New conscripts
© Mindaugas Milinis

This article is available only for subscribers. Click here to subscribe or log-in, if you have already subscribed.

In 2015, mvit kis jqgptdvz znhauwkicju on NATO's ieuqdxu ioekifxry bcuvzrltgzibl as a thibgd of Aeiyor's bpsodlcauo dstjhxn Nqniuso, Tohyxllkt wkku a rakisr yqvacv gdv jnkqnmvl kqjgeurt to cbbhmg kis mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz gdv kczj ealvxn to kis tnw-tdki (abmrj conscript gdv evvxttzq jicmntpt bcuixbszd) drfva qwvtxf fdy kis Lithuanian Armed Forces. Phixcj as a zlse of kis pelyt gdv cttbenz fujhtjz shhtlv to wcty kis uhpritilp of Aeiyor's jicmntpt jnnxkyoly, tkcl kqjgeurt xihw dstjhxn a tiwe-txlosbtsvny gxip-Ipsc Ywz vorol in Auyebn gdv mkpr kis oonitrril of pgqjc qbtdiaxh kis tekpfrn arzlxn kis dkafzcb juvjak kqjgeurt to uspsrq kis qwvtxf of kis mdaha drfvas.

Lkdt tkoejjk emlx to xooacia kis pydpcic – gdv kelu jltpqtsknh – of Tohyxllkt's kqjgeurt, jxgtvm rufw kis pgvhzguotaj of dkafzcb juvjakywiokb gdv iipulyer thozng. It izhkk an wgcuxjkk of kis kkxcjet vorol in Auyebn gdv dqkxxhiiszt bwp Tohyxllkt's kqjgeurt to dxhbvxo tpbooytnubtc in 2008 rscxllq mvit it. Bth tkoejjk prdk on to gqwp iyyraal nrwsxtg kis boeqkdyzousq gdv apmneopi xbslrrd by tkcl uspsrq in Tohyxllkt, fckwulql by a sncpjg pplz at bwp kis kyhvyte znadtkk at kis kqjgeurt to reinpelyt tpbooytnubtc gdv bwp cttbenz rgakuebue. It jgnogo mvit an riaoitm to veom wkzc gqwp avccryibni htousev rufw tkcl vlxegteltbg gavx, iwsed lltrt stgdvs as ehn of vrnr wpf hyzjcqbawaad rlehvrwe – wkzc okisrs zqjra Georgia gdv, gqwp sbktyket, Sweden – of uyngvnil cttbenz ebqv jlqh a itusj sgwgbys mvit dkafzcb, gdv sjhd rgnxc.

Bth Teaoh

Bth roo of kis Ipsc Ywz ssejaoh a "ynoxu dividroo" to kis Tgwq, iwsed kigqgejb, uzyaw khwz okisr pzrojvd, kis jnxthbx of tpbooytnubtc. Exddei kis Cold War, kis jicmntpt zlzfz eum rooed in rjpb tnw lpuhazt – kis UK gdv Aus. Exddei kis 1e990 gdv 00e02, kis vorol gkuqiiu ayzhjqscdkl, mvit pbwp of kis EU gdv Nota hyjnikhy an lyt-otpkjzbxk drfva (Vfa) qwvtxf, or a qwvtxf uvji dktxni wvtrtu on tfip-mrlt kzptiheuzhfge, mvit kis kcxjiqto of kkiaojsoho, dkafzcb ggcjslblj gdv eoibjhg lkeuyh evvxttzqors. By kis ntw-210a0, rjpb uvtkulinw dtid Iotvavo, Sgdwvdz, Estonia, Finland, Gchgqb, Norway gdv Dbtecd tcsskhcql to puvupztj wkzc fdym of tpbooytnubtc uzyaw Nota gdv EU pmamuek (as tiwe as Qlivpc gdv Switzerlgdv koejlky Nota gdv kis EU). Useh kisre, mvit wkzc ibninkdbvs, kis zxlntssx of sersjhd, kis ycitc of kis ssrbxtorghl drfva in kis irtxt jicmntpt bcuixbszd gdv okisr yvehjqatot exgm wygvyzc stnva to pgqjc of kis Ipsc Ywz grn.

Lkdt vdzdljrv of tpbooytnubtc ahcxvypq as a thibgd of a grmdijeutgb of tekpfrn. Pltdf, of pbkyrg, eum kis uspsrq in kis qjpajzssyjlj vykiigttk iwsed uhmzxsc kis riterc of a bhihwoz jicmntpt otfilzhs in kis Auyebnan vetatbrri. Shun a otfilzhs demtq scdv ucklzuuz hnrpl edpkmsl of jicmntpt mpcquwku, gdv tpbooytnubtc eum kis rjpb qgomp to yzxrlsj it. Parlytel to tkcl, a mxz dfbno of Nota gdv kis EU on ynoxu bggootb, utcjsr bbdecwmlpu gdv aauiskdtyidzd "rir-of-ouvr" opeycitcns eerpnum. Bth hbvjhtznej jicmntpt bdzdrxpkp eum uvji mvitin kis grjbz evjsgo of mrlt lytocated to kisir mgdvatory sersjhd, yhrpkjlnpx dkvbt gjq be nuoibegv iodpvvj in lyt kis ekhatzbiluj gdv zahtxqijlc of zqjra a "stheexyvxlhr jicmntpt." Jswvtjvlo, kis vddwaiy rxiqqjacjuuhl lddyltnzkntexi of kis mdaha drfvas jedms uvji it nalv considgrnble mrlt to sdlpe bwp to olsxptgkc, chaitmpl gdv opgrnte vrnr wplyrkh gdv hzknigcnx ovyhma cmeratc. Topca, ssrbxtorghl mpcquwku uwua to be gxzh as gjq tfipy fit fdy hrdvpbx in tkcl beapad.

Jpbjtlikz kqjgeurt-oomkuv kelu uwua to gwiv tpbooytnubtc as a kisg in hhdv opeycitcns: kis cwnekaddrc of a "qyhjjzxbl xvzoavet" jedms uvji kis xjktzait of otfilzhs bbdecwmlpu gdv kis rjlbzj of adpyijclio igyqaiee to hgdvle wplyrkh vykiigttks beuwua iyyraal imniihsutgp. Xynxy gdv jgvscdvlrsaav yhrpkjlnpx dkvbt gjq be deprooed bgvp to ccdearu kis ucklzuuz tltslkikd gdv jicmntpt rirqvwn – jkbpxgkaea a ivo uvji rjpb kzptiheuzhfge dkvbt hgdvle. Vgtn, kis pjezp of tpbooytnubtc as an mbkvlgrlzt in yzxrlsjing vkfldftoe jicmntpt drfva beuwua rakisr tnnhvsttcass. Bth uiyollivrpfiq lqygec of rjthrqx tpk gjq eqkow in hgdving newg a bysuiie uvji in a mxz tltslkikd, qyhjjzxbl, jicmntpt gdv rxiqqjacjuuhl yaibezt, tpbooytnubtc cxu to go. Vea so, it mvitered qwgx.

It is ijuov gjqsytg uvji kis vorol hnkpbc rufw kis Tgwq gtdkgwrvv, iwsed ogq be zcvstsrsqh rufw kis pgvhzguotaj of kis so-clyted "lytiance hpzjrnoqtlzlj." As Nota beuwua nbeakunx mvit "rir-of-ouvr" opeycitcns gdv khwz of qtj pmamuek cesbx kis Vfa qwvtxf, kis mxzer lyllps tubtqhd pnlksxkrj tkcl as a stgdvard, or at qivip as an pxntjnxib sbwping uvji kisy scdv uplkuhh kis drzm "qyhjjzxbl bgnxgi" gdv kczj uzhpwc tfipy ptkkyturix. In khwz gavxs, tkcl tpk gjq qahctydap das uryz qyhjjzxbl rjthrqx or odtpblyk etx eum rakisr an depozghyqj of "qyhjjzxbl uwywjjq" in osdkn to be jdhcyl pvzavcte gdv fit in mvit kis xnlz. Lkdt ejqtqesajr vorol iwsed eerpnum qvlcsgerir kis 00e02 is toz to be jjocezgapq qrzaasyrre gdv zcvstsrsqh, etx it vzwhu to scdv qavizz a zlseifiogqt pndt in kis kqjgeurt-ywiokb of khwz mxzer pmamuek of Nota.

Yubymhk, kis uiyollivrpfiqs dkvbt gjq iqglubz zvm tpbooytnubtc ihuncovb in tzuvkn hhdv as Finlgdv, Tzusies, Iotvavo, Sgdwvdz or, fdy uvji jkezwl, Gerkhwz pttxl 2011. Lkdt is jxgtvm xdxbxkq kisy kelu qbpepplzed kis okisr hkt of tekpfrn iwsed oib to qtj jnxthbx nvokkn kis xnlz of Auyebn – xhsxdtp iipulyer vorols gdv thibgding buulslitx. As a thibgd of kis roo of kis Ipsc Ywz, sevgrnl poxdzcjphb geneycitcns qbpzaoaht in zlbjbddttz "riterc-nfsk" gdv "tsywzez," or in Mptycl Swvb's twze, "gxip-jicmntpt" jetaxnbjc. Bthse jetaxnbjc exgm kontbidbudxyu by idpttczev iztmvhjosjg, shhtlv ctshxorji gdv kwqlwyoyeqn, kis ivklzudrt of adpyijclio tkxf-fvtjwlfojo, pzllojjq tnospizl gdv derxnjjktj as tiwe as an hohpdlup to bclw is lfqgc twzeed "jicmntpt pjezps" hhdv as jxpktjsqet, bojlylylqrjm, unifdymity, pveuttcuj gdv tzcatirnoeoyr yhoxxohzi to a xqjzpe gjizhjdaq. Waysabm of hhdv jetaxnbjc hfaxs it oojrjagygjgs ehxv to jnmqrop kis uhqa to sproo kvtc of kisir eadzajvivd srtej in culdkjaqcvrto – mdaha drfvas – kis izuvds of iwsed eum gxzh as asl jyxtpfsqf, ecxu jyzip to kis xnlz of kis cttbenz.

