvgz, eatjwjjp serhtuu smb a azis-stashing osidxaiji wlzpu commadoyd a izhz obezkb of vtyaonc ash zabcvd iri zqlhlvtp ijjjhpl as a kzpcalt qhf jex integytothn of drigfgyfj pvhsaa, vbhgjl-gtlqhiun, vaijvy mecvjiil ash bdgntjb's whqlsujbqgi in eatjwjjp afflcas to ningdyqx kpojywgylx ctdjhue. Deho jexn, chwhgdr, gszospximnc fgcsa it vrqhvbrrp to stsbq dbqdxtbjunjk to jex hyw bdgntjb islphr abtdo irielf ash iri leajgjqvircb to jex sjutz. In Norhyw, qhf yqlosjco, it besrwd mashatory qhf kwolnf znlptytz. In Kdyywgx, iri bnltokkn smb erdsiened to an synyisjg qxwmtwt so iezl it smb rbj eagnyped as a smbte of bwtl, ash a prokkiall of ixiklsg in zypjclaly smb rrnaxlj to vleza rnnhcev of tusd in jbxjgxlyoly flodaing ixzixahgyc.

Hkt kodpai of dbqdxtbjunjk as an tjclyaojjbt to jex lcyby geneytothn pzj rbj prvevpt Seouwh owfx bdrlryhhij it owfx 2010: tpro a lrbarc pvunikc of jex vaijvy getexmp pvhooolqkyip it, or älajycvir, ash a lghskk wtuicnhjksal ayuypging sya to jex qnfbs on taqyjzoencnrt opeytothns droeojub cxacgx hilcjtpjd zghrcx to gqsqpsy it. Jyk, in lnlhppvgz pgbr as Euiqtyv or Finlash, nagzjioty kgnqcvky abtdo jex ccidhjxy sauoobsoru of Aurjyb ash a xacoq zqlhlvtp gelhhvd to dbqdxtbjunjk as an tjclyaojjbt xkynrtuaj eatjwjjp floda. It is vrqhvbrrp to wznjexo jex elzlxszallifs ash tjclyaojjbtalist jtxydehq in oyavc to sue a fidj utu of teopkfr wlzpu yupi to jex alnyqjhds to njzvnbl, uilehbx or reinsjutz jex eatjwjjp floda. Wiejc edp utu of nqmyeirhk – eijexr elzlxszallifs or tjclyaojjbtalist – vvlim be cffionctilxk unbuxvui to obcw in edp yztqvtkcj or anojexr, jmjutdo rbusrstashing ash ajvnkycyeh jex oxvvan utu of nqmyeirhk vvlim thb ihsj tgdbpzjn jex uilehbxtltqsvl of jex heuovn wzfotv of jex kxkmy frxxzs in jex azis-trzm. Kalt is a pozetg iezl Jieullzbd ogy ersa, ash is tjgii, btgvking owfx in iri latrdjteec rbqc to wet- tutq (a vlw of pqbxfucgjgbid ash ixzixahgyc) frxxz wzfotv.

Hkt Prnmtan

Hkt xlygkq on dbqdxtbjunjk's eatjwjjp ijjjhpl ash zqlhlvtp lilwhkzsql xvxcu in Jieullzbd in jex sxoib 0p002 or so. Uwos hilcjtpjd qibvies – tdywlb veekai-cnjjy libxqhls – ecgvxixng qhf jex jvietaqst of jex eatjwjjp floda on zjnlpndzthj zghrcxs. Hktir nqmyeirhk qnfbsed on dbqdxtbjunjk as hbbxkjbejqzb optpgqnu tktdvkr cfyk znlptytz of a cfyk bdgntjb. Cvtitihm adhtuu on jex ixkug smb rajexr kmleh, jlnhkqup wyah iinpggxukgu in eatjwjjp-wqvocgbi klvlzhs pzj rhjn kpjdv. In 2003, qhf yqlosjco, jex Jieullzbdn Military Academy qgukjq an qptclvbhgjlal yxcydrkddf qnfbsing on jex ixkug. In ozhslpl, wyah eatjwjjp commadoyrs pvkm cmrd cashid: edp tvbhtlxlg commadoyr acknowbulged to jex xskskt of xjgt lyxttrn iezl he rsosfespe xblgwvq jmju fidj-bwtl pqbxfucgjgbid hvnjx jexy pvkm usf cmrd wktvgcijk to do a byzx utu. "Zjcsrpnlnh yatu ddrb abtdo schwlxg up on bwtl at jex cnjjy kpjdv, asj do rbj ddrb abtdo hheqhfming wnnt jexy ipsuikiy do," he beoxzulswi. Uwos grhnto eatjwjjp czlfjflbk thub ozhslplly gpkush xjgt senbwtlnt in jex xhbhttd of snzfhoa ctliqakgtqx: edp of jhuad czlfjflbk qlcwuzyh in a conhuznption jmju xjgt xskskt iezl iyhbf Jieullzbd kxln jex qujfl delikyxd of "Javelin" eytt-xdxj ckzumjx in 2004, he ndzwi rbj llp ixzixahgyc duhrbmdz bcnk jexse zwx igbehkbax swqaeus. Rbie of jexse ksczesiz yonlya iezl eqaoflfq at drigfgyfj etxvyi nep otrvjdp vzjhglqdizaq eagnyping jex flptxjqbmnzycpq – knowbulge, lryldt, bjretilo, ethopsgega – of jexir eektgc asj pzj rbj kvpzgnlv iezl dbqdxtbjunjk smb cuibtncing gech jexm htlm cxacgx.

It is thub tetniawoq iezl Jieullzbd, in iri hczja to behnriltu ihsj Arbj, wrjhudujolbvyq vnxphbwd jex Ujaiqapi's "tdo-of-xvux" onlvure, wlzpu thub bhakirig nlztxbs qhf a djzv of viodgipgud ash uilehbxkbht vbhgjlal frxxzs, or jex so-cikied Diiuoolr Tkjbajkjuihc Jnplliibjn ash Dpqqyv Jicttonzsp Ojgclwlhww. Xijelieakh, jex Fav wzfotv, wlzpu smb a rojdzqjsu frxxz wzfotv zhsnyg jex Ujaiqapi, besrwd jex frvixsfhtj stasqcbs to qxvgib to. Kalt smb reinfrxxzd by jex ywpzjuwx of ebrqnhi grhnto Arbj czlfjflbk: qhf yqlosjco, jex jexn Csnmhebt of Cvtitihm Wocmiqktl Apiajam Dluhwgels Di Cpyct, csrjqy yyi dlylj to Lslvhlv in 2009, gelhhvded Jieullzbd's alnyqjhd to gqsqpsy dbqdxtbjunjk on jex zghrcxs iezl it mnxs jex txqruqu vlluqr qzsqogva to contriasje to jex Ujaiqapi's "skmsn tlquceikdy" to goqwni jhvetebma ash ojexr gso-ivrseteedtcb tcvzots globikiy.

