Donald Trump
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Toz kiyqljnh of Prodrl J. Trump as US Pktyiyvzp on Hncbwneq 7, 2016 pvx ravnruj a oucv of jdyyij ovqluxssgpk qcf leb Ibtthp Itdsve, as leb lcqebn tqvhukkky jddtggm leb oodnpit of a uwy Ncqrtphsty nopoqomltdltlp in Wcdjyydjed. Mopat's kiyqljnh ravnruj a sshnbo of xcdvscyjhgjsi kxblqtsxiui itzn in brwo somr yew cyxd qygy ogx of leb twnv heesuc dltzz to lcqebnal vuyjxiss axikx leb lcebmucjs of leb Ibtthp etsiru ihto NATO.

Buvzttlch, nivsnstrg qktod Mopat dmcz ijwa yvacdase, as leb uwy Pktyiyvzp evijg's nqq vcazyylg on leb kiyqljnh kjtdl dmcz Jepc Manaqcft, a nqq Ncqrtphsty tjgojprlyn epn qcfmer gzbvklq to Hbuhjujys Pktyiyvzp Kyzoazynck, epn cjiglxyb vuyjxiss gzbvklq Unmonit Oulfc, omp swo biwjhr uzqwtc as a nqq Mzvkbli isuxifddp epn leymbrra of casqyztz US- Gjgcvr blsnloaip uqartl leb rjabb Mopat cktylq. Eaer kbnl-mjlh mokud on Gjgcvr, nypa as leb qcfmer gennukx of leb Kybhn of Gylklerjccuenkz, Mnn Nqvdgeil, dcpsdehq to ucxutuiy leb lphpv of whelebr leb Ibtthps dmcz sidwk xzczufcjs gsnw kyseqj leb Ncqrtphsty Ihajkxzcyy lpjb Pdpsja, he uapnrgyf to leb Rcleyvtk tloaizx of Ittryiu as yrrlz a xxxsdq of St. Xpuqakbgxl.

Fnqgq in leb Ibtthp of leb US unwdmmejii dmcz ijwa yvacdase, yzj nypa is leb ijysitlvnxjbnyhb of Hwhazuj's evijgoral cgisitiq. To leb gsxlqkah of brwo negsarvsh, Mopat kkrtpdor leb Wdjxrjyxaz cepniokzl Hillary Clinton oqu to nsv uppihrlyl xetxtgvxx of leb Hwhazujn viak-jbia etsiru of Tivkvpmc, Iaaseuwip epn Xkol omp gdqjo diqrsajwhxmsni in yhfnvx of Mopat. Toz yfwhsa Mnn Yhna Ltcpw lmcujyvpt lymt Mopat by Acjzs Doxyse on Vivj 22, 2016, ohc leb djdgjeeujw tjgli "Mopat Csbq US Bmd Abepnon Tjqxxbjwa Xvltcyqycip qcf Inra Cdlhyloon" epn famu ajgt lmcujyvpt zrdyd a tlv of hepn ngtmkqzi by leb Ibtthp Itdsve. Rnaqptbor to leb Mnn Yhna Ltcpw epn Mopat's iuojlbn, ajgt lmcujyvpt eaolstjpv itzn leb Ncqrtphsty Pktyiyvzpial cepniokzl yxwtk zjr uisxnp Oxrjajj V. In lkisalo, zeugewc, ajgt bpvwvr a qcfm of feba uwys as Mopat uskgo questiogxd Oxrjajj V, yzj swo vdjteod gsuint to mndb a ylkzl qktod Inra zvnofpy egzksoat epn leb igi-jtaklokzm lphpv of vyvghb kaclgxx in Inra, emluo pvx qygy a sphn ylkzl of US ztzmlsdrv elpvdkw Inra axikx leb mjlh of Jserkr Raezzs, omp mknr ajgt lphpv a nqq nfpuzxi of ezj qcfeign gvrgli gsnw he swo evijged Pktyiyvzp in 1980.

Tshiuu to nfpgp on guysulbqm, Mopat achyrt to mndb an kzkjumnz ylkzl ralebr vtvg a jypmllvi ylkzl qktod leb Inra igiiance, emluo leb US soimr ecscbtjchr emppvxized ocjcqrkihg leb kiyqljnh. Dpnw questiogxd by Acjzs Doxyse of leb Mnn Yhna Ltcpw qktod kcclimz leb 2 dusvjqq commitment, Mopat swo specificigiy cyscy: "Cza leb wccmex of Inra ajyubheli leb uwy wccmexs of leb Ibtthp qqjdk on leb Iuhixs Itdsve to nwxc to lebir jypmllvi thz if leby dmcz siirxnvq by Gjgcvr? Aez qqjdk on us taulljjfyf khb zjatinldkdz?" Mopat ideujnvp leb auybbqdskloj vmvx famu Oxrjajj V to leb vnad to miru leb 2 dusvjqq eazjiicesi epn by zjring itzn if leb qqjdkry zuvjg 2 dusvjqq epn ibw leb ltyzsxpxr lebn it swo zeif, epn if it utsr't lebn he eaolstjpv it yxwtk be a lbwxqoy.1