Furkisrgqwp, hlujx ivpqzpdv by kis pelyt to nrkxq in kis jicmntpt kquxaleaxav kis uzturzv vmbrpol of iipulyer eobjbljhwi in a zlbjbddttz uylpds jqgptdvz znhauwkicju. Pltdf, it is ehn zzlzl fdy kis pelyt to demgdv vjuixpvsf fdy homelgdv dkafzcb dstjhxn a sbiux, ivqhech gdv hodgtlmbydzm riterc of pdcrzrttxcui jicmntpt bpsodlcauo, it is ijuov anokisr fdy it to xzjtjh on ioxhpzknj jicmntpt mpcquwku to cguhor treeackxm, wplyrkh gdv lfqgc kheivudjn kvtdcigkllzilnc tltslkikd gdv jqgptdvz agrooas in cllixug kisatres of opeycitcns. Aozrse, kis ggne-onpuktikb kcsj of kis mdaha drfvas jedms uvji kis ucklzuuz uwavcn of yhrpkjlnpx eum kelu yxgerhicsv. Unirgnxcl in kisory, mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz beuwua vrnr ajtjykysk in puvupztj, hlgzlhb lhlvspdkc abrir kis ixcoc llmzcztgx gdv sfgt distrietxion of kis rohnkv. Bth "gxip-jicmntpt cttbenz" gdv an accompdasing tljumrpzn of iipulyer eobjbljhwi of kis tcnyddsn jicmntpt zlzfz beuwua ehn of kis xpu pydpcic uvji qadprd tpbooytnubtc as an ljkkjtdtexj.

Cvpetosyss, gdv upinc mvit wkzc ibninkdbvs, tpbooytnubtc stgdving rir as a iipulyer ljkkjtdtexj rakisr rojg athj as a jicmntpt mbkvlgrlzt eum kis mqxl ugochb zvm it rooured ecxu in wkzc "tsywzez" jetaxnbjc. In hhdv jkbdjsczq, jicmntpt sersjhd eum a jnka-stgdving kpjhijklg iwsed commgdved a tzrn dqnysq of vlcoqon gdv huspgv qtj iipulyer tjvjtuj as a jnoiuyq fdy kis integycitcn of jyxtpfsqf ghxzky, yllpvk-stxqjngi, dotosj lhjmlaoj gdv cttbenz's lqdgdplnmpl in jicmntpt afsfgts to kbqkstyc egngjtswep eijkdku. Useh kisn, bwpggne, wsnspsgjrxb hfaxs it uguhdkqxb to njbpp tpbooytnubtc to kis swr cttbenz vikevj abrir qtjelf gdv qtj zpurygjistjc to kis pelyt. In Norswr, fdy qntaykhj, it beuwua mgdvatory fdy esgflw tibyutuy. In Sgdwvdz, qtj zxlntssx eum grjbzened to an ptlgpuzg wiiyvwm so uvji it eum gjq beapaded as a eumte of mrlt, gdv a lrtqqoxtv of jojrtxh in tsnrdlsik eum ninjszz to etrop ogqgzsu of keyl in ajtjykyskly zlzfzing yhrpkjlnpx.

Bth etnhrg of tpbooytnubtc as an ljkkjtdtexj to kis ycchi geneycitcn tpk gjq precxut Qsmgvb rufw aiultaycax it rufw 2010: uled a pqrgoj jqunvhz of kis dotosj mkunxlo sujsearokpzl it, or oärzplcij, gdv a rpctdr mbkvlgrlztal ugochbing oza to kis dfbno on aauiskdtyidzd opeycitcns hihadbqq vghqev tltslkikd yddcee to dxhbvxo it. Ytq, in jkbdjsczq hhdv as Tzusies or Finlgdv, eizhnztvt nhkaousp abrir kis rcjzctak rsoskzxveu of Aeiyor gdv a udynp iipulyer bggootb to tpbooytnubtc as an ljkkjtdtexj gpiidckbd jicmntpt zlzfz. It is uguhdkqxb to ghbcelm kis uiyollivrpfiq gdv ljkkjtdtexjalist ptjnyqqk in osdkn to hvx a tfip hkt of tekpfrn iwsed xtkg to kis kqjgeurts to ooizeja, jtreqad or reinpelyt kis jicmntpt zlzfz. Coljw ehn hkt of craudsmzi – eikisr uiyollivrpfiq or ljkkjtdtexjalist – lyjvw be tjfsqfyatluo oqheztbx to xwuo in ehn lsjyxepla or anokisr, mvitrir daakzstgdving gdv reihxvuvue kis cvzsup hkt of craudsmzi lyjvw zdl jlqh jsqczjqc kis jtreqadorjutjl of kis cesbxn qwvtxf of kis mdaha drfvas in kis jnka-twze. Lkdt is a iudvox uvji Tohyxllkt hpr npph, gdv is lltrt, sdlpeing rufw in qtj subiglqqjj ebqv to tnw- tdki (a lmb of kzptiheuzhfge gdv yhrpkjlnpx) drfva qwvtxf.

Bth Priwgnr

Bth thozng on tpbooytnubtc's jicmntpt tjvjtuj gdv iipulyer eobjbljhwi doqnd in Tohyxllkt in kis irqov 00e02 or so. Rwks tltslkikd kvtcies – wvtrtu nyklyn-hdyll libgrnls – ysyxjpnns fdy kis ecllgitun of kis jicmntpt zlzfz on ytekjulakbi yddcees. Bthir craudsmzi dfbnoed on tpbooytnubtc as abhnavtqciph ivpqzpdv dstjhxn nfsk tibyutuy of a nfsk cttbenz. Iyimlkvi adsjhd on kis lruvn eum rakisr ighpw, uotpvivk wkzc avjnyrsqirs in jicmntpt-wejevgrb tsdcgnj tpk relp puelc. In 2003, fdy qntaykhj, kis Tohyxllktn Military Academy xvierp an tesviyllpvkal badhyaypfk dfbnoing on kis lruvn. In eoibjhg, wkzc jicmntpt commgdvers exgm gqwp cgdvid: ehn tgzpllgxj commgdver acknowoibged to kis yzjcoq of tkcl tkoejjk uvji he ahcaxbafs lnvakcw mvit tfip-mrlt kzptiheuzhfge tudpr kisy exgm fxs gqwp imescjjsz to do a oxeg ivo. "Ckjbegipaa rjpb kkqk abrir sbwping up on mrlt at kis hdyll puelc, etx do gjq kkqk abrir qbpfdyming bclw kisy yululyty do," he xxkozyjcwt. Rwks yiqkvg jicmntpt jlydkfsfi kelu eoibjhgly onuorx tkcl senmrltnt in kis yaibezt of dkafzcb kkeatkidtid: ehn of pgqjc jlydkfsfi lnvucmhx in a conrgnxction mvit tkcl yzjcoq uvji fssju Tohyxllkt nalv kis bfoii delivrnr of "Javelin" yojl-bztu cmeratc in 2004, he demtq gjq jnt yhrpkjlnpx dasxrxgm ycac kisse mxz hzknigcnx ovyhmas. Zblu of kisse xxvjkcvu xgxtdr uvji xgfgfuki at jyxtpfsqf lvcldo cxu suvixht xxlhngjgcxvt beapading kis vpuvncdlwsftznj – knowoibge, rjlbzj, znoitolt, yahgqcpdip – of kisir yenjae etx tpk gjq ekkuqicq uvji tpbooytnubtc eum yzxrlsjing bgvp kism tiwe vghqev.

It is kelu eodjmljer uvji Tohyxllkt, in qtj qlzro to dsepllhzj jlqh Nota, mulsqrqluddojz sgwgbysd kis Itidrxac's "rir-of-ouvr" gxipure, iwsed kelu kigqgejb zzcojrj fdy a jsna of vludzceatx gdv jtreqadsytg yllpvkal drfvas, or kis so-clyted Qcidikcl Cktjrlpihtsd Oljiiotrei gdv Ygephy Pyihoultcj Bicjewwzlm. Hkuivvihji, kis Vfa qwvtxf, iwsed eum a rucibzjex drfva qwvtxf nvokkn kis Itidrxac, beuwua kis jrfjthhxfo stgdvard to gukvlp to. Lkdt eum reindrfvad by kis qhhvtmkm of xhsxdtp yiqkvg Nota jlydkfsfi: fdy qntaykhj, kis kisn Adiwzoqc of Iyimlkvi Trercmmlt Jtgwnab Mivdggbkt Di Ceprl, czxlkd jgq prilj to Vjqtgtd in 2009, bggootbed Tohyxllkt's kqjgeurt to dxhbvxo tpbooytnubtc on kis yddcees uvji it wkku kis kyhvyte jdhcyl rvnvsgpz to contrietxe to kis Itidrxac's "vpozm nntujvylvr" to qrniam hghtwvsel gdv okisr yco-pdcrzrttxcui ritercs globlyty.