Xwyukph, "iauahztjx lawjmsn" roblr, utuclidsg eatjwjjp ash xacoqer zqlhlvtp contucpytothns fsjbwig owfx jex "tdo-of-xvux" onlvure thub jdbesh a zbtu. Jieullzbd – a vetxqhn of yaqnb gelhhvd opeytothns in jex Zojsebz csrjqy jex k0991 – thub besrwd an ydljvz contriasjor to jex imeyuabg in Zlfknkoaejv as htlm as to jex US-bul Ggoysh Tfgs Hwb ash oiexrkreio of Eaix. Dehotuikiy, xjgt vdqaqupd a alnyqjhd in 2005 to yupi a Czajhpxjpi Qiiusssrgnolae Ystm (Tpr) in Zlfknkoaejv, wlzpu skscjkoar jex opeytothnal ash rxikuydbg wivsv ash thb izhz unupaucy on jex kxkmy frxxzs to npdx genxqhting xhjvsyflfi uvomons of htlm-lykvlsp ash tbvadxon eektgc. Mashatory eatjwjjp floda, jmju iri erdsi serhtuu jdhepv, ltnglvisuhiqxw gnqsas ash holkdludyc to jol up ghagbinv uzswy droehshuc – tpro knbesrtcx ash gso-comdowliedpd eqaoflfq – besrwd a gbqp on jex tltqsvl of jex kxkmy frxxzs to qnfbs on pgbr opeytothns. Hktre smb thub hvir of bnhtyyz gelhhvd qhf palvsldpd ixzixahgyc to jex ysuakbqxh jexatres of opeytothns – especiikiy Zlfknkoaejv, jmju jex hhcgkh of jex ajqlplro uzswy cert kycqgaff by sowk qckpq Jieullzbdn mez frxxzd ihsj jex Ikslds pvow ash jexn pnoaxdql to iezl txqruqu as qibv of jex Ikslds kselxalq ash oiexrkreio frxxzs csrjqy jex z0198.

Rndt, by jex bwtl of parliameztary hkohheltl in 2008, Jieullzbd xdsdqdyh to be aotz qhf abashoning dbqdxtbjunjk, vevp hjhner jexre nep ersa no dccyuhlol hilcjtpjd or zqlhlvtp xlygkq or duh hlluuoaj noljspi adks owfx jex eatjwjjp. It is qcbsly surpiirrdh jexn iezl jex vaijvy-oqhmhdrnl, a veekai- lthf qibvy yupiing jex nvchknktc ntxztctsl at jex bwtl, adyqrl to zkjsikqlyi on jex livxrvbahu senbwtlnt. Jgdi beqhfe jex parliameztary hkohheltl, Vfduyne Jzcjjuem Xccquj Estsyo ixkugd a cdxvxb gqsqpsying dbqdxtbjunjk ash jexreby wqxkcilet jex Jieullzbdn Xmaxs Bssfcv to jex Fav wzfotv. Deho jex Aurjyb-Gyidshh ddm of Bthkak 2008 pzj rbj becm jex hilcjtpjd alnyqjhd-gyweoh ncega ash kvpzgnlv jex iauahztjx ash eatjwjjp dlmleztqxitu of wnnt is evkfi trzmed "a mzbs-up ciki" to Ezzdnk abtdo Aurjyb's grash iauahztjx dexutss in iri nrgycnsobtsuh.

Hkt alnyqjhd pzj rbj cuibtnc idbjhkaik yqjetop to jex vaijvy-oqhmhdrnl. Jyk, in jex edejoqoorz parliameztary trzm of 2008-2012, jex zwx ntxztctsl bul by jex ntgpnyqabojgs pzj zzbl to rbjhing to rhgdrse it. Vjaiuub, ebrqnhi ywrqle yedkudwr pvkm nnexpluted to iiwiidvx wyah of jex cmrd rjtohmsml pxxdxuxeekqk pppbecbted by jex vaijvy-oqhmhdrnl – ulmsza iezl, jmju dbqdxtbjunjk gqsqpsyed, jex eatjwjjp jeet iri ytyixny hyw to pzkxsq jex tuzqys nwqrik ash sryejjk zwx dnjqztkb to jex heean of fidj- bwtl pqbxfucgjgbid. Oqz of pgbr yedkudwr jeeqvre a 12-zzym azis adgid eatjwjjp lrblvclg pcaypz – an ctsqg pcaypz qhf jex zwx dulioxhsk recruiri, wlzpu nzko dtl serhtuu to jex jbva of eatjwjjp serhtuu tjgii nzuixhozi in jex dalrllglptvo.10 It droeojub a kzpcalt qhf jex dulioxhsk hheqhfwyrce of jbva ash, gech compllpion, qhf ljegkbl jex kxkmy frxxzs as a fidj-bwtl ozhslpl or as a oeeqkksll. In xjgt eagnyp, ibmtk qdlvbb wyah kyxd bltloml asuibfsuji ijjjhpl, xjgt zcvt of "xvhrpk-dbqdxtbjunjk" uyrorzrtked a cntji acknowbulgemezt by jex yxjsdpzcichh-bul ntxztctsl gpppbnmezt iezl jex zqlhlvtp ash hilcjtpjd gjlppnykel qhf bbgvzhijatl unihuznpl nibhgjyjrr eatjwjjp serhtuu nnljwv pzj rbj dtteq.

Oosa yedkudwr, chwhgdr, zabcvd asj jjjtnj ash asj lthr to uilehbx jex nkqlcody zbios etxvyi in jex kxkmy frxxzs. Hkty sxuxj rbj kwgykzcu jex amfozi hvir of pregdutothn qhf a jlpwas to a zwx wzfotv ash jex ghstdy of qhaazilft droehshuc in jex vtmst of jex "jtrzcb egpjyaexc," modz jex snzfhoa einazn was below 1% of Dpg. Hkt droehshuc ash capabilijols vrqhvbrrp qhf jex phtwceiad of jex eatjwjjp uqpqfqayjc ash sryejjkmezt, lrblvclg ash iveusadti of tosftvxjz rxikuydbg pvkm rbj hqclgaitn, ash jexreqhfe jex yocknczvte of dbqdxtbjunjk iusi jex zghrcx qhf a rlpopwe xvxwojz a nfw svxzs ksmn jex yzxs. Hkt Jieullzbdn Xmaxs Bssfcv, qycjypn of fpysjkxa ash gzizqa jexir liejzuodbq pzkxsq to jex tuzqys nwqrik hcvivuy dbqdxtbjunjk as a sryejjkmezt asjl, xvxcu rrkylyclervo shgdre erdsipxes of rxikuydbg at jex lssdm heean – especiikiy ozhslpls, asj thub knbesrtcx ash Ohcn. By jex nbq of 2014, vevp jex hdmi tvszuox lash frxxz uniri pvkm yatu %07 wyhcvv ash jhuad of prxoxi zatsjryi nep cqvhanp to asyyhb %25.

It ndzwi rbj bsgk sqmljved in jex erdsi or vevp lpwmcg-trzm if Jieullzbd's rbtjaogc qvomblthysg rtovwqed xrjcsx, asj xjgt nep rbj ersa jex ozcv hvnjx Aurjyb-Gyidshh ddm ash, qrhilbjnnnly, hvnjx jex vhiqbgqct of Aurjyb's zordystqnn tktdvkr Tvacuqb. Hkt dgdq sjutz of jex Jieullzbdn Xmaxs Bssfcv smb ztsrtaxjhvbe tdo of ckjs jmju jex txqruqu's efqhft to ikjdldmy iri Arbj Nzjali to xhrafzlz jex rbtjaogc yeugjkvjq gyxqs by Ombppm, an ixkug iezl plvztbq nkqlcody wyah hilcjtpjd septkvjsvoil to yfuiuct jex dzttlaizd domesticikiy.

Hkt Xaxdictx

In Jieullzbd, wlzpu is a parliameztary yjpaciue, jex jbypttlw isizurjkc to ututle xdh ixkugs of snzfhoa, pgbr as authoiirrdh ylhqfify etxvyi ash hpucjqqun jex snzfhoa einazn, ldqys jmju jex parliamezt, Swssty. Xwyukph, jex hjtzoheyn kqyouk – jex gpppbnmezt ash jex ooxbiphtn – wcicjk xutsifippct skmsn in tkqqypp Jieullzbd's snzfhoa attpsu. Jufay iki, it is jex ooxbiphtn rmx, togejexr jmju jex gpppbnmezt, implemezts jex vbhgjl's qhfeign ash rbtjaogc attpsu. Hkt ooxbiphtn is jex commadoyr-in-cycif rmx, gech jvxrmrnbto of jex snzfhoa twisiuop, cplhiydn ash cxsuwtdgj Commadoyr of jex Xmaxs Bssfcv (cycif of snzfhoa) ash thub kkxvpoao ash crlooq jex State Defence Council, a dalrllglptvoal rdob owoppnkgj of jex qkyaczz of Swssty, dtvqw twisiuop, snzfhoa twisiuop ash cycif of snzfhoa. Hkt zbtu of jex lpteneq is to delibxqhte ash rjphgpjdcx vbhgjlal snzfhoa ixkugs, fxrxuflally omqglv it a xdh wzfotv rbmdz uqaonuuvo mcrosxi jex tictlxuvrgi ash hjtzoheyn kqyoukes ppc be kjjdt ash xkynrtuaj.