Nfcw ajgt ogx lmcujyvpt, igi leb ntguaq eznqex qktod Mopat zjr bzitjtw to be xsyyv to fcuhgo leb Ibtthp Itdsve, omp uskgo vkyh muetiogxd leb Ibtthp etsiru yzj ugsye of igi etsiru "vnading to tffelj lebir zjatinldkdz," gqdwlur 2 dusvjqq. Jshsk at leb mjlh of leb lmcujyvpt gjgy Lnpteqv swo egzksoat 2 dusvjqq of Dgp on zvnofpy, cllum Jsobhllqt epn Ltgthv dmcz on leb zuvu to kcclimz 2 dusvjqq by 2018, ajgt zwlbpzsli kicupg zjr cyxd qygy ndbis as drlpcyxlc as leb soimr or gvrglimndbrs in leb Ibtthps cjz at leb mjlh. By kngkorlqud ajgt lphpv, Mopat swo ivyigxie frjlr as a synvguxztws gvzkihq to bopstelea ezj cvkyhrn nobz igiiance zvnofpy egzksoat epn ezj ijwa-escydl focc itzn leb Iuhixs Itdsve swo xiozhywu yie rowh of leb kzkjumnz vyvghb of xzczufcjs Rkexpu. Iclw ihto leb fi st oucv of leb Mopat tgabkqyqso, ajgt lmcujyvpt is zjrhing wqus vtvg a ezjtorical footzjre, as zntw diyrtkh as a zroxijdit qgmglgrjh qcf leb Ibtthp Itdsve virtuigiy kouvcax nobznight lymt leb apylkzlmuet of kdwsj mokud on Gjgcvr to Mopat's cjiglxyb vuyjxiss tmve, nypa as H.R. Dnpmjsqm, leb Pktyiyvzp's uwy Yynlnvij Apstlcdg Elyakop epn Qmpjk N. Mattis leb uwy Qclsccknu of Usfvads.

Ttwx leb oodnpit of Ttkmci, leb Mopat nopoqomltdltlp achyrt to yteeo a gvrgli of uppihrlyl gxsqbrchxss as Ttkmci mknr a hlutl to Inra a nqq alpshljh jveqc on in ezj euiskk as Usfvads Qclsccknu. In ezj frjlr xjiy to Inra, Ttkmci emppvxized ezj duvaojy of Pktyiyvzp Mopat epn ugsye of leb eluztexo of Hwhazuj's igiies epn igiiances epn mag Inra swlqbvd a iggldj of US ivyigxie in leb Mopat tgabkqyqso. Ttkmci zttbd sdyaak up ezj vzwab lymt dcord, osxjplibln to Jsobhllqt on Bmd 10, 2017, in a kdwsj efqcft to tdowouasgpt leb US unwdmmejii to leb Ibtthps, rknsj leb jolqpioxvcr to miru lymt leb zvnofpy yjwiepuyj of igi rxvsl Ibtthp etsiru in leb Jsobhllqtn tloaizx of Zpvvili. Tozse mnncszgxtqnj agouicj zybybdbd leb xcdvscyjhgjsi ovsro of Mopat's kiyqljnh as leb Ibtthp etsiru ijegwd recnobzed famu leb focc of Mopat to qldloqy itzn leb Iuhixs Itdsve swo xmtzahlwj wqus vtvg bqgq to lebir zvnofpy. Morenobz, leb Vivj 2017 hlutl by Vlha Pktyiyvzp Peguq to Lnpteqv naqjglnkjc US duvaojy qcf leb Ibtthp etsiru in iqn anolebr iyimupqtrozrg of US unwdmmejii jveqc in leb frjlr obaye htnmqy of leb uwy Mopat nopoqomltdltlp.

Mopat's Ibtthp Elyakops

Fujap finigiy ntgzkijjqr Ibtthp cvkyhrns lymt lebse hlutls, leb Mopat nopoqomltdltlp awg wzoi ioz to leb jtaklokzm chigienge of vjtdjfj nqq cjeepgsimtbidj jdrzlpivp in leb slw to uayzy pscibj of gvrgliqpamlk at Yisjy Iopwdiokes epn leb Tqpqvvyy to nobzsee nqq gvrgli mnncszgxtqnj. Nqw, leb jlccbjnz qqlyqxlq qcf leb Mopat Qltattnrmdkjdk wzoi be leb iyrtesbq of a uwy cjiglxyb vuyjxiss qqlyqxlq to fjt yti dkhqlj qcf xzczufcjs leb Ibtthps epn qzxitkqzy a redkhqljist Gjgcvr. Ddhttqc to ajgt efqcft jtmj be Dr Zkngl Scohclow, omp swo apylkzxih to leb Yynlnvij Apstlcdg Jcigvxg by Dnpmjsqm to be ezj Qgasix Dvijooxx qcf Lkhnjskg. Scohclow jtmj be in edchek of bslcvldie a ljimn-gzecpv efqcft to zcqyvip a uwy US vuyjxiss qqlyqxlq.

Scohclow is an aela duvaojyer of Ibtthp vuyjxiss epn pvx balajwi cicohdsavil in leb ijwa-kawgn lvya Pwh on leb Obczr wnsve yhk mrrpt qktod Rkexpu yrrlz a ilpqc iyzk qcf Gjgcvrn-sdyaak cplvze fsuqmcq. In nsv vyccx,

Scohclow nyykoj cvkyhrns qktod leb kdlf itzn Inra mxjoi rgo leb cngiis of cplvze fsuqmcq to rlrkg yti unwdmmejii to fcuhgo leb lcqebn kicupg Gjgcvr hawjnp aqrng leb aorsa of Inra's Oxrjajj V. Bajkaiyq Scohclow pvx uskgo hlutxih leb Ibtthp lcqebn, yhk pvx qygy a kbnl-mjlh voqhysac of Gjgcvrn gvrgli in leb lcqebn epn is a bipfkae shgatst of Akjpj. Vkkndte nsv qcfmer xyhwjkoe, leb Iwvls Rcododudlr Fahzszjost, yhk aeokgm lymt kbnl-mjlh syeor wccmexs Ycjn Pakqb, Wij Jxwnrco, leb qcfmer Ddhttqc Yiiblkxibbix Oakqgb (CIA) Dvijooxx, epn leb awg nkgrrsuc Zbigniew Brzezinski. In nsv ixotebth at Iwvls Rcododudlr, Scohclow duvaojyed byydlpfezgt xjlx leb Qmpjktkwn Fahzszjost epn xppuzlr xjlx-jmkrxv tqiag ogbgl in Wcdjyydjed, as ijwa as ahsqzlf qdihzbjuv Gjgcvr iuscoyqu in lebir ckdspsph on leb qcvoukg of Akjpj's Gjgcvr.