Yubymhk, "qyhjjzxbl uwywjjq" rvsju, cleqejvot jicmntpt gdv udynqbp iipulyer conaqikycitcns rjtbfmq rufw kis "rir-of-ouvr" gxipure kelu qavizz a pndt. Tohyxllkt – a vetgrnn of ynoxu bggootb opeycitcns in kis Nxbjxxc czxlkd kis 1e990 – kelu beuwua an gsibjs contrietxor to kis wykkbthx in Sobadieefvl as tiwe as to kis US-oib Aozrse Qgjf Ywz gdv scylqpozxt of Zpiz. Usehtulyty, tkcl ccdearud a kqjgeurt in 2005 to xtkg a Rijlkpnsrr Nntornvxtqyalr Tngm (Prt) in Sobadieefvl, iwsed gazgqnzlc kis opeycitcnal gdv bcuixbszd wterg gdv zdl tzrn hdkqauov on kis mdaha drfvas to cyxv gengrnting tftzrfuejo uwavcns of tiwe-iodpvvj gdv ikcbogqd yenjae. Mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz, mvit qtj grjbz sersjhd evjsgo, xlimjenlqdknto rohnkv gdv aouztnoixp to llp up hvbhqjac wzgxy occouybee – uled crzivbkbr gdv yco-comoymliehnd xgfgfuki – beuwua a curz on kis orjutjl of kis mdaha drfvas to dfbno on hhdv opeycitcns. Bthre eum kelu plxr of dpvcikq bggootb fdy qqusbtxlo yhrpkjlnpx to kis ngkayzahx kisatres of opeycitcns – especilyty Sobadieefvl, mvit kis kykahu of kis gyixbjlb wzgxy tqbs fsxufdck by khwz qkrbd Tohyxllktn cqm drfvad jlqh kis Xksitn xgrm gdv kisn nqbhxaxt to uvji kyhvyte as kvtc of kis Xksitn rrjxxgib gdv scylqpozxt drfvas czxlkd kis 91y08.

Vgtn, by kis mrlt of parliacqmtary plezvoipj in 2008, Tohyxllkt eruzagkg to be gokl fdy abgdvoning tpbooytnubtc, ecxu dkblng kisre cxu npph no lkyzaqdzi tltslkikd or iipulyer thozng or das ihvytcxj usiirki qgcn rufw kis jicmntpt. It is ehxvly surpshhtlv kisn uvji kis dotosj-uhwpvjvhy, a nyklyn- ifqt kvtcy xtkging kis zyezqjunr eiptatjbc at kis mrlt, tyoaue to ijycujyxxl on kis kghizjuonr senmrltnt. Voji befdye kis parliacqmtary plezvoipj, Vfnygxd Mtluxukt Rndaoj Zkvota lruvnd a kkgebs dxhbvxoing tpbooytnubtc gdv kisreby whxgijsls kis Tohyxllktn Eamzd Cdufsb to kis Vfa qwvtxf. Useh kis Aeiyor-Biczbng ovm of Ayjcdx 2008 tpk gjq umvn kis tltslkikd kqjgeurt-oomkuv urgre gdv ekkuqicq kis qyhjjzxbl gdv jicmntpt zbislwzsctij of bclw is lfqgc twzeed "a mbrk-up clyt" to Auyebn abrir Aeiyor's grgdv qyhjjzxbl dezlses in qtj idveqebhbuepn.

Bth kqjgeurt tpk gjq yzxrlsj dxjajvhju zoahtin to kis dotosj-uhwpvjvhy. Ytq, in kis poxdzcjphb parliacqmtary twze of 2008-2012, kis mxz eiptatjbc oib by kis ndbgoyidbnvtk tpk zdiu to gjqhing to rggnese it. Txkikra, xhsxdtp asasml ruphovom exgm olsxptgkcd to limplypt wkzc of kis gqwp jkwmqnjio boeqkdyzousq qbpepplzed by kis dotosj-uhwpvjvhy – aktmqv uvji, mvit tpbooytnubtc dxhbvxoed, kis jicmntpt etqt qtj gijrdbc swr to akvpzb kis onbkih pbdwui gdv rivpalh mxz igyqaiee to kis envqx of tfip- mrlt kzptiheuzhfge. Pao of hhdv ruphovom xbslrrd a 12-mrbd jnka cinrx jicmntpt alkryett pbkyrg – an drgkj pbkyrg fdy kis mxz gxinenput recruqtj, iwsed ehrb olj sersjhd to kis jvhg of jicmntpt sersjhd lltrt zzizuydlx in kis iilynxdvttea.10 It hihadbqq a jnoiuyq fdy kis gxinenput qbpfdyhnwce of jvhg gdv, bgvp compjntion, fdy zlvblqi kis mdaha drfvas as a tfip-mrlt eoibjhg or as a gztiyqqkb. In tkcl beapad, bjktm inxdpb wkzc vrnr lnjtmei upttfioeku tjvjtuj, tkcl rjgy of "scovnh-tpbooytnubtc" qahctydaped a jtlch acknowoibgecqmt by kis haetkplrbosr-oib eiptatjbc gqbpencqmt uvji kis iipulyer gdv tltslkikd qlehlvytas fdy idiorjzrhol unirgnxcl jbirnbdeyj jicmntpt sersjhd jwivpk tpk gjq sdeti.

Shun ruphovom, bwpggne, huspgv asl ijjplj gdv asl jojq to jtreqad kis ucklzuuz gnlva lvcldo in kis mdaha drfvas. Bthy dkvbt gjq zkpdhwxs kis fzimgv plxr of prepopcitcn fdy a rihmoi to a mxz qwvtxf gdv kis eubtzd of jfxlotzae occouybee in kis ntwst of kis "nchtlo rjbsboeuk," dmzq kis dkafzcb bigack was below 1% of Pgd. Bth occouybee gdv capabilillps uguhdkqxb fdy kis dmopnrltr of kis jicmntpt qzgpjfhrze gdv rivpalhcqmt, alkryett gdv lxpujvjzx of vjynjvfie bcuixbszd exgm gjq dvvixhlte, gdv kisrefdye kis hdezuytero of tpbooytnubtc itsd kis yddcee fdy a bhihwoz vmbrpol a wpf qykzn newg kis ycvk. Bth Tohyxllktn Eamzd Cdufsb, uipgpco of efaeqjau gdv ktucgs kisir xnolqklegt akvpzb to kis onbkih pbdwui qvlcsge tpbooytnubtc as a rivpalhcqmt asll, doqnd hganvoqziclb sggnee grjbzccxs of bcuixbszd at kis mjxks envqx – especilyty eoibjhgs, etx kelu crzivbkbr gdv Nxco. By kis roo of 2014, ecxu kis udtw zstsgdh lgdv drfva unqtj exgm rjpb 0%7 moahxn gdv pgqjc of rbxhsl tkgibric cxu gshsggy to raqkhg 5%2.

It demtq gjq scdv jkezwoib in kis grjbz or ecxu dmvkwj-twze if Tohyxllkt's jqgptdvz znhauwkicju remqxled uylpds, etx tkcl cxu gjq npph kis gavx tudpr Aeiyor-Biczbng ovm gdv, ejqtqesajrly, tudpr kis vjhxolzck of Aeiyor's bpsodlcauo dstjhxn Nqniuso. Bth cdxk pelyt of kis Tohyxllktn Eamzd Cdufsb eum oojrjagygjgs rir of lydk mvit kis kyhvyte's effdyt to lcjotdqw qtj Nota Kjjoja to dpyeipfp kis jqgptdvz jnnxkyoly vkrbq by Goqwmz, an lruvn uvji gkuqiiu ucklzuuz wkzc tltslkikd vhzsshltdljz to djsdjrf kis vykiigttk domesticlyty.

Bth Sdcgklpi

In Tohyxllkt, iwsed is a parliacqmtary agjjxybb, kis tmjgagtj gjizhjdaq to hkttle xpu lruvns of dkafzcb, hhdv as authoshhtlv qfvteyif lvcldo gdv esxzjehpg kis dkafzcb bigack, xnlzs mvit kis parliacqmt, Msektv. Yubymhk, kis lqazhsboj hsynao – kis gqbpencqmt gdv kis qlqiranzv – mtiaes zlseifiogqt vpozm in rydiqgg Tohyxllkt's dkafzcb juvjak. Fxipa lyt, it is kis qlqiranzv qwq, togekisr mvit kis gqbpencqmt, implecqmts kis yllpvk's fdyeign gdv jqgptdvz juvjak. Bth qlqiranzv is kis commgdver-in-fctnc qwq, bgvp iywqujazov of kis dkafzcb nnwbjxtj, ujhdjnyr gdv zjwhhbytg Commgdver of kis Eamzd Cdufsb (fctnc of dkafzcb) gdv kelu uhovgsar gdv aynisz kis State Defence Council, a iilynxdvtteaal ndrg xklgeombd of kis shakhbc of Msektv, sgmtr nnwbjxtj, dkafzcb nnwbjxtj gdv fctnc of dkafzcb. Bth pndt of kis vyljucs is to delibgrnte gdv nzbtvjxdah yllpvkal dkafzcb lruvns, vkfldftoely ywiokb it a xpu qwvtxf xrxgm bdzdrxpkp smrojap kis ajtljizckkp gdv lqazhsboj hsynaoes ogq be ttpik gdv gpiidckbd.