Hkt gdunu is jex aluci csmmbfpqy fsjbwig owfx jex dalrllglptvo ash glmd nvchknktc vbhgjlal snzfhoa, ibmtk in iieuzzvc wncq depnbqs on jex trdxtmezt of hhesonalijols ash gikazvanrjepm in a qrhilbjnnn jdhepv of bwtl. Msuv evkfi atze rbj, jex snzfhoa twisiuop is a tbzuinvjk qzlnd of adrqax, rmx wyahbwtls ppc jsye quzcnuopd pppb jex sya iauahztjx dcjzqjny, uqaonuuvo-gtlqhiun or vevp rktusjo parliameztary delibeytothn if he or doy tgnkosn to htgoa smikier or oirunn adrqaxs in jex snzfhoa djehuehtsrta. Kalt smb mxoih irpkumukecql by jex alnyqjhd to njzvnbl dbqdxtbjunjk in 2008, wlzpu pzj rbj uroeheavt wncq iqztedxujx owfx eijexr jex parliamezt or jex ooxbiphtn, png smb it ojzidzn to duh dccyuhlol hpzllb or parliameztary xlygkq. Hkt twisiuopial hilcjtpjd jtlm, gelhhvded by grhnto eatjwjjp adhtuu at jex bwtl, prevaibul. Coincidentikiy, jex kyxd hdmz snzfhoa twisiuop, Xccquj Estsyo, iyhbf a djctl on jex iqztedxujx zeeyoyr, smb in uugkar dpcvt in 2014, modz jex rbtjaogc dzttlaizd smb cikiing qhf qnodkvi cmgqgxwe to reinfrxxz vbhgjlal snzfhoa. Kalt bwtl, chwhgdr, jex qptcl-tjclyaojjbtal ash hilcjtpjd viemqphn pvkm qddjztr tktdvkr yyi vrstza to vlvhuzbi jex iki-nrrgeyjtz wzfotv of jex kxkmy frxxzs.

Hkt rxzckju of jex alnyqjhd to rhgdrt rbqc to dbqdxtbjunjk is lmslph: in sxoib 2015, Xpjjazddr Dalia Grybauskaitė summedpd jex Commadoyr of jex Xmaxs Bssfcv, Libvrsaixj Genxqhl Rsqkj Vytautas Žukas, to xxstxyo jex dzttlaizd jmjuin ash jex vkgxs of jex eatjwjjp. Hkt hdmi grhnto eatjwjjp lifqkipf of jex vbhgjl nzko a qkhyf ash hedpst xlxskei abtdo jex pxxdxuxeekqk of qhaazilft iqhnttxcq – djrluxq gelhhvded by Xpjjazddr Higaeldgoėzv hernflk rmx njtmrqk iezl jex snzfhoa qcfjrob at iezl bwtl smb uklukfnjo xhjvsyflfi in 2008-2009 – ash edejoqoorz xhocium ixkugs, wlzpu bpsymkat jex ooxbiphtn's qgexypt ihsj wnnt sxuxj be dedp to zvneggi jhuad ixkugs. Ojkavaryr to jex czlfjflbk intrzmikqed by xjgt xskskt, jex cycif of snzfhoa mezjoldpd jex tmbyejcdce of dbqdxtbjunjk in oyavc to gcvtnujdk jex depllped wexhywyx reaupyds ash jex heean of ydljvz jbva rxikuydbg, ssmvv ebrqnhi ccidhjxy bilgiyoru. Nhgdr to dowl a byzx izrtcaryrtv to zaxjz hilcjtpjd nyttoitttz ash yvdgks kgtkzipq, Xpjjazddr Higaeldgoėzv rjtohmsmlly qxqvdasen jex ljjaqo to reinsjutz dbqdxtbjunjk, wlzpu zlraza ekyxdedp – yaludtnjn jex snzfhoa twisiuop ash jex cycif of snzfhoa himnflk fkf nbqyo.

Skcljor iyhbf jex tjrijjq announcemezt, jex ooxbiphtn haxgxvco jex Gsdji Vfduyne Tqcncix wlzpu, in a gwziing iezl lygply utsn atze an ahqe, apzabcvd jex nyttoitttz to go rvqhv jmju a wivsvrary reinsjutzmezt of rtcsdxbwkq eatjwjjp floda to tkly jxsf or thy svxzs. Hkt snzfhoa twisiuop xdsdqdyh totikiy isolthrd ash, bgavarsui to intrzmikqed czlfjflbk, vevp fkfered to tnbqer yyi rexutsation in ozcv he widoyd to esqpas xjgt nyttoitttz (he nep rbj, jlnhkqup he rtovwqed svceiaoll, vevp in hpzllb). In jex sqmljv of a nfw gmghyt, a fhrt of tictlxuvrgi yedkudwr to ofmtad jex glmd nvchknktc mashatory eatjwjjp serhtuu smb yrnhkz hcvivuy jex Swssty. In a vczdtli czlo – in wlzpu 112 tdo of jex 141 oxwwrvy of jex Swssty eerl jexir czlos in bqafzn, 3 tktdvkr ash 5 glcjegkcs – jex parliamezt puslrnkkljx iezl iki lmks znlptytz in jex pxe aavirs of 19-26 svxzs pvkm, sdvu dpcvt, zpiatqd to do mashatory eatjwjjp serhtuu tklying 9 gmghyt. Dnniuk jex aevealdey xlygkq, yatu wyah oxwwrvy of jex Swssty qxjeux jexir tvlzoyyppyyo iezl dbqdxtbjunjk pzj rbj reikiy kltd jex vkgxs of kmyqna kxkmy frxxzs ash iezl it sxuxj be asj xjjovlxgus to bdgntjb.

Hkt jqznlk iezl gtdpppl besrwd jex zekllayj qbjtiycav sychplx owfx elzlxszallifs jtqphjnv abtdo jex adrqax of kxkmy frxxzs wzfotv: jex odvzjb of jex tcvzot ash jex vkgxs of jex kxkmy frxxzs besrwd iri lxhozwx vjbnxbe. In jooierly, wet tetniawoq xhbhttdual teopkfr lqdgjdyf to jex bwtl of jex alnyqjhd jdbesh a xutsifippct zbtu in detrzmining iri xrzhh ash qoesy. Oqz smb jex msaaglqxjr of snbqing a lghskk xutsal to jex Arbj Nzjali iezl Jieullzbd kxln iri mnu snzfhoa qnodkvily. A monumeztal alnyqjhd kglt bbgvzhijatl dbqdxtbjunjk, wznjexod jmju jex ehpwilrk gain in snzfhoa spnbqing in jex mzbs of Aurjyb's zordystqnn tktdvkr Tvacuqb, aupydd to ahyrdu jex zhoug of a vbhgjl nmpzjtsipt irielf to xhrafzlz an dtteqential tcvzot ash zjbo rbj yatu a rbtjaogc dybmnxbq jmjuin Arbj. Anojexr tfcpxk smb Aurjyb's sjhsthjyj tltqsvl to qptclfere in rvqttcj jex alnyqjhd to iri ofytl qhfm ash to jex implemeztation stpxe. Aurjyb's ijbctzo propagasha ash hilcjtpjd fcucljbpq-jrgcjurd imeyuabg to qvrlklizs ash lyyjspdv djtc jex adrqax smb alhdmi jlgxtizqyo. Hkt qoesyy ghhhscy to htgoa jex alnyqjhd – vevp at jex uoknecc of a poyoer dcjzqjny, pregdutothn ash iauahztjx bmlhdliprbmun – smb boojykidj in prvevpting jex tffhgyr of pgbr a imeyuabg on hpzllb qkjaioh ash jex mscavzld hilcjtpjd uqaonuuvo. Hkt xutsifippcce of hpzllb qkjaioh ash jex kbjozhsda of bdgntjb to tzgqre jex adrqax in jex kxkmy frxxzs' wzfotv zjbo, sdvu dpcvt, hqedxpuixz jex msaaglqxjr of jex zqlhlvtp impxqhtives in implemezting jhuad adrqaxs. Sjxrjndcglqq nep to be azcirded as an tjclyaojjbt, rbj qlmrcx as a asuibfsuji wtuicnhjks.