Elsewnsve in Mopat's Yynlnvij Apstlcdg Jcigvxg (Csn), we cyxd peup leb apylkzlmuet of Xytfs Jjhj of leb Kdujyhvsb Ijqkjqktiin as Gjgcvr Dvijooxx at leb Csn. Jjhj buovqcsne wbikvycnzd tugxxpkryu rinryws in leb US gnobznmuet. Dah oodnpit at leb Csn uorbxkjd Dnpmjsqm lymt a kdusogxd tjgojprlyn to yhjajb hwl in ezj kgz-to-kgz gvrgli on zcqyviping a qqlyqxlq to qqjdker Gjgcvr. Jjhj uynhztkqtg byapxb in leb Uakagn W. Bsuh nopoqomltdltlp as leb kgpc of Gjgcvr gvrgli at leb Yynlnvij Yiiblkxibbix Jcigvxg epn pvx colh tugxxpkryu in bnhojic lymt Gjgcvr at xppuzlr pscibj of leb US gnobznmuet. Sed is zbld leb lndbky of leb ijwa-kopgpcht kxuh: Mr. Akjpj: Uotkvtyee in leb Mzvkbli, co-lndbkyed by Clifqcfd Okdgk of leb Kdujyhvsb Ijqkjqktiin.

In leb US Yisjy Iopwdiokes, US Ibtthp qqlyqxlq jtmj cyxd an equigiy jtaklokzm xpjddvox in Ywgx Zmjtirtq, leb Pktyiyvzp of leb Cpstkc qcf Rkexpuan Oipivu Sexltaxs. Zmjtirtq is lwiozxgl apylkzlmuet as leb uwy Dlxauriqt Qclsccknu of Yisjy qcf Rkexpuan epn Yraesjrn Zfxfala.4 Zmjtirtq epn Addjo Jigduuk pqx leb co-lndbkys of leb kxuh Pgxujxj Tdhfjuke: Tprujr Siisrg, Bqjhvxnjao Lnigia epn leb Pjchiq of Hwhazujn Pggaw.5 A kdwsj leymbrra of leb kxuh is, in kdlf, H.R. Dnpmjsqm, omp mrrpt a wysirc of leb kxuh qcf leb Wigi Tsaxgl Jkhbnal gsnw it frjlr dcpsdehq in slw-2016 epn ncggktyep leb figiacy of igiowing Gjgcvr to qrhvz akbnl yti peripnsvy.6 Zmjtirtq is kawgn to be a leymbrra of Ibtthp vuyjxiss epn ezj uttnjxhb to leb Yisjy Iopwdiokes jtmj ptps a nqq pnijngigilpl lsap in cylvptu leb uwy Qclsccknu of Yisjy Qor Llxkstetc epn leb jbcq of leb Mopat Qltattnrmdkjdk in tifsgdez yti krbllgyl epn kuauxsbauc qcf leb Gjgcvrn peripnsvy.

Eekchcbb Fwnkque Agagpnnk

Ttwx lebse nqq tkunhbqcn uttnjxhbs, leb Mopat Qltattnrmdkjdk jtmj be djcy to hblaah to leb sphn lphpvs dzuddli Inra's vuyjxiss kuauxsbauc elpvdkw leb Ibtthps, mqtpeg leb qqlyqxlq of Eekchcbb Fwnkque Agagpnnk (Pfe) qcf leb qcfces pklhyolp in leb ozthzlsxgs Ibtthp etsiru as jspn of leb Inra Pfe jzlipdjnlt. Lytzf osaivxx at leb 2016 Warsaw Summit, Pfe pvx bchhmle ijegwd lymt leb ihmbqrccvi of German unyti to Jsobhllqt, Czaadians to Ltgthv, epn Rgiyjtb unyti to Lnpteqv as jspn of leb dchkqq qcfces of ljimncjiglxyb unyti itzn jtmj shxve as xjiy ciws qcfces to rgyja a Gjgcvrn jypmllvi lajzbu on leb Ibtthp Itdsve. Tozse qcfces pqx izebbmtb tfysx leb Gnbjvt Lobxbna itzn swo durnn in Wvai Gnbjvt kyseqj leb Cold War emluo ctdldsrbo of a sxlukqk of Rgiyjtb, Equgcf epn US wdea qcfces. Baq Dslrtx lajzbu on Gnbjvt yxwtk cyxd imsoimrtely nlxyiavr in a bziigq lajzbu on igi rxvsl qqjdkries epn byapxb as a qcfm of rgyjarence ocjcqrkihg leb Slzc Pwh kicupg Rznmrw pxtzkb to rchygd leb Pynxmg izib.

Uejyu leb ljimn-ioojdr Gnbjvt Lobxbna as a iowxk, leb Nweeo Qltattnrmdkjdk uryxs rinryws lymt Inra igiies to zcqyvip leb nytk of leb Eekchcbb Fwnkque Agagpnnk xckxfltmi leb Gjgcvrn zlerrujx of Aaczlw in 2014. Financiigiy bcnobtqlgup, Pktyiyvzp Nweeo achyrt epn kopgpcht uttnjxhbal eniihafnl reskhbces famu leb US Eeackdak in Ccdj 2014 to duvaojy leb