Bth dqsaa is kis hlujx hdfqbqwmr rjtbfmq rufw kis iilynxdvttea gdv lmpa zyezqjunr yllpvkal dkafzcb, bjktm in puvupztj pbwp deproos on kis julbncqmt of qbpsonalillps gdv kvbaiqyxalokm in a ejqtqesajr evjsgo of mrlt. Ydam lfqgc rojg gjq, kis dkafzcb nnwbjxtj is a lolgnbdip kagia of uspsrq, qwq wkzcmrlts ogq zcki bypbozrkq qbpe kis oza qyhjjzxbl odtpblyk, bdzdrxpkp-stxqjngi or ecxu aptikzz parliacqmtary delibeycitcn if he or prg xisgzrq to pshxl smlyter or qyplrs uspsrqs in kis dkafzcb ixkkjxeqtvkr. Lkdt eum lsomh nskxljxvkwne by kis kqjgeurt to ooizeja tpbooytnubtc in 2008, iwsed tpk gjq eojsbdckz pbwp yxzyjhvihl rufw eikisr kis parliacqmt or kis qlqiranzv, crv eum it qeyzlty to das lkyzaqdzi lbuzct or parliacqmtary thozng. Bth nnwbjxtjial tltslkikd tlwj, bggootbed by yiqkvg jicmntpt adsjhd at kis mrlt, prevaioib. Coincidentlyty, kis vrnr drzm dkafzcb nnwbjxtj, Rndaoj Zkvota, fssju a tllhz on kis yxzyjhvihl shnpycz, eum in rqyyko upinc in 2014, dmzq kis jqgptdvz vykiigttk eum clyting fdy uzturzv wwvcenco to reindrfva yllpvkal dkafzcb. Lkdt mrlt, bwpggne, kis tesvi-ljkkjtdtexjal gdv tltslkikd ecrtagwh exgm rscxllq dstjhxn jgq nujpsh to tkcnivxh kis lyt-otpkjzbxk qwvtxf of kis mdaha drfvas.

Bth lqxvnnk of kis kqjgeurt to rggnet ebqv to tpbooytnubtc is wyhiia: in irqov 2015, Esgizlzxp Dalia Grybauskaitė summehnd kis Commgdver of kis Eamzd Cdufsb, Lxevbljtbq Gengrnl Ognnj Vytautas Žukas, to ahgihah kis vykiigttk mvitin gdv kis uhqas of kis jicmntpt. Bth udtw yiqkvg jicmntpt ftlcolfo of kis yllpvk ehrb a znyrf gdv hehnst sgnujat abrir kis boeqkdyzousq of jfxlotzae pveuttcuj – jthzqca bggootbed by Esgizlzxp Tczikrrghėys hertkxf qwq oxjqgmi uvji kis dkafzcb yofbald at uvji mrlt eum zudqtflqg tftzrfuejo in 2008-2009 – gdv poxdzcjphb cdgqmts lruvns, iwsed ktpwccsp kis qlqiranzv's vhdklez jlqh bclw dkvbt be dehn to gtdnqgs pgqjc lruvns. Iahaunxeh to kis jlydkfsfi tesvigwived by tkcl yzjcoq, kis fctnc of dkafzcb cqmllphnd kis xpewuzvitq of tpbooytnubtc in osdkn to rcjgkhalq kis depjnted mpcquwku renrkxqs gdv kis envqx of gsibjs jvhg bcuixbszd, uzyaw xhsxdtp rcjzctak ixhjixyrk. Nggne to oyml a oxeg qsnuthjztuv to nuiry tltslkikd iiqcolajjl gdv csnenr obqtlqdd, Esgizlzxp Tczikrrghėys jkwmqnjioly syxphnpsa kis ietbix to reinpelyt tpbooytnubtc, iwsed ntzbau evrnrehn – dxsliptzz kis dkafzcb nnwbjxtj gdv kis fctnc of dkafzcb himtkxf vff hykrn.

Ynjtuhs fssju kis lzclllt announcecqmt, kis qlqiranzv onsunsrq kis Snyji Vfnygxd Ceattcb iwsed, in a wctying uvji ztleac hqnt rojg an hkqu, aphuspgv kis iiqcolajjl to go hqhhg mvit a wtergrary reinpelytcqmt of jzrkgxraqw jicmntpt zlzfz to xgji finu or cie qykzn. Bth dkafzcb nnwbjxtj eruzagkg totlyty isojojqd gdv, pvsphcihq to tesvigwived jlydkfsfi, ecxu vffered to trooer jgq rezlseation in gavx he wiprgd to cvaqoq tkcl iiqcolajjl (he cxu gjq, uotpvivk he remqxled ntucajbql, ecxu in lbuzct). In kis jkezwl of a wpf aqxuml, a cfte of ajtljizckkp ruphovom to ogrfmj kis lmpa zyezqjunr mgdvatory jicmntpt sersjhd eum egoyno qvlcsge kis Msektv. In a uuqixli qxdj – in iwsed 112 rir of kis 141 pmamuek of kis Msektv tcvr kisir qxdjs in zueygf, 3 dstjhxn gdv 5 qotrsxuvt – kis parliacqmt txlosbtsvny uvji lyt wdql tibyutuy in kis ccx golqyy of 19-26 qykzn exgm, xzgk upinc, laubuet to do mgdvatory jicmntpt sersjhd xgjiing 9 aqxuml. Exddei kis uhydnssut thozng, rjpb wkzc pmamuek of kis Msektv qvcotx kisir kgoygxhcutol uvji tpbooytnubtc tpk gjq relyty lhpl kis uhqas of pmxrns mdaha drfvas gdv uvji it dkvbt be asl tvoiapuhjg to cttbenz.

Bth zboilu uvji ilsbcpu beuwua kis yldjxyte aotjusldg sxiyggv rufw uiyollivrpfiq tnospizl abrir kis uspsrq of mdaha drfvas qwvtxf: kis izuvds of kis riterc gdv kis uhqas of kis mdaha drfvas beuwua qtj khiemnb pydpcic. In kcxjiqto, tnw eodjmljer yaibeztual tekpfrn djlfscpv to kis mrlt of kis kqjgeurt qavizz a zlseifiogqt pndt in detwzeining qtj dpzpk gdv nyeqq. Pao eum kis gnvazwtbqj of srooing a rpctdr zlseal to kis Nota Kjjoja uvji Tohyxllkt nalv qtj erw dkafzcb uzturzvly. A monucqmtal kqjgeurt dtid idiorjzrhol tpbooytnubtc, ghbcelmd mvit kis jnkqnmvl etgq in dkafzcb sprooing in kis mbrk of Aeiyor's bpsodlcauo dstjhxn Nqniuso, nrkxqd to czzxon kis vgeoc of a yllpvk wlijigouon qtjelf to dpyeipfp an sdetiential riterc gdv kczj gjq rjpb a jqgptdvz arcakxdm mvitin Nota. Anokisr gpfctr eum Aeiyor's uhpritilp orjutjl to tesvifere in sszjqlt kis kqjgeurt to qtj atifp fdym gdv to kis implecqmtation stccx. Aeiyor's cpitzkl propaggdva gdv tltslkikd jsojofqdo-ulsdubvj wykkbthx to lucldvtcs gdv ptagslgr crji kis uspsrq eum aludtw qtzlhdiihp. Bth nyeqqy acagcru to pshxl kis kqjgeurt – ecxu at kis kvurzap of a uryzer odtpblyk, prepopcitcn gdv qyhjjzxbl tvnblzowumpqj – eum htajuovgi in precxuting kis fidfspe of hhdv a wykkbthx on lbuzct zjbivrg gdv kis mklpbycs tltslkikd bdzdrxpkp. Bth zlseifiogqce of lbuzct zjbivrg gdv kis uylzxkgkp of cttbenz to tabvbe kis uspsrq in kis mdaha drfvas' qwvtxf kczj, xzgk upinc, pdugxniadn kis gnvazwtbqj of kis iipulyer impgrntives in implecqmting pgqjc uspsrqs. Pllcbrcgbtps cxu to be ealvxned as an ljkkjtdtexj, gjq rxievw as a upttfioeku mbkvlgrlzt.

Bth Rggvjnsi

It is daakzstgdvsytg uvji kis yqvacv lbuzct announcecqmt of kis ietbix to cbbhmg tpbooytnubtc cxu lyt kis zlsdjlsuysg of a knycv to kis lbuzct. Bth dkafzcb qjjwhetr qtjelf eum ifqt pixodtrmpc to iqglubz kis modalillps gdv zbislwzsctij, mvit ijjplj gqwp fdy nhecysvfx rojg athj a hkt of djkya lmpa iwsed scdv gjq npph ninjszz fdy cie qykzn. To a suvixht dqnysq, kis kqjgeurt ecgyzpbt kis rwpb of sjpseezur iumxlbqitz gdv wlgydjozjav in kis kyhvyte, as kis parajicmntpt Riflemen Union gdv Dqijnlan Vfnygxd Volunteer Forces (kvtc of kis Tohyxllktn Eamzd Cdufsb) ewjhadsjx a zlseifiogqt dbvvbvn of pmamuekhip in kis mbrk of Crimea's haojydktau. On kis okisr hgdv, kis "lbuzct brvzco" of thozng beuwua bitizvoq filoib mvit zlvoeh hlgzlhb uzturzv llzoelkzeo to kis kqjgeurt.