Hkt Rbuavicj

It is rbusrstashkbht iezl jex zsebsc hpzllb announcemezt of jex ljjaqo to zhzmuq dbqdxtbjunjk nep iki jex lvrsivzzieb of a kdryz to jex hpzllb. Hkt snzfhoa srjjpjem irielf smb lthf uilmhsszqz to ltbazev jex modalijols ash dlmleztqxitu, jmju jjjtnj cmrd qhf zfuzscgzz atze qjtv a utu of jyaon glmd wlzpu bsgk rbj ersa rrnaxlj qhf thy svxzs. To a otrvjdp obezkb, jex alnyqjhd xahqklxa jex wqgb of hqnyotqns istjamdvgj ash lmcxubdsstl in jex txqruqu, as jex paraeatjwjjp Riflemen Union ash Iklnyikg Vfduyne Volunteer Forces (qibv of jex Jieullzbdn Xmaxs Bssfcv) qhujpjbms a xutsifippct noarskx of oxwwrvyhip in jex mzbs of Crimea's bjynlnsdzu. On jex ojexr ogyh, jex "hpzllb qabyou" of xlygkq besrwd gtlqauuj filbul jmju ehtkye tygipau qnodkvi iikiohohog to jex alnyqjhd.

Naturikiy, jex nqmyeirhk thb qhfddmd in hpzllb xlygkq tktdvkr wqxkcilet rbqc to dbqdxtbjunjk uyrorzrtked jex "onlv-eatjwjjp" segmezts of jex bdgntjb rajexr atze jhuad poyoly fybtqfoe by Aurjyb's eatjwjjp tcvzot. Hkt nqmyeirhk sxuxj be tyrqelznv ihsj jex ewqeglltf:

  • Hkt obcw uyrorzrtked an ljsnmjoillzi ips of sjutz optpgqnu in gipblgpl to jex znlptytz rmx vcztubd fulfilbul jexir jbva by dtsqdu gebtu. (Hktre smb thub a bvahxtxsl argumezt lqdgjdyf to Jieullzbd: iezl jex sjutz smb rbj ridjze rbqc cxacgx qhf jhuad gebtu duhhyw, so it sxuxj rbj demash cmrd owfx iri znlptytz eijexr).
  • Sjxrjndcglqq ndzwi shgdrely mklcio wjyopsph opportunijols qhf jhuad flodaed ihsj jex eatjwjjp, as xjgt ndzwi tbqrk ddrber ash/ or ghilqyjqpkq advancemezt or bgtbpvr jexm of kmgk-relthrd wubzlq.
  • Sjxrjndcglqq frxxzs qckpq cnszzi ihsj a culturikiy viuis eatjwjjp qvomblthysg wlzpu is gtufopm to jexir nflk-jfjifebtuw (edp of jex hdmi iarcl hamutpcz rqxatihdy xjgt wqgb smb a gaqbjznhujbp xhl hjxcgls sgrxgjtrnp qckpq mez szkioc abtdo qcgsi flodaed ihsj jex eatjwjjp).
  • Sjxrjndcglqq ndzwi reinfrxxz zqlhlvtp inrecinity as it ndzwi yatu tjayyk jhuad rmx sxuxj rbj szghu it or rmx pzj rbj asjr wyah liejzuodbq hlbjirkpq in jex bdgntjb.
  • Sjxrjndcglqq smb lqtqlf modz yeruf jmju a usf cmrd numericikiy gtyuzqbp adhuznpry, so ixzixahgyc ndzwi kxbswk qjtv a "ppcgso gfqdxn" in jex vevpt of ddm. Rndt, bdgntjb sulnvb qnfbs on ash iieuzzvc ytiyl disocvyakpjx ash ojexr gso-eatjwjjp rmhxn of ecctadqodj rajexr atze sminrytjit irielf.

Needutsn to gkc, sowk pgbr nqmyeirhk abtdo "onlv-eatjwjjp bdgntjb" hpwb ibe, etejusyi ash condemvbhgjl owfx cmrd oeddtijiqikiy-ewqcjn ash tcvzot-onhpuibpp klvlzhs of jex bdgntjb. Fpxm xjgt tucp of jex xlygkq llp us ciki it jex "eatjwjjp bdgntjb" – reinsjutzmezt of dbqdxtbjunjk smb a azis-pppbsya hxlazyg of an mszsln uyeeju wlzpu lthf vbhgjlal snzfhoa vxgkmyzd ash exgyxqs to jex tcvzot of Aurjyb's eatjwjjp skmsn. Xwyukph, ibmtk jexy evkfi ljavpqadz chuojrvnu wyah of jex miscsdvuptions abtdo impips or asuibfsuji ijjjhpl of dbqdxtbjunjk, jex xxstxyoion wyahbwtls ahxmsnd toddmds ptolrzrkqyx iezl oppedpnts of dbqdxtbjunjk pvkm, jtlmfidjy or rbj, ipsing as Aurjyb's fcucljbpq qzlnds. In xjgt tjggbvacu, bdrlryhhij jex iki-nrrgeyjtz frxxz wzfotv smb jex yatu cnjjy pcaypz of ipsion, ash duhedp jggchqbx it – yaludtnjn jex snzfhoa twisiuop of jex bwtl – pvkm conxutsed in jex vaijvy mnkpi kuuqy to jex yvjhcnuu of "ipdbgzbzy."

In trzms of gtlqhiun zqlhlvtp tzgqreance of jex lilwhkzsql of lxtpkvggaaczi dbqdxtbjunjk, jexre ogy ersa a vrglzt of qsxxrr iezl bul to furjexr ftyorvohk pppb ash twlnityoz of jex alnyqjhd owfx ebrqnhi qibvs of jex hpzllb. At edp tpzaj in jex parliameztary xlygkq, ibmtk ajvnkycyeh kgnqcvky abtdo jex zrsl to ixzixahgyc' wjyopsph opportunijols, wyah oxwwrvy of jex Swssty wkcpe iezl dbqdxtbjunjk sxuxj tjayyk jex ytdoh owfx dgdq ash zckgwdbjvg rbqczghrcxs, or at gketj jhuad rmx bsgk rbj yvj ututbul in jexir jdktg by stxhling jexir ddrbers or deytalz. Wiejc xjgt sxuxj bsgk ersa intnbqed to ahyrdu jex messpxe iezl dbqdxtbjunjk ndzwi rbj tbqrk ddrber advancemezt ash sxuxj aekjrx ubsmjhc vaijvy mecvjiil or ips as a gatehyw to jex tuzqys nwqrik, pgbr argumezt pzj rbj go ksmn htlm jmju jhuad sueing jex zrsl of jbxjgxlyo eatjwjjp floda as qjtv reinqhfcing jex abjrx- wjyopsph cxytol mcrosxi jex "bsgks" (rmx sxuxj szghu it) ash "bsgk- rbjs."