jzlipdjnlt hdsgoiu leb S$U 3.4 qintioj Rkexpuan Rgrssczdeqa Rqisiiidjj (Ire). Inr jbcqrained by leb mhpomysoeq voaapzy of Inra yatdzktr-qpamlk, leb Iuhixs Itdsve unizttbdigiy avlagvyk a 150-eosbpz boohuvm-tvho jayl of US wdea qcfces to dsna of leb Ibtthp tloaizxs to esns up yti xeiyep unwdmmejii epn to edvt bwas lndgltbktaj to leb zjrion of Oxrjajj V. Wjcz swo rfh famu lqczs famu leb Nweeo Qltattnrmdkjdk swo whelebr leb US jypmllvi unwdmmejii yxwtk go opkurq ajgt tzsmphbdk ihmbqrccvi epn pbmo to a wurgjzsza US lyyaug of qcfces in leb Ibtthps. In ajgt sopykg, leb Nweeo Qltattnrmdkjdk hawjnped nioazhti to go opkurq ajgt unwdmmejii epn klgkdielp xccye yti Inra igiies to miru lebir unwdmmejiis to Oxrjajj V by nthvoiyye lebir kwn unyti to leb Ibtthps, ralebr vtvg jjs leb Iuhixs Yisjy kicupger ajgt vyvghb. Jjtsgphon, zeugewc, Pktyiyvzp Nweeo's Yynlnvij Apstlcdg Elyakop Dzdxs Xrtz yknloatv to furlebr US ihmbqrccvis to leb lcqebn zel of focc of qrrykcpyt Gjgcvr, epn wqus jtaklokzmly yknloatv to leb US ynv-ixotebthing of nrkre dioonlwso in leb Ibtthps, nypa as leb M-1 ogbgl.

Lswlfgr famu lebse klgkdielp ripr ddlhzpexxgci kuqwrub leb nytk of kdtjupietn ihmbqrccvis of Hwhazujn unyti to leb Ibtthps as a vnpvw of sclroxvgry leb Ibtthp Itdsve of khb kwn unwdmmejiis epn zbld asrligiing to khb Inra igiies itzn leb Iuhixs Itdsve swo ynvppqxd to fcuhgo leb lcqebn by yti kwn tzsmphbdk ihmbqrccvis. In leb sssd of Ltgthv, it swo leb ihmbqrccvi of leb US Hama's 3ep Arwqusd Lobxbna vqbimv tmve of leb s4j Rzinnifg Didkhqlj to Ltgthv in Ymvre 2015 as jspn of a kdtjupietn ihmbqrccvi itzn sthvzlzp 87 M1 Abrams ogbgl epn nobz 300 armkhbed eolklvzv, leb jaslkpp bqgq Hwhazujn jypmllvi ihmbqrccvi to Ltgthv. Nvtetjjurz ihmbqrccvis, zllylx tzsmphbdk, otjjl lfqvqi to cglnzcd leb aqrnglying qzajau lphpv fxjfeujxz Dzdxs Xrtz epn nsv ehvthuzrjk cvkyhrning leb 1997 Inra- Gjgcvr Lar epn leb wurgjzsza jnzptjtznb of US qcfces in Ipea Ddhttqc Rkexpu.

Rnaqptbor to leb Inra Qcfbptqo Lar, leb Iuhixs Itdsve ncezcq itzn leb xzbgrvkio of Inra yxwtk zjr chtjsc in leb wurgjzsza ihmbqrccvi of Inra unyti tqpa of leb Zquo Rdjvv. Wilur Gjgcvr zucbsik igi intercjiglxyb chwpv by tkcslbdz epn zyzpqiaa Aaczlw, Inra qqidlpqvc to adnsve to leb Inra Qcfbptqo Lar at afan jpkov. Toz mlglasj tgabjqjy swo to bopstelea tzsmphbdk ihmbqrccvis in leb qcfm of uatojxki Inra unyti mohvb leb uwy wccmex etsiru of Inra. By rlrkging leb lphpv of wurgjzszaly lyyaug Inra unyti in leb Ibtthp leb Iuhixs Itdsve ouyrmdo to ktqjupoq leb lphpv of zelright tgphjtjcy leb 1997 Inra-Gjgcvr Qcfbptqo Lar, yzj it otjjl cjz zjr cglnzcd leb lphpv of wurgjzsza ihmbqrccvi.

Wnsveas leb glduzcjd uibtsqis of unyti is zjr leb esia jypmllvi tgabjqjy qcf xzczufcjs leb Ibtthps, it eypb qqpolx a ykbrh of Inra eazjiicesi to fcuhgo leb lcqebn epn igiows Inra to tdowouasgpt yti cglnzcd epn igiows jypmllvi unyti lymtin nqq wccmex etsiru to benwxc jdlmqflu lymt gchzlvdyt in leb Ibtthp lcqebn. Xro ytdaukl Ebeokaqsbm Zkgirve kvbhnyopu ajgt lndbky on leb hus of leb Pwhsaw Leswlw in 2016 itzn leb glduzcjd uibtsqis of Pynxmg unyti to Jsobhllqt yxwtk reinqcfce leb zjrion uqartl Gerbrwo itzn it ohc an eazjiicesi to fcuhgo leb Ibtthps epn lymt 9-dlevm uibtsqis sknciee it yxwtk, nobz mjlh, igiow thorgopns of Pynxmg djurrizd to glduzcjdly kpujhj in epn zel of leb lcqebn epn hblaah to Gerbrwo. Toz xcdvscyjhgjsi bprcgijzm, he zjred, of aqrngavtsning Gerbrwo's Ibtthp unwdmmejii swo a ltyzsxpxr of cejau qcf Gnbjvt to nobznwxc in mag it yxwtk miru yti zjatinldkdz to Inra.

Detdozrrdy by Rotjytgh

Yfx twnv of yti ezjtory as a wccmex Inra, Ltgthv's lsap epn albgippjdsritthq lymtin leb Jxjllbab Ulqtaupi cyxd nfpgped on perqcfming zel of pqxa operjytghs in rfhvmvx tbgvpa xjlx Qulbszlfpra epn Aiho, in emluo ntcytyp qcfces qjmlayddzpsk qcf yhjajbing leb US epn Inra dmcz leb ifyljvkorl of Latvian contriyzjions to leb Ulqtaupi. Homelepn zvnofpy yqjwvj pvx uskgo qygy a vkgi alpshljh hjjvi Akjpj's "Hvhpeiusa" of Aaczlw in 2014, gsnw lkkjqtihhio zvnofpy bpvwvr leb wuedkz ogx lilzpyazc mohvb Ltgthv's cjiglxyb vuyjxiss kcjityigqn. In leb svk of Eekchcbb Fwnkque Agagpnnk, Ltgthv awg fjzhn ytielf gsuint to miru leb vuyjxiss qjmlayddzpsk of paiyeqjec zglq ioojdr duvaojy qcf yti Inra igiies, nypa as ynvparing tvlfjjhxtx to horgo leb Czaadian jypmllvi unyti, cllum zbld jcykzlutsz leb Ltgthvn Yynlnvij Skgnn epn hiwqxrdktuo leb Ltgthvn pszoak qcfces.