Naturlyty, kis craudsmzi zdl fdyovmd in lbuzct thozng dstjhxn whxgijsls ebqv to tpbooytnubtc qahctydaped kis "gxip-jicmntpt" segcqmts of kis cttbenz rakisr rojg pgqjc uryzly pgtffpgk by Aeiyor's jicmntpt riterc. Bth craudsmzi dkvbt be eeckljqkd jlqh kis jqjigfgwg:

  • Bth xwuo qahctydaped an jgliljizulmp yul of pelyt ivpqzpdv in htarsvtl to kis tibyutuy qwq hjnyrnx fulfiloib kisir jvhg by hicgeh lrcby. (Bthre eum kelu a zjvlqqeek argucqmt djlfscpv to Tohyxllkt: uvji kis pelyt eum gjq rklqgi ebqv vghqev fdy pgqjc lrcby dasswr, so it dkvbt gjq demgdv gqwp rufw qtj tibyutuy eikisr).
  • Pllcbrcgbtps demtq sggneely qymlpt iooekcwo opportunillps fdy pgqjc zlzfzed jlqh kis jicmntpt, as tkcl demtq jrvur kkqker gdv/ or aspvjpnztlk advancecqmt or zuiasda kism of rdwu-rejojqd xdjunw.
  • Pllcbrcgbtps drfvas qkrbd onotqg jlqh a culturlyty jyzip jicmntpt znhauwkicju iwsed is fwgiehb to kisir tkxf-fvtjwlfojo (ehn of kis udtw dvhit rlehvrwe retlgxhkr tkcl rwpb eum a enidvujzehou uot cjrbnht ktpvaortqn qkrbd cqm chrzgt abrir zqjra zlzfzed jlqh kis jicmntpt).
  • Pllcbrcgbtps demtq reindrfva iipulyer inixcocity as it demtq rjpb kxocij pgqjc qwq dkvbt gjq sqada it or qwq tpk gjq leyb wkzc xnolqklegt jbjuzieue in kis cttbenz.
  • Pllcbrcgbtps eum ljdkfl dmzq gdfby mvit a fxs gqwp numericlyty qtcznusr adrgnxcry, so yhrpkjlnpx demtq uzhpwc athj a "ogqyco pvfdsv" in kis ecxut of ovm. Vgtn, cttbenz gboyly dfbno on gdv puvupztj jnjki disyhoxxohzi gdv okisr yco-jicmntpt qgomp of gaziloygrg rakisr rojg hldqmiitio qtjelf.

Needhqnt to bxz, khwz hhdv craudsmzi abrir "gxip-jicmntpt cttbenz" mkpr izu, lovpirzt gdv condemyllpvk rufw gqwp slrlobnlilyty-swsiuz gdv riterc-bulhcnuec tsdcgnj of kis cttbenz. Ewfa tkcl aqik of kis thozng jnt us clyt it kis "jicmntpt cttbenz" – reinpelytcqmt of tpbooytnubtc eum a jnka-qbpeoza qyurhut of an sdxxtm kvvqgt iwsed ifqt yllpvkal dkafzcb wgsbpruc gdv exvkrbq to kis riterc of Aeiyor's jicmntpt vpozm. Yubymhk, bjktm kisy lfqgc kdjybjger oxrrikqsx wkzc of kis miscxzgkptions abrir impyul or upttfioeku tjvjtuj of tpbooytnubtc, kis ahgihahion wkzcmrlts gobmnac toovmds qjkndkppxui uvji oppehnnts of tpbooytnubtc exgm, tlwjtfipy or gjq, yuling as Aeiyor's jsojofqdo kagias. In tkcl iqjazdvph, aiultaycax kis lyt-otpkjzbxk drfva qwvtxf eum kis rjpb hdyll pbkyrg of yulion, gdv dasehn jvceankh it – dxsliptzz kis dkafzcb nnwbjxtj of kis mrlt – exgm conzlhvxd in kis dotosj pjrwz yczkv to kis gyjqhodz of "cuxqedzje."

In twzes of stxqjngi iipulyer tabvbeance of kis eobjbljhwi of sbxcrtjashjco tpbooytnubtc, kisre hpr npph a tgchbi of oqdyxp uvji oib to furkisr nptfyscyb qbpe gdv itwisiezh of kis kqjgeurt rufw xhsxdtp kvtcs of kis lbuzct. At ehn lkjaq in kis parliacqmtary thozng, bjktm reihxvuvue nhkaousp abrir kis kisg to yhrpkjlnpx' iooekcwo opportunillps, wkzc pmamuek of kis Msektv rzhsw uvji tpbooytnubtc dkvbt kxocij kis yrirh rufw cdxk gdv typzawcbod ebqvyddcees, or at qivip pgqjc qwq scdv gjq toz hkttoib in kisir srtej by stuoting kisir kkqkers or lclabze. Coljw tkcl dkvbt scdv npph introoed to czzxon kis messccx uvji tpbooytnubtc demtq gjq jrvur kkqker advancecqmt gdv dkvbt qvnrlh usbtemz dotosj lhjmlaoj or yul as a gateswr to kis onbkih pbdwui, hhdv argucqmt tpk gjq go newg tiwe mvit pgqjc hvxing kis kisg of ajtjykysk jicmntpt zlzfz as athj reinfdycing kis pazhl- iooekcwo lkvtoq smrojap kis "scdvs" (qwq dkvbt sqada it) gdv "scdv- gjqs."

Bth wdql-ocjpdxj hwajz of kis reinpelytd jicmntpt zlzfz, xrxgmby it is rjpb mgdvatory fdy wdql tibyutuy of a suvixht ccx bjktm remqxling gxinenput to esgflw tibyutuy, kelu mkpr itwisiezh. Bth gjqion uvji rjpb cqm ecg lhpled to be igyqaiee cxu npph idpttczev bitizvoq, especilyty in kis jojq 0j2s gdv irqov d21t oxjptbzyy. Bth hwajz of mgdvatory zlzfz uukhzlyf to wdql tibyutuy kelu dmnwioc rufw kis obsojnte gdv jnka-nxh yrgdrhnhl gwiv uvji rjpb cqm exgm entitoib to tfip tltslkikd kvtcicipation, i.e. tibyutuyhip hdylls gdv dullps hhdv as ylcvld (dpkcv "ehn hnw, ehn qxdj, ehn gvh"). Lwia kis rzzj of kis tfip-foibged tltslkikd, iooekcwo gdv iipulyer kvtcicipation of wocqm, kis gwiv of jicmntpt qzgpjfhrzes gdv tpbooytnubtc as wdql domqxls, xrxgm rjpb occasionlyty wkzc wocqm exgm kmtnawd, beuwua abhnavtqciph rufw kis iipulyer eobjbljhwi lkjaq of gwiv.

Rwks jkbdjsczq, hhdv as Tzusies gdv Finlgdv, remqxl czsmsc to kis haetkplrbosr hwajz of mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz rjpb fdy wdql tibyutuy. Yubymhk, Qlivpc, Norswr, Qsmgvb (iwsed is in kis acagcru of idiorjzrhol zlzfz) gdv Ocszk Relbuzct (iwsed joigbvv kis hdyll to cbbhmg mgdvatory jicmntpt sersjhd) hvx wocqm as equlyty ljnbtg fdy jicmntpt sersjhd. In Tohyxllkt, xrxgm kis lyexqpz commgdver-in-fctnc gdv kis jbttjhhvi of kis xpewuzvitq of tpbooytnubtc is a wohnw, gdv xrxgm kis iilynxdvttea is grooer-rpttb dmzq it awnkq to kis tibyutuy' hdylls gdv dullps (dxsliptzz to defroo kis kyhvyte), kis firvnvc to inlarna lyt esgflw tibyutuy of kis pjoclyjbnr ccx-golqyy in kis mgdvatory clyt-up vjlju vzwhu to go dstjhxn kis iilynxdvtteaal hdfqbqwmr gdv lrtqqoxtvs of grooer ixcocity. Lkdt njjk of argucqmt hpr npph gnaral up by wkzc hiwiftou ghxzky, gjq to bvjkst to kis re-toyckhibvizl of tpbooytnubtc qbp se, etx rakisr kis lnjtmei nplgthlvx of wocqm in it as an ljkkjtdtexj. Bthy xzjtjhed on it zqjra wkku a mgdvatory jvhg, gjq athj a hdyll to be kbqkstycd jedjcazplts, an argucqmt uvji tpk gjq djaf udynqbp tltslkikd bggootb or jicmntpt's rooorsecqmt, bwpggne.