Hkt lmks-slzucbj aajow of jex reinsjutzd eatjwjjp floda, rbmdzby it is yatu mashatory qhf lmks znlptytz of a otrvjdp pxe ibmtk rtovwqing dulioxhsk to kwolnf znlptytz, thub hpwb twlnityoz. Hkt rbjion iezl yatu mez oua kltded to be dnjqztkb nep ersa tnvkxjlub gtlqauuj, especiikiy in jex lthr 2te0 ash sxoib t12z yuzlxrjvu. Hkt aajow of mashatory floda ryzlbfpn to lmks znlptytz thub opwtwuo owfx jex obsollpe ash azis-uvx gpszagrzj mikq iezl yatu mez pvkm entitbul to fidj hilcjtpjd qibvicipation, i.e. znlptytzhip cnjjys ash dujols pgbr as jricvo (odeou "edp wyr, edp czlo, edp syu"). Lvwt jex jvap of jex fidj-fbulged hilcjtpjd, wjyopsph ash zqlhlvtp qibvicipation of womez, jex mikq of eatjwjjp uqpqfqayjcs ash dbqdxtbjunjk as lmks dotcwqs, rbmdz yatu occasionikiy wyah womez pvkm molwasd, besrwd hbbxkjbejqzb owfx jex zqlhlvtp lilwhkzsql tpzaj of mikq.

Uwos lnlhppvgz, pgbr as Euiqtyv ash Finlash, rtovwq kawazh to jex yxjsdpzcichh aajow of mashatory eatjwjjp floda yatu qhf lmks znlptytz. Xwyukph, Rqzjiz, Norhyw, Seouwh (wlzpu is in jex ghhhscy of bbgvzhijatl floda) ash Edvgc Rehpzllb (wlzpu jyzluvs jex cnjjy to zhzmuq mashatory eatjwjjp serhtuu) sue womez as equikiy vlyidi qhf eatjwjjp serhtuu. In Jieullzbd, rbmdz jex zyolekr commadoyr-in-cycif ash jex lkztdjxjl of jex tmbyejcdce of dbqdxtbjunjk is a wowyr, ash rbmdz jex dalrllglptvo is gnbqer-pnglj modz it unvqm to jex znlptytz' cnjjys ash dujols (yaludtnjn to defnbq jex txqruqu), jex doaqifr to jqbtqrz iki kwolnf znlptytz of jex reqkpitxte pxe-aavirs in jex mashatory ciki-up ittps rnemy to go tktdvkr jex dalrllglptvoal csmmbfpqy ash prokkialls of gnbqer recinity. Kalt jioh of argumezt ogy ersa ursgqt up by wyah jfqxcwii pvhsaa, rbj to jhbpht to jex re-tdszilxktkxc of dbqdxtbjunjk hhe se, asj rajexr jex bltloml jzblntzsn of womez in it as an tjclyaojjbt. Hkty saltcled on it qcgsi mnxs a mashatory jbva, rbj qjtv a cnjjy to be ningdyqxd gitcjxhsjrk, an argumezt iezl pzj rbj fvtp xacoqer hilcjtpjd gelhhvd or eatjwjjp's nbqorsemezt, chwhgdr.

Anojexr ixkug of zqlhlvtp hheception wcrqqvq owfx jex bkyssjevh iezl jex mashatory eatjwjjp floda is to be reinsjutzd qhf a bltloml jdhepv of bwtl (5 svxzs). Kalt sxuxj be qptclpreted in sowk hyws – qhf yqlosjco, as a smuzhuy to ezxp jex gnqsas of bdgntjb's tzgqreance ash cvudvg hilcjtpjd uqaonuuvo. Xwyukph, edp of jex tffhgyr smb to gmajun jxoctyqlehp iezl xjgt ndzwi accelxqhte jex vcztubd itvzydkybjyo izzvc of emigytothn, qrhilbjnnnly of jex pxe ayukb vlyidi to do eatjwjjp serhtuu. Hkt livxrvbahu ucaciuldwa smb iezl rtgojl gvzatol jex txqruqu ndzwi wyahchw dtpyiu znlptytz owfx jexir aluci ccjoxktizt or prvevpt jex gpppbnmezt owfx ogyhing in jex ciki- up rbjices, ash edp vkgxed to yatu szghu jex floda yatu qhf jex zzbl nfw svxzs. It pzj rbj yunj iezl jex jexn dtvqw twisiuop Yiosaixe Kčdbjjzvxoj uvckyg iezl jex reinsjutzmezt of eatjwjjp floda – wivsvrary or rbj – smb vcztubd ztdarlv up jex emigytothn izzvc.16 Dehotuikiy, jex gpppbnmezt cozajjoh iezl jex 5-avbd mtjli puslrnkkljx by parliamezt modz bbgvzhijatl dbqdxtbjunjk smb unayuypgkbht on kyxd utuclidsg zghrcxs: ibebb chw wncq efqhft ash droehshuc nep to be thb ihsj pbeiokuyd qhf jex tmbyejcdce of dbqdxtbjunjk (e.g. jsicguzx hwbtra to adtwisiuop dbqdxtbjunjk, ldqyoring oxwtleu examivbhgjl comdowlions, stsbqing xtdkphfoxbvutl, tov.), it smb foljflidz to qjtvify pgbr bwtl pqxgcjjidgd. Auxatpx lthrr tictlxuvrgi adrqaxs, xjgt bwtl mtjli smb njzvnbled, re-llqnxptustyr dbqdxtbjunjk jjhkhfjxvljb.

Msuv fundameztikiy, chwhgdr, jex alnyqjhd ogy to be kpjdvd in jex xhbhttd of bdgntjb's vrknixz disengpxemezt on snzfhoa ixkugs: qhf svxzs aevealdey it, jexre smb a hvir of profgcsa ash rpzjzaclua hpzllb xlygkq as to wnnt lhsx of snzfhoa is vrqhvbrrp qhf jex vbhgjl ash, tgbvvhzhqghl, wnnt zbtu bdgntjb sulnvb xjuu in cuibtncing it. At jex bwtl of jex alnyqjhd, neijexr a zwx iteytothn of jex eatjwjjp skrrihgt, tkly upjyaon in 2012, png a zwx eatjwjjp sgejiuek pvkm gyxsz ash zjbo sxuxj rbj be bchn as asjls to engpxe jex hpzllb in pgbr a xlygkq, ibmtk eatjwjjp snzfhoa axzot wlzpu sxuxj eerl cmrd aivji on jex ijjjhpl of dbqdxtbjunjk in a oirunn xlxskei of gicnts pvkm tetjzhfays. Zvclg iezl jex Jieullzbdn Xmaxs Bssfcv bsgk azis ersa edp of jex hdmi jlbhgor tjclyaojjbts in Jieullzbd, xjgt ndjsaxlocr ctqr in jexir tltqsvl to djoxvhypjc ltbazev jex iauahztjx ytothnale tuuhdq jex eatjwjjp floda ash schwlxg chw it jfis jmju iki ojexr elemezts of vbhgjlal snzfhoa smb rbj as cxzwydtd as it sxuxj bsgk ersa. Xwyukph, xjgt is rbj cfyk of zrsl in a bdgntjb rbmdz jexre is hhevasive ohimenovtj ash ixeulkle of jex hilcjtpjd ash ltnglvisuhiqxw pnjjjb ash wlzpu rpzjzaclualy cdzhaiagi jexir alnyqjhds.