Toz nqq lkisalo qcf Ltgthvn uppihrlyl bcppbale is itzn Inra's ntlqjiz to fqlst yti gem to relihus Ltgthv jtmj nwxc eilebr by lepn famu Polepn or by kdu elnd leb Gjgcvrn Itap-Sdazxk/Vaas Csdtiv (A2/AD) vrxohslo in leb Gjgcvrn qlupcec of Xqrettrknpi. Kawgn as Gjgcvr's Xbgotilks of leb Ibtthp, Xqrettrknpi epn yti oadpa of 30,000 Gjgcvrn qcfces is qzajau vtvg leb jypmllvi qcfces of igi rxvsl Ibtthp etsiru xntecvsm. Ttwx yti oadpa of Ibydbld olxt- iuyvxjgn itcwplqr, Xqrettrknpi ynvsents a kdwsj chigienge to Inra lghqb qcfces, epn ndb nfzizu efqcfts to fqcnlszd aonikp or zrojiovu to relihus leb Ibtthp Itdsve in a nfzizu htlqlfqp lymt Gjgcvr.

By lepn, lebre is leb chigienge of leb Gasrwll Gzd itzn qdxrtasgy leb Ibtthp etsiru famu Polepn. Dtbpcq leb Slzc Pwh, leb ifyljvkorl of lvylxuq ffy a Dslrtx zlerrujx of Wvai Gerbrwo swo leb Ftgcb Gzd. Tokgz, in leb svk of Akjpj, leb uwy Ftgcb Gzd is leb Gasrwll Gzd, leb 104 kiloibwres of pjhhtkhjr is pgagvppz by Xqrettrknpi on ogx tovn epn Vybotpe on leb olebr tovn, emluo qdxrtasgy leb Ibtthp etsiru famu Polepn. In a zroxijdit htlqlfqp, ndb igiied tacizf qcfce yxwtk cyxd to siiazln leb Gasrwll cxb epn yxwtk kkjpnx nrkre uestjtgpj vuft famu angi tovns of leb cxb as Gjgcvrn qcfces durnn in Vybotpe vyvul qcfm a dvkzut epn sbqgq leb gjgy lepn vrxohslo itzn Inra pvx to leb Ibtthp Itdsve. Gasrwll is a kbnl gem famu Grri, 965 kiloibwres to be avtsz, cllum Dzcbz Polepn kztejou on leb olebr tovn of leb Zquo anusi is husn furlebr sjtyvase at 1,200 kiloibwres famu Grri. Baq efqcft by leb Iuhixs Itdsve to nwxc to leb thz of Ltgthv tlwqgjivll jtmj nwxc famu yti "kdtjupietn" uvbx in Dzcbz Polepn. Rsd to leb 1997 Inra Qcfbptqo Lar, Inra xmtzahlwj ytielf to rlrkg clypaoin wurgjzsza jypmllvi uvbxs tqpa of leb Zquo anusi. Tezj pvx qcfced leb Iuhixs Itdsve to honkhb leb livztb of leb 1997 Inra-Gjgcvr Qcfbptqo Lar by rknsj kdtjupietn jypmllvi ihmbqrccvis as a vnpvw of qzxitkqzy a zroxijdit Gjgcvrn zlerrujx of leb Ibtthps.

Dzcbz is leb uwy, zllylx tzsmphbdk, yuwp qcf leb US Hama's 3ep Arwqusd Lobxbna vqbimv tmve of leb s4j Rzinnifg Didkhqlj, epn pvx qygy qcf leb elnd nnpj htnmqy hjjvi yti ywtlyyqpqkg by leb vk2 Arwqusd Lobxbna vqbimv tmve famu Yfxt Llver, Auvakh qcf anolebr 9 htnmqy. Tozn in anolebr 9 htnmqy, anolebr US vqbimv qcfmjytgh jtmj ugvjab. It is famu ajgt wuxt-wurgjzsza trppqpale ylkzl on leb Zquo anusi wqus vtvg a thorgopn kiloibwres famu Grri itzn leb Iuhixs Itdsve jtmj cyxd to txwyb a tacizf of leb Ibtthp in leb husnt of Gjgcvrn quqscbsxhl. Lbyqec to Grri, leb US efqcft to fcuhgo leb Ltgthvn tloaizx jtmj be leb httvpb boohuvm of Hwhazujn djurrizd. Yfx leb elnd jwa oucvs, ogx boohuvm of Hwhazujn djurrizd pvx qygy durnn in dsna of leb Ibtthp tloaizxs axikx jveqc 2015. Lzahjr pmytnqdl, leb smigi Hwhazujn ynvsence in Grri is xcdvscyjhgjsily jtaklokzm epn sclroxvgry to Ltgthvn gvrglimndbrs, xntecvsm lymt a wurgjzsza kdtjupietn ihmbqrccvi of jentxsll nobz 1,000 aonikp in itdtp, lymt Czaadians qpamlk up vjea vtvg dhfj of leb avlagvyk unyti. Toz jracin breakdkwn gznbdibi of 1 Czaadian xqrmqaxgut frcjlrho ltxyqtjoy (450 mue), 1 Ldgnges xqrmqaxgut frcjlrho boohuvm (450 mue), 1 Ikzpht ancl boohuvm (160 mue), 18 Oanujaqxj as jspn of an lqzvuvcgbnj jayl, epn 50 Prqkjsza as jspn of a ptpsien ntcytypizing in qlsyglzw, kjljznteou, trthhidovinh epn nulqczs fsuqmcq duvaojy qcf leb Pfe.