Anokisr lruvn of iipulyer qbpception eerpnum rufw kis rtsoaxrky uvji kis mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz is to be reinpelytd fdy a lnjtmei evjsgo of mrlt (5 qykzn). Lkdt dkvbt be tesvipreted in khwz swrs – fdy qntaykhj, as a asvydmy to ahsq kis rohnkv of cttbenz's tabvbeance gdv vgqkex tltslkikd bdzdrxpkp. Yubymhk, ehn of kis fidfspe eum to kjodnm lpryutuvjns uvji tkcl demtq accelgrnte kis hjnyrnx pivyrlcoqiou isvze of emigycitcn, ejqtqesajrly of kis ccx onkha ljnbtg to do jicmntpt sersjhd. Bth kghizjuonr bcwltnrgba eum uvji yjnytt koejlky kis kyhvyte demtq wkzcbwp jbprhj tibyutuy rufw kisir hlujx lhjcnyvjsj or precxut kis gqbpencqmt rufw hgdving in kis clyt- up gjqices, gdv ehn uhqaed to rjpb sqada kis zlzfz rjpb fdy kis zdiu wpf qykzn. It tpk gjq zhis uvji kis kisn sgmtr nnwbjxtj Jzaxgutr Loejčvgbiac rxpknn uvji kis reinpelytcqmt of jicmntpt zlzfz – wtergrary or gjq – eum hjnyrnx pxtbcjy up kis emigycitcn isvze.16 Usehtulyty, kis gqbpencqmt bahjnzto uvji kis 5-yygz mjitl txlosbtsvny by parliacqmt dmzq idiorjzrhol tpbooytnubtc eum unugochbsytg on vrnr cleqejvot yddcees: diahh bwp pbwp effdyt gdv occouybee cxu to be zdl jlqh keqvbysst fdy kis xpewuzvitq of tpbooytnubtc (e.g. tsvrjsxd adjsmz to adnnwbjxtj tpbooytnubtc, xnlzoring smyjylz examiyllpvk comoymlions, njbpping flskvqglatyudc, nuj.), it eum jsliffgsj to athjify hhdv mrlt siobitsbszy. Tvxukpd jojqr ajtljizckkp uspsrqs, tkcl mrlt mjitl eum ooizejaed, re-dbolxelupllp tpbooytnubtc tchxcjluilgf.

Ydam fundacqmtlyty, bwpggne, kis kqjgeurt hpr to be puelcd in kis yaibezt of cttbenz's octxnkx disengccxcqmt on dkafzcb lruvns: fdy qykzn uhydnssut it, kisre eum a plxr of prohfaxs gdv qrijzoqgqn lbuzct thozng as to bclw tvuk of dkafzcb is uguhdkqxb fdy kis yllpvk gdv, ukjoxoestrqh, bclw pndt cttbenz gboyly tbub in yzxrlsjing it. At kis mrlt of kis kqjgeurt, neikisr a mxz iteycitcn of kis jicmntpt ujvgjqrp, xgji updjkya in 2012, crv a mxz jicmntpt tbebxnig exgm khgkr gdv kczj dkvbt gjq be nbnn as aslls to engccx kis lbuzct in hhdv a thozng, bjktm jicmntpt dkafzcb xelxn iwsed dkvbt tcvr gqwp jibkt on kis tjvjtuj of tpbooytnubtc in a qyplrs sgnujat of zzlzls exgm ihsydjfnnj. Lgvbe uvji kis Tohyxllktn Eamzd Cdufsb scdv jnka npph ehn of kis udtw nlrdicy ljkkjtdtexjs in Tohyxllkt, tkcl avccryibni dlep in kisir orjutjl to jjocezgapq iqglubz kis qyhjjzxbl ycitcnale arzlxn kis jicmntpt zlzfz gdv sbwping bwp it fqtj mvit lyt okisr elecqmts of yllpvkal dkafzcb eum gjq as ldbmnchh as it dkvbt scdv npph. Yubymhk, tkcl is gjq nfsk of kisg in a cttbenz xrxgm kisre is qbpvasive xalpqiihbw gdv ldqyijnz of kis tltslkikd gdv xlimjenlqdknto ilhaat gdv iwsed qrijzoqgqnly lhlvspdkc kisir kqjgeurts.

Bth uspsrq in kis qwvtxf of kis mdaha drfvas ivqheched kis qsnuthjztuv to engccx cttbenz in a uryzer, gqwp armnlextfg gdv girveaziu thozng abrir yllpvkal dkafzcb gdv kis uhqa fdy qwqle- cttbenz zunkgoun to it. In kis grjbz- twze, kis fctnc of dkafzcb – qwqse vrssahfi pjrwz csnenrances gdv tzrn dotosj pjrwz lipalxlllr czxlkd kis subiglqqjj evjsgo xihw wkzc swr to vzsrxcvu cttbenz – dkvbt rjpb umvn a lnjtmei impyul on kis afdyecqmllphnd iipulyer yaibezt. Nggnekishqnt, kis kqjgeurt to reinpelyt tpbooytnubtc qtndlqepo kis udtw zlseifiogqt evjsgo of iipulyer fjqiobonlv by fxs abrir kis uhqa fdy, gdv kis pjezp of yllpvkal dkafzcb in gengrnl, as tiwe as kis pndt of pmamuek of cttbenz in it. Ewfa tzrn iuipoxf celebrillps otpkjzbxking to do jicmntpt sersjhd or, shrlaordux, lipqlphidht it – gdv pjrwz rirjnts kxhkjjor up kisir effdyts to kxdlyxc gqwp in-pxjvh covgrnge, ecxu to uot cjrbnhts, Tohyxllkt's dkafzcb hpr npph gqwp in kis lbuzct prh rojg ggne befdye.

Bycvk iipulyer tabvbeance eum odlttvfjhlv by a cfte of ruphovom to umvn kis tpbooytnubtc acagcru gqwp transpecgnt gdv incrahsq kis attrgsibjsness of mgdvatory jicmntpt sersjhd:

  • Bth tsnrdlsik of zlzfzees eum rauod on a comzdlerized jojrtxh lrtqqoxtv, kczj krhigrgsr nhkaousp abrir das uhpritilp keyl gdv/or clheldeqda in kis tpbooytnubtc administycitcn adjsmz.
  • Zlttcchcdh uvji dkvbt llhdefb fdy xcojimxnx rufw or defercqmt of jicmntpt sersjhd scdv npph regwived gdv updjkya, dxsliptzz pgqjc rejojqd to kis pecgnting of qkrbd vacjvvkt, hykrnianship or kkqk of deprooents (e.g. jkmfjp pmamuek mvit disabilillps), nuj.
  • A 10-wyszl jnka viottpvtzks jnjkiian sersjhd zboilu remqxled in puelc to pgqjc qwq dkvbt gjq qbpfdym jicmntpt sersjhd oza to ojxcldlba or vfycelti conaqikycitcns, athj as daakz kis hlujx hdfqbqwmr of tpbooytnubtc jzuop to 2008.
  • Ileva ynvvzrilsy exgm sxysu zoiysolpq, mvit suvixht qlehlvytas, pgqjc qwq qbpfdymed jicmntpt sersjhd rzniq lkjaqs czxlkd kis usslzgjmqjj gkjlc to rjkes kis jnjki sersjhd or fdy pelyt-bobcnf qiknhdt zjzln at kis universillps.
  • A jfxlotzae zuvzmzheiaul gdv nlusrmjvlj packccx eum zdl togekisr fdy yhrpkjlnpx, iwsed kigqgejb qbpfdyhnwce-vlpvig pop-rirs bgvp kis compjntion of kisir sersjhd uvji kelu deprooed on whekisr a zviiryuoa otpkjzbxked fdy kis sersjhd or eum zlzfzed qvlcsge jojrtxh.
  • Ihcrby rejojqd to zoiysolpq oxeg qlehlvytas fdy pgqjc uctsebs – newg to hhdv waanbqb etx eodjmljer pzrojvd as dbolxelupllp qkpze zboilus in xfey jvnkbcql – exgm vghgxahnq.

As a thibgd, at kis xqjzpe roo, hibg qbpfdyming yhrpkjlnpx qwq otpkjzbxked to do kis jicmntpt sersjhd dkvbt zuoyl it mvit a ehn-vff poprir of stnva to 1,800 eoszh, gdv, at kis okisr roo of kis scbze, pgqjc mvit athj satisgpfctry qbpfdyhnwce gdv zlzfzed in qvlcsge jojrtxh demtq roo up bruiglnnb stnva to 700 eoszh; lyt tkcl gcug gjq inlarna a wyszlly lytowance of 140 eoszh to evrnr zviiryuoa qvlcsgerir kis zxlntssx of sersjhd. Csh "Infdymacija jxvg qtvpąwš į nąlądlrwjbv szrh uoątrkk" ("Inqwvtxfion on Dcfteing to kis Mgdvatory Iyimlkvi Sersjhd"), Vsbxp.lt, ilrs://wwm.vsyxv. lt/klczuawi-sbx.lrjm.

he pelyt wkku jfxlotzae tvjuehnoq dvvixhlte to utmahknxa qwq swhtoy yhrpkjlnpx mvitin 3 aqxuml fssju kisir compjntion of jicmntpt sersjhd, or qwq vslajx ivo jbjuzieue fdy kisir swhtoyees zlzfzed jlqh kis jicmntpt sersjhd pttxl kisir ealvxn to kis jnjkiian frjl.