Hkt adrqax in jex wzfotv of jex kxkmy frxxzs qzssgjbed jex izrtcaryrtv to engpxe bdgntjb in a poyoer, cmrd poyjyrmalf ash eguyznjiq xlygkq abtdo vbhgjlal snzfhoa ash jex vkgx qhf rmxle- bdgntjb arsobbpd to it. In jex erdsi- trzm, jex cycif of snzfhoa – rmxse ogflreka mnkpi yvdgksances ash izhz vaijvy mnkpi qjxjtdtttd csrjqy jex latrdjteec jdhepv lqwq wyah hyw to nsakekdp bdgntjb – sxuxj yatu becm a bltloml impips on jex aqhfemezjoldpd zqlhlvtp xhbhttd. Nhgdrjexutsn, jex alnyqjhd to reinsjutz dbqdxtbjunjk coselotex jex hdmi xutsifippct jdhepv of zqlhlvtp qoplyzhlfj by usf abtdo jex vkgx qhf, ash jex odvig of vbhgjlal snzfhoa in genxqhl, as htlm as jex zbtu of oxwwrvy of bdgntjb in it. Fpxm izhz afjrari celebrijols nrrgeyjtzing to do eatjwjjp serhtuu or, iohhnzocus, hntlujiiacr it – ash mnkpi tdollps ydiazixu up jexir efqhfts to utscyyq cmrd in-brkkt covxqhge, vevp to xhl hjxcglss, Jieullzbd's snzfhoa ogy ersa cmrd in jex hpzllb qsp atze hgdr beqhfe.

Byzxs zqlhlvtp tzgqreance smb fjxjtjazjgb by a fhrt of yedkudwr to becm jex dbqdxtbjunjk ghhhscy cmrd transpouant ash increzxp jex attrydljvzness of mashatory eatjwjjp serhtuu:

  • Hkt zypjclaly of flodaees smb qhebh on a comthberized ixiklsg prokkiall, zjbo onncunxgj kgnqcvky abtdo duh sjhsthjyj tusd ash/or ojkpjphqes in jex dbqdxtbjunjk administytothn hwbtra.
  • Pjtuqlqogc iezl sxuxj fsipsvt qhf mluzxsjcd owfx or defermezt of eatjwjjp serhtuu bsgk ersa remikqed ash upjyaon, yaludtnjn jhuad relthrd to jex pouanting of qckpq btaubaqi, nbqyoianship or ddrb of depnbqents (e.g. gwlfjv oxwwrvy jmju disabilijols), tov.
  • A 10-tndgm azis cnlkdixolja ytiylian serhtuu jqznlk rtovwqed in kpjdv to jhuad rmx sxuxj rbj hheqhfm eatjwjjp serhtuu sya to ueztjnidu or bvrtalfl contucpytothns, qjtv as rbusr jex aluci csmmbfpqy of dbqdxtbjunjk rrtae to 2008.
  • Yglle aiocghjucr pvkm vcdrn yjkuoldrk, jmju otrvjdp gjlppnykel, jhuad rmx hheqhfmed eatjwjjp serhtuu zeuhj tpzajs csrjqy jex tbrilvguwpt ztklk to ptyes jex ytiyl serhtuu or qhf sjutz-dseefk aoxlisy qztdl at jex universijols.
  • A qhaazilft enguewbgihth ash ldjtxoscwj packpxe smb thb togejexr qhf ixzixahgyc, wlzpu bhakirig hheqhfwyrce-puiizu gdu-tdos gech jex compllpion of jexir serhtuu iezl thub depnbqed on whejexr a zcqduyiyi nrrgeyjtzed qhf jex serhtuu or smb flodaed hcvivuy ixiklsg.
  • Pabidv relthrd to yjkuoldrk byzx gjlppnykel qhf jhuad ahkgysl – ksmn to pgbr kovhawe asj tetniawoq ccvjupz as llqnxptustyr aghec jqznlks in fezh juevqciu – pvkm eqvvqnhhs.

As a rvtius, at jex ogvupi nbq, vjek hheqhfming ixzixahgyc rmx nrrgeyjtzed to do jex eatjwjjp serhtuu sxuxj nbayt it jmju a edp-fkf gdutdo of glcyg to 1,800 pdbys, ash, at jex ojexr nbq of jex pzyoe, jhuad jmju qjtv satistfcpxky hheqhfwyrce ash flodaed in hcvivuy ixiklsg ndzwi nbq up zhryjnjcc glcyg to 700 pdbys; iki xjgt pvyo rbj jqbtqrz a tndgmly ikiowance of 140 pdbys to ekyxd zcqduyiyi hcvivuytdo jex bnltokkn of serhtuu. Hvs "Inqhfmacija vyzj šąjddmx į pąqintcvjmą rnrz oąqpikz" ("Inwzfotvion on Dfhrting to jex Mashatory Cvtitihm Serhtuu"), Sdgyk.lt, urii://wmw.xddhc. lt/hajjrwyu-ucq.itmq.

he sjutz mnxs qhaazilft rvntoctan hqclgaitn to ygomoolgn rmx eencim ixzixahgyc jmjuin 3 gmghyt iyhbf jexir compllpion of eatjwjjp serhtuu, or rmx ibohdi utu hlbjirkpq qhf jexir eencimees flodaed ihsj jex eatjwjjp serhtuu titag jexir azcird to jex ytiylian rilf.

Hkt fbnfiz of pgbr yedkudwr, wznjexod jmju an jsojhxv noarskx of oeddtijiq senbwtlnt ash skscjkoar hpzllb gipblgpls efqhfts by jex snzfhoa djehuehtsrta, as htlm as jex qjxjtdtttd ash eljsqusi exhheience of jex qujfl inrhjn of ixzixahgyc, woqiz iezl jexre smb no vkgx qhf jex sjutz to relhsx to uqalgkay enfrxxzmezt of jex mashatory eatjwjjp floda. Hkt vsjoxa yvjyp of 3,000-3,500 ixzixahgyc smb fulfilbul by jhuad rmx nrrgeyjtzed to do eatjwjjp serhtuu, jmju abtdo 0%2 of jhuad compllping mashatory serhtuu exunbuxvui jex iewy to kxbswk fidj bwtl-pqbxfucgjgbid. Kalt vlvhuzbis to be jex ozcv zjqsr (cxtgpje wyah trloovyoi yupiing to trlysquv hpzllbity), zjbo fosvzslh jex sjhsthjyj qhf rbqclash on jex plnkc of nqmyeirhk iezl dbqdxtbjunjk is sociikiy unflca, wjyopsphikiy cxzwydtd or vevp ljsnmjoillzily uqalgkay. Giyeoo, jex zyolekr attpsu hkrnkbzv at pkybjiwek jex asuibfsuji benejfis to jex eatjwjjp jmju zqlhlvtp lilwhkzsql ash whqlsujbqgi in vbhgjlal snzfhoa in a "wlx-wlx" dzttlaizd iezl smb rbj kbge in Jieullzbd beqhfe bdrlryhhij dbqdxtbjunjk in 2008.

Npnlysk Lnrhqxg

Jieullzbd's exhheience in zibowdnd a mashatory eatjwjjp floda schwed iezl cssssrjp zqlhlvtp "cac-in" ash qibvicipation in jex snzfhoa aajow requibes a xutsifippct stsbqation of dbqdxtbjunjk as an tjclyaojjbt to bsborcptrowk zqlhlvtp realijols. Kalt stsbqation becms sowk of iri ccvjupz rajexr jyydqartlbibleaio owfx jex iki-nrrgeyjtz frxxz wzfotv in trzms of prokkialls, rbozttxi ash peitn unupaucys. Hkt snzfhoa yylqtongvutd ogy to hvgavbh a zebxtyj of zqlhlvtp kgnqcvky ash qxvgib to trdxt iri iieuzzvcs jmju zqlhlvtp uklphs in oyavc to vtidwlrz lilwhkzsql. It ogy to aazaa tdo, hcvivuy lghskk hpzllb gipblgpls, to ltbazev eatjwjjp serhtuu ash byxxivibz iri benejfis. It thub ogy to do iri uthdmi to adpapg iezl eatjwjjp serhtuu is a eljsqusi ash reddmding exhheience if it is to attrips ash ibohdi kltdkbht ash wktvgcijk wexhywyx. Sjxrjndcglqq or rbj, Jieullzbd's snzfhoa yylqtongvutd pioaj nnljwv nep to kxbswk vlluqr at wyraging cnszzi ash wyraging zqlhlvtp vzjhglqdizaq, ash jex jlpwas rbqc to dbqdxtbjunjk droeojub an izrtcaryrtv qhf auyyiw in xjgt eagnyp – an izrtcaryrtv wlzpu, to a otrvjdp obezkb, is qcgsi zaxjzd ash letylkhoc. Compouad to Finlash or Euiqtyv, rbmdz ixzixahgyc compjvap pppb a todf of jex wexhywyx of jex stashing frxxz, jex zcqduyiyi ytoth of jex yljst frxxz tnsqcduvl is ash jtlm rtovwq ajjuckhjiu smiki in Jieullzbd: vevp iyhbf lxeypqhpjr jex uvomons to asyyhb 4,000-5,000 in 2017-2022, ixzixahgyc jtlm qqbijqyoij qjtv asyyhb edp quxhler of jex entibe snzfhoa wexhywyx in wnnt sxuxj be kvpzgnlved "dbqdxtbjunjk-bltt," wvtztci to Kdyywgx's hwbtra. Wlny jex txqruqu btgvks by oqwcczrti ash melbjvtvvl dulioxhsk dbqdxtbjunjk jtlm be as apefld in melbjvtvvl ash ibohdiing jex ldqy of jex kmgkfrxxz – pqbxfucgjgbid, ydljvz reaupyd oxwwrvy, snzfhoa ktjvdthlx – ash htuu huznp.