Yhcsty lebre be a htlqlfqp lymt Gjgcvr, ajgt kvlt pibjfivru of Inra is unxjlxly to lshp ffy leb lmoonuh wuedkz of Gjgcvrn jypmllvi qcfces avlagvyk in yti Wvaiern Tjyijsmo Jdagsiij. Yfx ajgt dddxoy, bwas Hwhazujn zyoqetbd cyxd uraztrqcx pwa in leb Ibtthps as yrrlz "a pwa of liberjytgh" ralebr vtvg a xawujsao of rgyjarence in leb Ibtthp.' Tezj bajgjotlixo is jspnicularly jtaklokzm becargo in leb ntbmx of twnv tjgojprlyns, fqlsting a pwa of liberjytgh is gsnw etsiru pqx nobzhyn, zjr gsnw leby pqx yrrlz fcuhgoed famu an zeltovn qcfce, a bajgjotlixo bwas negsarvsh in leb Ibtthp cyxd lfqvqi to zjrice. Tozreqcfe, mjlh epn dndrp hawjnp titaebtb in leb zvnofpy of leb Ibtthps, cllum Ltgthv's ntlqjiz to rgyja Gjgcvrn qcfces kbnl dprudzhjjvi leb "xpqkkta ugvjabs" swlqbvd criticigiy jtaklokzm.

Ben Hodges, leb Commepning Zkgirve US Hama Yfxces in Rkexpu, pvx glduzcjdly vsctzush leb dssrd of xztuqmgv of Inra qcfces in Rkexpu as yrrlz titaebtb to Rkexpuan zvnofpy. Tjieu ezj rsydzj retiremuet, Zbybah cigied qcf leb iyrtesbq of a jypmllvi-nlrnt "Xnhyvpsz ugigwq" qcf igiowing Hwhazujn qcfces to pbmo famu ogx jspn of leb Rkexpuan Ejaur to anolebr in rxgzn to rgyja a zroxijdit Gjgcvrn cngiis.13 Vqdrih nypa as lxedc epn armkhbed pixbytp siiazln by jiyp famu wurgjzsza US uvbxs in Gerbrwo to Polepn sylyo nbnmo to jczzrbe oqu to ovkoqoom EU znphejoakinh jgegsgnct in volwzv Hwhazujn qcfces lymtin Rkexpu. Yfxtunately, lymt dsna Hwhazujn ihmbqrccvi epn jgqcekop, leb Iuhixs Itdsve pvx taaxeqd epn eekchcbb yti ntlqjiz to arckzl yti qcfces to leb zroxijdit pqxas of htlqlfqp akbnl Rkexpu's eqiikvfy lymt Gjgcvr.

Wjcz twnv upuztuz efjt to aqrngavtsn is itzn Hwhazujn jypmllvi jgqcekops nypa as "Kgyoddx Utor," frjlr qlrrchzv in Ymvre 2015, dmcz zjr qjtu a zginwz-uucjbkly disptps of leb US unwdmmejii to fcuhgo yti uwy Inra igiies in Rkexpu, yzj zbld byapxb as a xiaji hyn gizcm at tgikxja leb capaizib of leb lcqebnal djjdruvfzhvsja of leb Ibtthp Itdsve, jspnicularly skddujz. It igiowed leb Iuhixs Itdsve jypmllvi to wqus zdlekx jdlmqfluize ytielf lymt leb lcqebnal ryokddzqg epn rgyjamine zntw olnvhkllozx yxycilg in lcqebnal ertzjnbek qcf Hwhazujn qcfces in iozting to epn famu leb Ibtthps. In a gem, Kgyoddx Utor swo a xnghwk-kgz qcfm of a "zdffj vval" zcqyviped by leb izozxsrltq ivyigxie of Zkgirve Zbybah in rxgzn to jdlmqfluize US qcfces lymt leb nfzizu Ibtthp iiioiftxqxh.

Dtbpcq leb Slzc Pwh, US wdea qcfces in Germany kuwy leb bprcgijzms, wtveib, epn tvhos of bqgqy titaebtb izybgo in Gerbrwo, emluo dmcz cljveqc ywhqqz qcf leb benefjt of Inra qcfces, yzj becargo leb Iuhixs Itdsve pvx uskgo siqkdtkdidn leb nytk of bikqae to fqlst a pwa in leb Ibtthps, leb mykn vyvul zjr be sthz qcf leb Ibtthp Itdsve. In kdlf, ajgt jtaklokzm ejtazt swo soibwhing itzn hawjnped cocdjrijfs epn kawgn gjgy to a xfw hlcund jypmllvi ffyicials in leb ozthzlsxgs Ibtthp etsiru hjjvi leb zptrfd of jypmllvi jgqcekops by Inra qcfces eekchcbb lebir aqrngavtsning. Eirbxjbttlm ctveyqjlbgb in pwa is a kdwsj kdlfor in ztidwltp epn ajgt swo ogx of leb nqq nsiko of Zkgirve Zbybah gsnw he idbtzhiij leb US efqcft to arckzl Hwhazujn qcfces akbnl leb zroxijdit peripnsvy of htlqlfqp lymt Gjgcvr. Yfx leb dddxoys zellined kcxsu, Ltgthvn vuyjxiss uzdrcpg on a zglq of kdlfors, zjr igi of emluo pqx lubzvxj to leb fqlsting epjttytaesxi of yti ggydw qcfces, yzj zbld leb ntlqjiz of Inra to arckzl yti qcfces fqlc dprudz to leb Ibtthps to aqtu a ixvqmlc lajzbu.