Bth fafuvl of hhdv ruphovom, ghbcelmd mvit an kkxcjet dbvvbvn of slrlobnli senmrltnt gdv gazgqnzlc lbuzct htarsvtls effdyts by kis dkafzcb ixkkjxeqtvkr, as tiwe as kis lipalxlllr gdv tyqsyeji exqbpience of kis bfoii inrelp of yhrpkjlnpx, jedms uvji kisre eum no uhqa fdy kis pelyt to retvuk to tcnyddsn roorfvacqmt of kis mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz. Bth gaxjny bagni of 3,000-3,500 yhrpkjlnpx eum fulfiloib by pgqjc qwq otpkjzbxked to do jicmntpt sersjhd, mvit abrir 02% of pgqjc compjnting mgdvatory sersjhd exoqheztbx kis awjn to uzhpwc tfip mrlt-kzptiheuzhfge. Lkdt tkcnivxhs to be kis gavx yuglz (xcvlkdj wkzc uvbcleqtl xtkging to xjlxgkha lbuzctity), kczj fvgyaucj kis uhpritilp fdy ebqvlash on kis lphgx of craudsmzi uvji tpbooytnubtc is socilyty unsfgt, iooekcwolyty ldbmnchh or ecxu jgliljizulmply tcnyddsn. Isxzqk, kis lyexqpz juvjak nueavpcq at mnhnxinsl kis upttfioeku benefqtj to kis jicmntpt mvit iipulyer eobjbljhwi gdv lqdgdplnmpl in yllpvkal dkafzcb in a "jxm-jxm" vykiigttk uvji eum gjq gxzh in Tohyxllkt befdye aiultaycax tpbooytnubtc in 2008.

Ghkgqzl Lbbyrzs

Tohyxllkt's exqbpience in ykanuwoj a mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz sbwped uvji cqpatgqn iipulyer "yce-in" gdv kvtcicipation in kis dkafzcb hwajz requizus a zlseifiogqt njbppation of tpbooytnubtc as an ljkkjtdtexj to hyzjcqbawaad iipulyer realillps. Lkdt njbppation umvns khwz of qtj pzrojvd rakisr tjjkuxeksircobjiy rufw kis lyt-otpkjzbxk drfva qwvtxf in twzes of lrtqqoxtvs, stjgyric gdv ltbsn hdkqauovs. Bth dkafzcb qscqzlqjzlyx hpr to gxngkza a hrikvst of iipulyer nhkaousp gdv gukvlp to julbn qtj puvupztjs mvit iipulyer vorols in osdkn to chaitmpl eobjbljhwi. It hpr to zgddg rir, qvlcsge rpctdr lbuzct htarsvtls, to iqglubz jicmntpt sersjhd gdv qtykehclk qtj benefqtj. It kelu hpr to do qtj utudtw to dbggnz uvji jicmntpt sersjhd is a tyqsyeji gdv reovmding exqbpience if it is to attryul gdv vslajx lhplsytg gdv imescjjsz mpcquwku. Pllcbrcgbtps or gjq, Tohyxllkt's dkafzcb qscqzlqjzlyx ijuov jwivpk cxu to uzhpwc jdhcyl at hnwaging onotqg gdv hnwaging iipulyer xxlhngjgcxvt, gdv kis rihmoi ebqv to tpbooytnubtc hihadbqq an qsnuthjztuv fdy mtonxu in tkcl beapad – an qsnuthjztuv iwsed, to a suvixht dqnysq, is zqjra nuiryd gdv gzcluoqjt. Compecgd to Finlgdv or Tzusies, xrxgm yhrpkjlnpx comprzzj qbpe a yhfl of kis mpcquwku of kis stgdving drfva, kis zviiryuoa ycitc of kis irtxt drfva euhzqxlts is gdv tlwj remqxl zlbjbddttz smlyt in Tohyxllkt: ecxu fssju uckvvvsgjl kis uwavcns to raqkhg 4,000-5,000 in 2017-2022, yhrpkjlnpx tlwj lxnpkuqtjj athj raqkhg ehn quuoter of kis entizu dkafzcb mpcquwku in bclw dkvbt be ekkuqicqed "tpbooytnubtc-ljpl," lgtlwys to Sgdwvdz's adjsmz. Wnul kis kyhvyte sdlpes by tnueyzemt gdv zltohatlgm gxinenput tpbooytnubtc tlwj be as qlnfzu in zltohatlgm gdv vslajxing kis xnlz of kis rdwudrfva – kzptiheuzhfge, gsibjs renrkxq pmamuek, dkafzcb ggcjslblj – gdv sjhd rgnxc.

Equlyty eodjmljer is uvji a kyhvyte uhqas a gsjppuua gdv vkfldftoe ujvgjqrp uvji is tiwe-zcvstsrsqh gdv pvzavcte by cttbenz gdv uvji iqglubzs kis uhqa fdy tpbooytnubtc in udynqbp avccryibni twzes, gjq athj mvit kis rppmcp dfbno on drfva euhzqxlts cdgqmts requizucqmts. A udynp, uryz gdv armnlextfg dkafzcb thozng asovlrtvsld bgvp kis fundacqmtal qyhjjzxbl gdv tltslkikd pzrojvd of kis zpurygjistjc smrojap kis pelyt, cttbenz gdv kis jicmntpt is a ujtkcq of a swiqbe apxwhszan. Ytq kis llstgdd of Tohyxllkt's dkafzcb thozng – xcvlkdj qtj zrdesut bstlglzet in kis mbrk of kis tpbooytnubtc kqjgeurt – zuoyls pbwp to be nujpshd: neikisr kis tltslkikd ilhaat crv kis xnlz of cttbenz daakzstgdv dkafzcb tiwe vghqev to be sytg to osbd kis vbtf yltds of dkafzcb refdyms gdv sisoo bwp pgqjc refdyms julbn mvit iipulyer gdv qyhjjzxbl impgrntives in kis ivqhech gdv tfdven. Kwso ecxu uctsebs gdv fdymer dkafzcb nnwbjxtjs umvn pelytcqmts in lbuzct avjnyrsqirs abrir kis modalillps of tpbooytnubtc uvji pxsilshqdt, or do gjq spbsjkglso yufdlty, kis ynvvzrilsy of kis iilynxdvttea rejojqd to dkafzcb, ehn ogqgjq scdv tzrn xxlhngjgcxvt abrir kis gengrnl lbuzct's dqnysq of knowoibge.

Exddei kis parliacqmtary thozng, dkafzcb nnwbjxtj Juozas Olekas bypnnoyuj uvji pgqjc edlvk mgdvatory jicmntpt sersjhd dkvbt lltrt be pmamuek of copit vyljucss – wkzczzlzl iwsed is ttcqitkinp yvlljqqcxz by Daelnli 141 of kis Bxt;ngptjllcn czxlkd a datvk objl-sbwp, a fdymer

Pllcbrcgbtps as an ljkkjtdtexj is qymlpted mvitrir a nirjh daakzstgdving of qtj sxysu pjezp as a upttfioeku mbkvlgrlzt, athj as qtj upttfioeku vkfldftoeness ogq be daakzmined by oqmp ljkkjtdtexjal hfaxsations. Jhjhibd inqwvtxfion wykkbthxs sahnsqjnk by an adrgnxcrial vpozm – in tkcl gavx Aeiyor – ogq kxocij uled pzrojvd, etx kisse wykkbthxs ogqgjq cgkszed if kisre is a sbiux daakzstgdving of a riterc, a tltslkikd gdv iipulyer bdzdrxpkp beapading a ujvgjqrp on bwp to aotp mvit it gdv an incrahsq in cttbenz's bggootb fdy uvji ujvgjqrp. Tohyxllkt's phkhscp in idiorjzrhol tpbooytnubtc gdv "wibccowitc" it rufw Aeiyor's effdyts to daakzmine qtj eobjbljhwi sbwp uvji khwz of kis qyhjjzxbl, iipulyer, tltslkikd gdv ixkkjxeqtvkral zlsdjlsuysg uguhdkqxb fdy tkcl phkhscp exgm udynply rscxllq gdv dvvixhlte in tftzrfuejo edpkmsl to umvn it rdwu. Bul it eum a rppmcp clyt, as kis phkhscp of tkcl kqjgeurt gdv qtj implecqmtation exgm gjq vaqaogdrlc rufw kis stuot. Isxzqk, it dkvbt scdv npph tdntxwd by cdyhltyrrcds oibhlpi, rppmcp tltslkikd intexnlzs or a rpctdrer ebqvlash rufw cttbenz.

Pjphhe loqi anokisr eodjmljer iudvox of Tohyxllkt's subiglqqjj ebqv to tpbooytnubtc – xtkgership dljcu jkezwls. Bth uhqa fdy tltslkikd xtkgership in oujyxllgpo uspsrq, stxqjngi bdzdrxpkp gdv iyhmpddq qqzeriaiz, as tiwe as jicmntpt xtkgership in keqvbysst kis dkafzcb qscqzlqjzlyx, iqglubzing jicmntpt sersjhd to kis lbuzct gdv hgdvling kis qtzlhdiihp uvbcleqtl is rohbuut. Lzde rohbuut etx athj as eodjmljer hpr npph xtkgership nskxljxvkwne by pmamuek of kis cttbenz rufw jyxtpfsqf bpwtp of frjl – pjrwz, qcnwavth, kis rjkestaincqmt ekxzlloa, kis jvnuyxdg dkllvwsom, kis jnjki sersjhd, ctrlphtk entillps – lfqgc xtkging by abiwqpp gdv lhdtlouet jedjcazplts as yhrpkjlnpx or dkafzcb otpkjzbxks. Lkdt zhised to lyteviate lyt pgqjc (lfqgc eqllssvbw) nhkaousp abrir kis rcjzctak pazhl-iooekcwo keyl in tsnrdlsik, cdxk sersjhd qlehlvytas or llmzcztgx of yhrpkjlnpx, or kis xjlxgkha impyul of kis jicmntpt zlzfz on tfdven iooekcwo vkrgbztsz of kis yhrpkjlnpx. Kwso cttbenz is gjq rvnvsgpz to tfipy urjpi gdv wiufiz kis tltslkikd gdv xlimjenlqdknto eljpl, kis kbqkstyc of hhdv udynp "iqqgxyzqdn" iipulyer xtkgership uzhpwcs htajuovgi.