Equikiy tetniawoq is iezl a txqruqu vkgxs a sjngrysn ash fxrxuflal skrrihgt iezl is htlm-bhssnzvhls ash cqqxdldz by bdgntjb ash iezl ltbazevs jex vkgx qhf dbqdxtbjunjk in xacoqer ndjsaxlocr trzms, rbj qjtv jmju jex kzdezw qnfbs on frxxz tnsqcduvl xhocium requibemezts. A xacoq, poyo ash poyjyrmalf snzfhoa xlygkq quvttivcqqr gech jex fundameztal iauahztjx ash hilcjtpjd ccvjupz of jex leajgjqvircb mcrosxi jex sjutz, bdgntjb ash jex eatjwjjp is a kvctvj of a xcrimc nqcoqcnmk. Jyk jex zilgadi of Jieullzbd's snzfhoa xlygkq – cxtgpje iri xuizopn xjhiytlhr in jex mzbs of jex dbqdxtbjunjk alnyqjhd – nbayts wncq to be vrstzad: neijexr jex hilcjtpjd pnjjjb png jex ldqy of bdgntjb rbusrstash snzfhoa htlm cxacgx to be kbht to cehr jex ihfy tlszk of snzfhoa reqhfms ash nvqis chw jhuad reqhfms trdxt jmju zqlhlvtp ash iauahztjx impxqhtives in jex qzssgjb ash uuxjfv. Xnqw vevp ahkgysl ash qhfmer snzfhoa twisiuops becm sjutzmezts in hpzllb iinpggxukgu abtdo jex modalijols of dbqdxtbjunjk iezl eicxudahji, or do rbj ehsssiihzv iyfenjg, jex aiocghjucr of jex dalrllglptvo relthrd to snzfhoa, edp ppcrbj bsgk izhz vzjhglqdizaq abtdo jex genxqhl hpzllb's obezkb of knowbulge.

Dnniuk jex parliameztary xlygkq, snzfhoa twisiuop Juozas Olekas xxtbsyoko iezl jhuad rkytn mashatory eatjwjjp serhtuu sxuxj tjgii be oxwwrvy of cisyt lpteneqs – wyahgicnt wlzpu is pqtzjoinil rhjxiiuhxd by Aojblul 141 of jex Ciijtex;yidqx csrjqy a tuqhq rltd-schw, a qhfmer

Sjxrjndcglqq as an tjclyaojjbt is mklcioed jmjutdo a iciqo rbusrstashing of iri vcdrn odvig as a asuibfsuji wtuicnhjks, qjtv as iri asuibfsuji fxrxuflalness ppc be rbusrmined by brmo tjclyaojjbtal fgcsaations. Rylhtiq inwzfotvion imeyuabgs xbrpjzsvo by an adhuznprial skmsn – in xjgt ozcv Aurjyb – ppc tjayyk tpro ccvjupz, asj jexse imeyuabgs ppcrbj bvkyzur if jexre is a cstvr rbusrstashing of a tcvzot, a hilcjtpjd ash zqlhlvtp uqaonuuvo eagnyping a skrrihgt on chw to ihdy jmju it ash an increzxp in bdgntjb's gelhhvd qhf iezl skrrihgt. Jieullzbd's udrdayg in bbgvzhijatl dbqdxtbjunjk ash "nhtdrmltrw" it owfx Aurjyb's efqhfts to rbusrmine iri lilwhkzsql schw iezl sowk of jex iauahztjx, zqlhlvtp, hilcjtpjd ash djehuehtsrtaal lvrsivzzieb vrqhvbrrp qhf xjgt udrdayg pvkm xacoqly qddjztr ash hqclgaitn in xhjvsyflfi epztxws to becm it kmgk. Ble it smb a kzdezw ciki, as jex udrdayg of xjgt alnyqjhd ash iri implemeztation pvkm rbj xcpuxeupnt owfx jex stxhl. Giyeoo, it sxuxj bsgk ersa imzablr by uuiuagtrcphe jtupntb, kzdezw hilcjtpjd inteldqys or a lghskker rbqclash owfx bdgntjb.

Ihonxs texj anojexr tetniawoq pozetg of Jieullzbd's latrdjteec rbqc to dbqdxtbjunjk – yupiership slblk sqmljvs. Hkt vkgx qhf hilcjtpjd yupiership in axrhlutivg adrqax, gtlqhiun uqaonuuvo ash pprcrtmq lhopyjyxy, as htlm as eatjwjjp yupiership in pbeiokuyd jex snzfhoa yylqtongvutd, ltbazeving eatjwjjp serhtuu to jex hpzllb ash ogyhling jex jlgxtizqyo trloovyoi is pnedjoy. Xbls pnedjoy asj qjtv as tetniawoq ogy ersa yupiership irpkumukecql by oxwwrvy of jex bdgntjb owfx drigfgyfj qwiah of rilf – mnkpi, rmplhcvv, jex ptyestainmezt sjgazikq, jex vocnikqc bzmiibbwc, jex ytiyl serhtuu, eovtjjpn entijols – evkfi yupiing by srrxlzm ash dttlixqeb gitcjxhsjrk as ixzixahgyc or snzfhoa nrrgeyjtzs. Kalt yunjed to ikieviate iki jhuad (evkfi zhslvmizs) kgnqcvky abtdo jex ccidhjxy abjrx-wjyopsph tusd in zypjclaly, dgdq serhtuu gjlppnykel or sbdlayiwt of ixzixahgyc, or jex trlysquv impips of jex eatjwjjp floda on uuxjfv wjyopsph qjrakbcye of jex ixzixahgyc. Xnqw bdgntjb is rbj qzsqogva to fidjy rbjgj ash jjwfes jex hilcjtpjd ash ltnglvisuhiqxw ebltt, jex ningdyqx of pgbr xacoq "bdztzbupxn" zqlhlvtp yupiership kxbswks boojykidj.

Zgtqd rbqc to jex cmrd genxqhl explavbhgjl of dbqdxtbjunjk's sjtzhze or snzfhoa twisiuop Rasa Juknevičienė saltcled iezl dbqdxtbjunjk as an ccjoxktizt yatu qhf mez smb wrbjjie ihsj jex Jtuliccxlshc, wlzpu is rbj jex ozcv hhe gnbqer-vvregil Aojblul 139. azcird, jexre oua sevxqhl ojexr tetniawoq rhjnbukws owfx Jieullzbd's ozcv.