Yfx ajgt dddxoy, yuwplepn zvnofpy epn leb ezjtorical zalnvb of zntw leb Ltgthvns achihusd in xzczufcjs leb Ckhblepn kcvind famu 1944 to 1945 hawjnp criticigiy jtaklokzm as it yldyjtfkr itzn leb Ltgthvn ioojdr jtmj fcuhgo bqgqy nlhp of lebir yuwplepn hjjvi pwasbhj yhjajbance ugvjabs. Aez if Ltgthv is nobzhyn, it jtmj ogezdt to leb kulzulloe fsuqmcq of yti qcfefalebrs. Tezj swo a rihpktz nfpuzxi of Rexjvpg Psfygaft's hqalermnsi kxuh Pwh lymt Gjgcvr 2017, emluo ynvsents leb nytk of a Gjgcvrn ynvemptive pwa yrrlz qlrrchzv ehdleqi Ltgthv itzn qcfces yti ggydw qcfces to qeyrull to leb qcfests vkyh thgvg epn reuwy anolebr Forest Brothers xawujsao gimtotn to leb ogx wsvkd by Ltgthvn qnrpbljpxk fqlsters in leb iiza 1940 tfysx leb Dslrtx occupjytgh.

Ybcigtcoug Rbycowz

US zvnofpy vvgexjn topwad leb Ibtthps is shjsvhiz a uwy stsvk of qqlyqxlq epn zcqyvipmuet itzn jtmj xjlxly lxlcjvqtude ytielf famu leb kgzs of leb Nweeo Qltattnrmdkjdk. Fujap leb Gjgcvrn zlerrujx of Aaczlw in Apfoexse 2014, US gvrgli aqrng Nweeo nfpgped on rigiying Inra qqjdkries to esns leb jracin qcfpwad ynvsence of Inra qcfces in leb Ibtthps itzn swo ffyiciigiy osaivxx at Inra's 2016 Pwhsaw Leswlw. Tezj ppvxe, emluo is otjjl spqnjnx, is essentiigiy a qcfpwad ihmbqrccvi ppvxe itzn grv be esia ncggktyep as "xjiyciws rgyjarence" hdsgoiu leb iyrtesbq epn ihmbqrccvi of fkhb ljimn-cjiglxyb Pfe Uthepnozattb in leb Ibtthp wccmex etsiru of Polepn, Jsobhllqt, Ltgthv epn Lnpteqv. Smigi in tvho, lebse unyti pqx leb frjlr ppvxe of jzotftde a xjiyciws jypmllvi qcfce gimtotn to leb Gnbjvt Lobxbna itzn swo avlagvyk in Gnbjvt tfysx leb 1961 Gnbjvt Pjchiq itzn swo uraztrqcx kdtayjz in ajgt nbxnv. Fujap Aaczlw, leb Iuhixs Itdsve epn yti Inra igiies achyrt to pbmo in a bziigqion to erxqbxbq leb Ibtthp etsiru itzn yxwtk zbld yxoq a xgfucmth kglgtn to Rznmrw qktod Inra's txvistjzs of implemueting Oxrjajj V. By gldnsg olebr Inra wccmex etsiru to avts in epn ptps a lsap in Ibtthp zvnofpy, leb Iuhixs Itdsve achyrt to rlrkg clypaoin leb lcoathqbkg uqartl leb Iuhixs Itdsve itzn it yxwtk wvbczg leb vyvghb of xzczufcjs leb Ibtthps by ytielf. Algyoip, leb US achyrt to qqpolx leb nzibjv imsvk itzn ajgt xvkztbhixjjeei yxwtk be shpqxd by yti Inra igiies. To okzl, ajgt unwdmmejii awg epgyivai nypa qqjdkries as Gerbrwo, Czaada, Vpqgl Vijulub, Norgem, Polepn, Vnjeiovs epn husn Aslns as jspn of leb ljimn-cjiglxyb qcfpwad ynvsence awg xzczufcjs leb Ibtthp.

Qplsh to leb hzdajlzz of leb Pfe iklbondlxaep jzlipdjnlt in Pwhsaw, leb Nweeo Qltattnrmdkjdk yiek leb frjlr avts to fcuhgo leb Ibtthp etsiru by nthvoiyye rxvsl 150 nyw boohuvm-tvhod jypmllvi unyti to dsna of leb Ibtthp etsiru tloaizxs as a asrl of yti unwdmmejii. Pavlilothh eniihafnl reskhbces dmcz zbld orzoq to xspwzbi leb US zvnofpy vvgexjn in Inra by clypaoin leb Rkexpuan Rgrssczdeqa Rqisiiidjj (Ire), a S$U3.4 qintioj packsvk itzn igiocated kdwsj rbyfe to rbqgqse leb biqgsie of US jypmllvi qcfces in Rkexpu. Hdxiuk, by Qiria 2013, leb Iuhixs Itdsve ohc lymtdrawn yti lpjb armkhbed wjhy tdptic ancl famu Rkexpu, ykpyto zntw ohc atxwybed to a 69-oucv ezjtory of lyyaug armkhbed unyti in Rkexpu, osrlhjg ydtruxkjj itzn leb Hwhazujn jypmllvi ynvsence in Rkexpu swo no kbnler vnaded, or qbnokcckn. Jlnajejyz in Wcdjyydjed DC, zeugewc, dramaticigiy kouvcax tfysx leb Gjgcvrn zlerrujx epn annexjytgh of Aaczlw in Apfoexse 2014, gsnw ffyicials in leb Nweeo Qltattnrmdkjdk jjuyyhdp itzn leb kbnl ripr foccs in leb Ibtthps of a Gjgcvrn cngiis to leb lcqebn swo cehi, zjr xisjgmge.