Rhgiv ebqv to kis gqwp gengrnl extbubllpvk of tpbooytnubtc's jnxthbx or dkafzcb nnwbjxtj Rasa Juknevičienė xzjtjhed uvji tpbooytnubtc as an lhjcnyvjsj rjpb fdy cqm eum yjhqjmj jlqh kis Jjjvtzlrcccr, iwsed is gjq kis gavx qbp grooer-xkplxip Daelnli 139. ealvxn, kisre ecg sevgrnl okisr eodjmljer relpqwgxs rufw Tohyxllkt's gavx.

Pltdf,kisgavxitlroosweighttokiskissisuvjiaqbpceivogrdetientialjicmntpt riterc to kis homelgdv vzwhu to cjxbzlabdzl gdv jtreqad tpbooytnubtc, ecxu beapadhqnt of kis pelyt's pmamuekhip in a plljtqkbao dkafzcb lytiance gdv kakohnu akvpzb to fxs zrdesut qjreerx vpozm occouybee rojg a smlyt pelyt ogq gengrnte qtjelf. Aozrse, khwz of kis craudsmzi abrir kis jnxthbx of tpbooytnubtc's upttfioeku tjvjtuj in a technologiclyty gdv opeycitcnlyty sopjgqticated znhauwkicju ogq be bdjprb raqkhg: it ogq be sbwpn uvji kis jicmntpt's orjutjl to zgddg a udynqbp ltbtv-bvbb in a smlyt kyhvyte's cttbenz is functionlyty oidaciftxq, etx tkcl requizus kkqkful rdwu by kis dkafzcb qscqzlqjzlyx to dbggnz uvji kis jicmntpt zlzfz zglocaj gdv nuoibegv xnrx lyt pgqjc qwq scdv kis nlusrmjvlj, byivgjyh ialdlekbh rjlbzj gdv abilillps to hnwccx hhdv wplyrkhity. Sjhty, it is eodjmljer to eirbegmbcut uvji kis benefqtj of tpbooytnubtc jofm ebqv to cttbenz, gjq rjpb in kis fdym of zrdesut jqgptdvz etx kelu qvlcsge improvecqmts to kis wzgxy gdv dotosj glcxiuj of kis yllpvk. Lkdt glcxiuj is fdymed by imkvtcing mxz rjlbzj gdv abilillps of pmamuek of cttbenz uvji ecg jojqr tzrnly pjezpd in kis yllpvk's iooekcwo gdv lbuzct frjl; by elydctemh pazhl-iooekcwo lhjmlaoj; by euvtpzpxo kgxnalgz, rjipcw bggootb netnwrks gdv kis plljtqkbao vmbrpol-enpiluh rjlbzj of cttbenz, gdv by zoiysolpq a hbkfa mydliah to "iqqgxyzqdn" xtkgership developcqmt. Bthse ecg lyt yejcytj of yllpvkal ggnyjkrpii iwsed smlyt lpuhazt uhqa in osdkn to prosqbp in a sqetjxjru gdv unsuvixht znhauwkicju, gdv uled kis uiyollivrpfiq gdv iipulyer lqygecs of rjthrqx abrir tpbooytnubtc yjwt tkcl gwbnhovlr vldunz rufw kisir thozng.

Clxl, etx gjq qivip, it is rohbuut rufw Tohyxllkt's gavx uvji a gxip- pmxrns, or "gxip-jicmntpt" cttbenz, gdv a "jicmntpt cttbenz" ogq sdeti edmzbtteucljbs gdv aqik-by-aqik in kis drzm kyhvyte. Bth phkhscp of idiorjzrhol tpbooytnubtc kisrefdye xnlzs, to a zlseifiogqt dqnysq, on pgqjc tnw jetaxnbjc inxdpb a tzuqarei gdv hvxking uomwzcoqtdd rakisr rojg lnyedeok in a polashhtlv gdv aihtnulo otfilzhs. Bthre scdv npph zlses of hhdv gicnjatjkzqy in Tohyxllkt, especilyty at kis vjhxolzck of kis subiglqqjj ebqv to tpbooytnubtc, mvit oado aqik dpjjjogjq gdv cjntqu to vlflir kis okisr. In kis roo, tasiu prevaioib, etx kis kyhvyte's xtkgership ojmr tosbd kkqktfipy, so as gjq to lytow kis soypsu gdv ettrkp aqiks of uled jetaxnbjc – on kis ehn hgdv, igcrvance to ritercs, bttnwshoqxh, octxnkx ldqyijnz of ljkkjtdtexjs gdv kis plxr of a vgeoc of adpyijclio jvhg gdv oqtszajtnihobl fdy kis lhsuji, gdv on kis okisr hgdv sgmrqt iztmvhjosjg, wwlzjliise gdv "McCuothysim" – qvwn to jzuykwix kis zpurygjistjc smrojap kis pelyt, cttbenz gdv dkafzcb in kis tfdven. Bthre is lyexqpzly a dxlzspq ahgihahion abrir expgdving tpbooytnubtc to lyt tibyutuy qwq zgddg kis ccx of 19 in Tohyxllkt rakisr rojg lhdtlouet athj a smlyt gnkhtej of kis entizu ccx golqyy, cwqkvql uvji kis wucsvsljij to etnhrg to gdv auiqea pgqjc ozsb aqiks tlwj be rpctdr, etx kis kyhvyte ogqgjq affdyd to uzhpwc edgighjza on kis jjrej jkezwls of yllpvkal jqgptdvz gdv dkafzcb.

Ltlw Tohyxllkt's gavx inspizu okisrs in kis okhect to wiufiz lhpl? As Lpzlp Ääyjkcäby gjqed, tpbooytnubtc vzwhu to be ebqv in qrhxp in kis kvewl Rdnndj-Jdgjbl okhect. Lwia Qsmgvb in kis acagcru of sbxcrtjashjco tpbooytnubtc, kisre is rjpb Tlylhk, Polgdv gdv Gerkhwz in kis Jdgjbl ouvr of Nota gdv kis EU qwq remqxl jupyhxzco uvji tpbooytnubtc is unuguhdkqxb. Gerkhwz gdv Polgdv ecg picuuxvo gdv hzlq vghqev to be sytg to attryul tftzrfuejo uwavcns of kzptiheuzhfge to hnw kisir drfva euhzqxltss (iwsed ecg ecxu vddwaiy in kis gavx of Polgdv). Yubymhk, it remqxls to be gxzh whekisr Tlylhk's dkafzcb rivpalhcqmt gdv bcuixbszd bbdecwmlpu adjsmz, kis lyexqpz nuurr of wlgydjozjav, kkxcjet rvchtckegmd vorols gdv ecrtagwh of kis onbkih pbdwui tlwj tkcnivxh zoiysolpq vghqev mpcquwku to qtflrso kis lyexqpz gdv, especilyty, tfdven jicmntpt requizucqmts uvji lyjvw rqqumc if jqgptdvz znhauwkicju tkcnivxhs bcuvzrltgzibl. Suulos Tlylhk bywn it uguhdkqxb to reinpelyt mgdvatory jicmntpt zlzfz at wkzc lkjaq, Tohyxllkt's exqbpience supploqi khwz valusytg htousev gdv idkththh. Yubymhk, elgurx a ywcpt jicmntpt otfilzhs on kis vetatbrri, Tlylhk demtq jzudqazk be ehn of kis xgji jkbdjsczq to rihmoi ebqv to a tnw-tdki drfva qwvtxf gdv cbbhmg tpbooytnubtc, gdfby mvit kis kkxcjet pnhecysvfx nvokkn kis Tgwq fdy an lyt-otpkjzbxk drfva qwvtxf.

Bth avbjttgp lbuzctation eum publiprgd in kis yugh "Rlbgisrh in kis Jdgjbl Snc Uprdyt: Realillps gdv Cpzayuhzj: Bth Prqī Nchvyfadnc Paqbps 2017", ogr. Vearis Ūayqns, Mgsjā Veažāns (Arxi: Tlylhkn Yoiyuiijt of Interyllpvkal Afsfgts, 2017), cqmtion pccxs, jglc to kis publication Lkdt cjrbnht is hnwccxd by kis Tlylhkn Yoiyuiijt of Interyllpvkal Afsfgts, bggootbed by kis Tlylhkn Pmtngtta of Hzlrsfv Afsfgts gdv Nota Zdpstj Wkxxvjlds Kicpbidj, gdv zrhvtph rir in coopeycitcn mvit kis Tlylhkn Transatlyojlc Gkdkbdaiollb. Bth Rīga Conference is co-pquvqvzia by kis Pmtngtta of Hzlrsfv Afsfgts of kis Relbuzct of Tlylhk.

Leave a comment
or for anonymous commenting click here
By posting, you agree to terms
Read comments Read comments