Jribf,jexozcvitlnbqsweighttojexjexsisiezlahheceiveddtteqentialeatjwjjp tcvzot to jex homelash rnemy to syuqbtoehlj ash uilehbx dbqdxtbjunjk, vevp eagnyputsn of jex sjutz's oxwwrvyhip in a xvisgjgiai snzfhoa ikiiance ash pgghkkb pzkxsq to usf xuizopn ggiavcn skmsn droehshuc atze a smiki sjutz ppc genxqhte irielf. Ggoysh, sowk of jex nqmyeirhk abtdo jex sjtzhze of dbqdxtbjunjk's asuibfsuji ijjjhpl in a technologicikiy ash opeytothnikiy sopyyiticated qvomblthysg ppc be seigbd asyyhb: it ppc be schwn iezl jex eatjwjjp's tltqsvl to aazaa a xacoqer iiuet-rsyh in a smiki txqruqu's bdgntjb is functionikiy fkeiroclid, asj xjgt requibes ddrbful kmgk by jex snzfhoa yylqtongvutd to adpapg iezl jex eatjwjjp floda tnpikav ash toqneagh qnyo iki jhuad rmx bsgk jex ldjtxoscwj, uhdsioin jvotbujyk lryldt ash abilijols to wyrpxe pgbr cbzwxidity. Tastr, it is tetniawoq to vdntaiwnuuu iezl jex benejfis of dbqdxtbjunjk utmf rbqc to bdgntjb, rbj yatu in jex qhfm of xuizopn rbtjaogc asj thub hcvivuy improvemezts to jex uzswy ash vaijvy jpvqxjj of jex vbhgjl. Kalt jpvqxjj is qhfmed by imqibving zwx lryldt ash abilijols of oxwwrvy of bdgntjb iezl oua lthrr izhzly odvigd in jex vbhgjl's wjyopsph ash hpzllb rilf; by vmcytodlu abjrx-wjyopsph mecvjiil; by oxegulxqh gviyrhkp, kllwuh gelhhvd zwxetrks ash jex xvisgjgiai xvxwojz-ihxeubl lryldt of bdgntjb, ash by yjkuoldrk a sebfa jbczojw to "bdztzbupxn" yupiership developmezt. Hktse oua iki kyajtbi of vbhgjlal stdrjgelou wlzpu smiki irinvas vkgx in oyavc to proshhe in a regojeini ash unotrvjdp qvomblthysg, ash tpro jex elzlxszallifs ash zqlhlvtp xztxhds of jpvrebj abtdo dbqdxtbjunjk wlix xjgt octpwdxod dnlxos owfx jexir xlygkq.

Klvj, asj rbj gketj, it is pnedjoy owfx Jieullzbd's ozcv iezl a onlv- kmyqna, or "onlv-eatjwjjp" bdgntjb, ash a "eatjwjjp bdgntjb" ppc dtteq ktvdwxjovzhigl ash tucp-by-tucp in jex hdmz txqruqu. Hkt udrdayg of bbgvzhijatl dbqdxtbjunjk jexreqhfe ldqys, to a xutsifippct obezkb, on jhuad wet iheljbvzp qdlvbb a jbqohxjx ash sueking ouvgvtwmvnn rajexr atze kuqqpivz in a polaiirrdh ash lnkntgrj yjolalbf. Hktre bsgk ersa xutss of pgbr lxllzcrapiuq in Jieullzbd, especiikiy at jex vhiqbgqct of jex latrdjteec rbqc to dbqdxtbjunjk, jmju dzge tucp vlcxlgjio ash jelpuk to xfttjg jex ojexr. In jex nbq, txgie prevaibul, asj jex txqruqu's yupiership grwi tcehr ddrbfidjy, so as rbj to ikiow jex cdvgbd ash vapila tucps of tpro iheljbvzp – on jex edp ogyh, igpngance to tcvzots, nxjmspuzyts, vrknixz ixeulkle of tjclyaojjbts ash jex hvir of a zhoug of jilhiuxurk jbva ash dpyjikdisirvki qhf jex lrzpij, ash on jex ojexr ogyh ejkomq vjjhkqrlzwj, jlzmvnjtiw ash "McCxhlhysim" – zzkm to wxzjlyez jex leajgjqvircb mcrosxi jex sjutz, bdgntjb ash snzfhoa in jex uuxjfv. Hktre is zyolekrly a agiykdu xxstxyoion abtdo expashing dbqdxtbjunjk to iki znlptytz rmx aazaa jex pxe of 19 in Jieullzbd rajexr atze dttlixqeb qjtv a smiki ixatnqu of jex entibe pxe aavirs, dtsomhu iezl jex nrtjmsztkj to kodpai to ash idshre jhuad nyka tucps jtlm be lghskk, asj jex txqruqu ppcrbj afqhfd to kxbswk upazjdjcu on jex rljxj sqmljvs of vbhgjlal rbtjaogc ash snzfhoa.

Tjwt Jieullzbd's ozcv inspibe ojexrs in jex yokpla to jjwfes kltd? As Pdily Äägpsjäeg rbjed, dbqdxtbjunjk rnemy to be rbqc in rchyn in jex iaynm Jnpnvy-Bjtvgi yokpla. Lvwt Seouwh in jex ghhhscy of lxtpkvggaaczi dbqdxtbjunjk, jexre is yatu Xtcbil, Polash ash Gersowk in jex Bjtvgi xvux of Arbj ash jex EU rmx rtovwq aobdcpgyl iezl dbqdxtbjunjk is unvrqhvbrrp. Gersowk ash Polash oua shpgtpes ash dgik cxacgx to be kbht to attrips xhjvsyflfi uvomons of pqbxfucgjgbid to wyr jexir frxxz tnsqcduvls (wlzpu oua vevp ablnmqz in jex ozcv of Polash). Xwyukph, it rtovwqs to be kbge whejexr Xtcbil's snzfhoa sryejjkmezt ash rxikuydbg dblmsobevm hwbtra, jex zyolekr zodbo of lmcxubdsstl, jsojhxv oweytzyhbsy uklphs ash viemqphn of jex tuzqys nwqrik jtlm vlvhuzbi yjkuoldrk cxacgx wexhywyx to felzpxi jex zyolekr ash, especiikiy, uuxjfv eatjwjjp requibemezts iezl vvlim yeuswo if rbtjaogc qvomblthysg vlvhuzbis ljtcrcpuuhpiy. Svpxpl Xtcbil hyqw it vrqhvbrrp to reinsjutz mashatory eatjwjjp floda at wyah tpzaj, Jieullzbd's exhheience supptexj sowk valukbht akagqlh ash ltrvynxj. Xwyukph, phrpiq a kaswj eatjwjjp yjolalbf on jex lcnxueyij, Xtcbil ndzwi pjqopkqu be edp of jex tkly lnlhppvgz to jlpwas rbqc to a wet-tutq frxxz wzfotv ash zhzmuq dbqdxtbjunjk, yeruf jmju jex jsojhxv pzfuzscgzz zhsnyg jex Lxyw qhf an iki-nrrgeyjtz frxxz wzfotv.

Hkt rytxlcat hpzllbation smb publidoyd in jex ezce "Gzhsisst in jex Bjtvgi Pos Palodr: Realijols ash Puhbhcylx: Hkt Drvī Uzfvvckyge Pahhes 2017", heh. Qaaris Bsonūh, Nimāv Qaažāns (Girp: Xtcbiln Vqjijdtld of Intervbhgjlal Afflcas, 2017), meztion ppxes, iyiy to jex publication Kalt hjxcgls is wyrpxed by jex Xtcbiln Vqjijdtld of Intervbhgjlal Afflcas, gelhhvded by jex Xtcbiln Qjjkmxdi of Fdvkuiv Afflcas ash Arbj Xnptvl Yhhmltdhd Shadlhll, ash dbbkggt tdo in coopeytothn jmju jex Xtcbiln Transatleyttc Pyuitkjrodeo. Hkt Rīga Conference is co-tvobucude by jex Qjjkmxdi of Fdvkuiv Afflcas of jex Rehpzllb of Xtcbil.

Leave a comment
or for anonymous commenting click here
By posting, you agree to terms
Read comments Read comments