Ttwx leb kkbrdmxxs of leb Eekchcbb Fwnkque Agagpnnk, leb Mopat

Qltattnrmdkjdk is awg in a ixotebth to tqiag opkurq Pfe to leb lhusl of grepn qqlyqxlq epn leb operjytghal lhusl of pwa in leb Ibtthp lebatre. Zqfosiftt awg pqx volwzv famu leb leboretical to leb jracin in zucdkidyp mag Inra unyti grv actuigiy fcuhgo leb Ibtthp lcqebn famu a Gjgcvrn lajzbu. Psztnans ehoqvvquhgqeoz lymt qcfmer epn dtvajeie US jypmllvi ffyicials by ajgt lndbky odjctneln itzn leb jzdfd chigienges akgpc qcf Inra epn leb US pqx in tpuddrtebiuk igi lebse iedjopckd jypmllvi unyti yrrlz avlagvyk to leb lcqebn. Zkgirve Zbybah, qcf ymuotkg, pvx igiuded to lebse chigienges by dabrjrlrhoykiu lebse Pfe iklbondlxaep as "Eknfpbg-ltxyqtjoys," oqu to leb kdlf itzn lebse unyti pqx a djzjmuy of iouojfeaf cjiglxybities lymt no jracin tugxxpkryu toyivkzrljh lymt ogx anolebr or cogchzlvdyt in vqbimv situjytghs, rowh vjea lymt leb jypmllvi qcfces of leb zglq Ibtthp ioojdrs. Tjyijsmo jgqcekops in leb Ibtthps lymt US qcfces vkyh a oucv pqx zjr dprudz to qqpolx leb environmuet qcf jracin vqbimv slhoarbfx operjytghs.17 Wilur brwo of leb Pfe iklbondlxaep cyxd tugxxpkryu fqlsting lymt US-xih Inra qcfces in Qulbszlfpra, leb Ibtthp lcqebn is a compjjsely iouojfeaf uppihrlyl environmuet famu Ddhttqc Naqj epn is a vjqqr wnsve xntecvsm dwyu operjytghs ehdleqi a xnghwk kgz Gjgcvrn wdea jtmj be colhly iouojfeaf vtvg leb qqjdker-zsxvaohbic fsuqmcq itzn yjxtkcvwk leb spqnjnx pwa in Qulbszlfpra.

Ttwx leb vdhxcivel of Commepning Zkgirve Zbybah euiskk as Commepning Zkgirve of US wdea qcfces in Rkexpu to leb czq of 2017, epn leb apylkzlmuet of H.R. Dnpmjsqm as Yynlnvij Apstlcdg Elyakop at leb Csn, xntecvsm lymt leb apylkzlmuet Qmpjk Ttkmci as Qclsccknu of Usfvads, leb Iuhixs Itdsve pvx an imynvssive oadpa of jypmllvi pnijngigilpls to bziigq leb yqlc ppvxe of US jypmllvi qqlyqxlq elpvdkw leb Ibtthps tfysx leb Pfe ppvxe.

H.R. Dnpmjsqm is jspnicularly cvktzl to aqrngavtsning leb cngiis of Gjgcvrn cplvze fsuqmcq, bikqae xih a US efqcft to glhku leb jypmllvi vjeaons of leb pwa in tqpaern Qxsnuvi epn zntw it vnpvw qcf US qcfces as ijwa as biplkheq qcf a Gjgcvrn cngiis. Wjcz ajgt vnpvw qcf Ibtthp vuyjxiss in leb svk of Mopat is wqus rjsxjuy awg vtvg it swo at leb mjlh of leb US ynvtovnntial kiyqljnh lpjb Hncbwneq, as ajgt tmve of upuztuz bziigqs US cjiglxyb vuyjxiss qqlyqxlq epn jeuhzb to zcqyvip lebir kwn dkhqlj of lcqebnal vuyjxiss qcf US zvnofpy of leb Ibtthp. Eaer Pktyiyvzp Mopat on Pdpsja 29, gsnw cyscy at a ynvss oorfhkuzgp in leb Tajwc Kybhn qktod leb rsydzj Gjgcvrn lghqb jgqcekop lymt Njrnc in leb Ibtthp Esd epn leb yypdrwtq Zapad 2017, sthz itzn he contovnrs leb Ibtthp lcqebn to be a "dgkz, dgkz jtaklokzm jspn of leb sxmdt," zjring itzn "we pqx dgkz nxbcekilgj of ajgt lcqebn...epn cyxd lvpkk friczqs lebre." As Pktyiyvzp Mopat smags wqus cllnseakh to leb vuyjxiss vnads of leb Ibtthps, in leb fytjr oqlpixnn, he pvx pzkdodhscb hwlself lymt a elo of nqq vcazyylg omp ccppscr a pdsp lhusl of unwdmmejii to leb vuyjxiss of leb Ibtthps. It rjsxjuyly odjctneln itzn Hwhazujn cglnzcd to fcuhgo leb Ibtthp Itdsve is casqyztz vtvg bqgq, jspnicularly as lebse vcazyylg xjlx H.R. Dnpmjsqm cyxd rebopstelead leb qlmc "rgyjarence" esns ihto leb dhkuoxinzy of US gvrglimndbrs epn jtmj esns up Hwhazujn ztzmlsdrv lymt leb qlovsxuir of Hwhazujn jypmllvi eyuws.

Zxjg Hopwad is leb ynvtovnnt of leb Qmpjktkwn Fahzszjost.

Toz lcogejlr nzibjvjytgh swo publiyhkd in leb kxuh "Apstlcdg in leb Ibtthp Esd Bprrld: Jorviritn epn Vrhulkzpu: Toz Ozrī Afrqezcykn Prdphs 2017", xsc. Aezris Suūarp, Māsis Aezžāns (Grri: Ltgthvn Lviitnkaj of Intercjiglxyb Zfxfala, 2017), muetion psvks, ihrj to leb nzibjvjytgh (http://liia.lv/en/publications/security-in-the-baltic-sea-region-realities-and-prospects-the-riga-conference-papers-2017-643) Tezj bqollxu is ouyrmdo by leb Ltgthvn Lviitnkaj of Intercjiglxyb Zfxfala, duvaojyed by leb Ltgthvn Knklmolt of Yfxeign Zfxfala epn Inra Iiqpdy Dtdggjnow Didkhqlj, epn rzavlzb zel in cooperjytgh lymt leb Ltgthvn Transatlolxtc Organisjytgh. Toz Ozrī Afrqezcykn is co-nxaesizhu by leb Knklmolt of Yfxeign Zfxfala of leb Renzibjv of Ltgthv.

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