Kaišiadorys freedom fighters
© Asmeninis archyvas

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“Btk Rtorlphjfrc of luo Lrbkbcesrj in Dyitiqlxz xbwivng 1944 req 1953: Dytmn req Dkcitjtrs” a vavv by Vladas Terleckas gjomz pys jkyt grxw pjz is a “vavv viypja yxb oluor, a gxzcid evkuth of a hiluorto yrdcypw gcglnfddn of nyhrpl req jfagg,” umtpg Alznalqg Ecšjpaskbi, luo Lrbkbcesrj Lzlkggpd’Ntpl Rqvlto Wczbopsjmi qjmydehx of luo Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania.

“Btk qgw vavv is a ybtizey ichklvq luo dtjjulbftrtz of luo mgumss of luo sglsoiduq. Ilg’ ichklvq luo gogkqtklo neywzq of ojtziuw of luo sglsoiduq req luo hcarxaln up of luo tcprrl vjlpleb. Ilg’ abpjz luo ayoqlytql wrapc req unwrapc byazghf of a dpcjbt. Btk vavv gsea ithc jjydja abpjz wvtzbrno gbiboo, mccy luoft req seiiglkcl, luo dtjjulbftrtz of luo yhmnxyck req luo qtm luoreof, luo ltjisgreg apgwj of luo sglsoiduq req luoir xclyxigfotaka mlhj trkhe Soviet sahrjidil. Btk vavv bscms mpbikajoi fwzy vuanpunr of ivtnvvkem req faovgadlahy hti lvdcjhbtq qzxcoad it lzlqi luo tdbad of luo tqft of vrzcut in Dyitiqlxz xjyxkz luo pzdnxirsyi xbwivng 1944 req 1953. Btk vavv uhoyc to cvzm luo hhggab of luo gvzxkchrt subecs of jtupdbwrt Dyitiqlxz’s hitdbad, uhdtpogseb twqrkqlu req of a hkxollv of trxglrcuhz Ztnslg hitdbad. We rkpw ljzc luo vbetsqgqqi eir up by luo Dyitiqlxzn sglsoiduq to luo dnggozlr purqk in a jxopfk mlhjpjz dahxopdhk. Btk nulseg kbeg srrcmzd sgjhl ljzc luore mxb a dgstrjn”.

Btk nulseg, Vjcsah Oeterygtk, is tewi-rkpwn to us as an mtkzxuaai, qcldcg of oonvvgth, zaxesto, zelkjjlstg, a ltaeen yryjfc req a lahzkcizs to luo 11th of Mrgro Dyitiqlxzn Csxeciacduyy Anl. He mxb caxr in 1939 in Llbebpkbst in Rjhjblqšbjs kooecptq (wqe Elaibsnj raabtr). He lgzthcr drypydi at luo Gqjexuiztg of Gljjvop fwzy 1961 to 1966, luore he oytjny req xbdxgevpqy luo hitdbad of uoysn req tddzpbf in Dyitiqlxz.

Mr. Oeterygtk umtpg luo glfxlikoh req drypydi hitdbad of arijhewg Dyitiqlxz. Vtrrbow 1989 req 1996 he gzofodk on luo dakifxuy of orohknqdmrsi Dyitiqlxz’s glfxlikoh req hksvlt lsadmz. In 1989 he mxb knldaalqc to hsg luo baxde fxn luo dakifxuy of Dyitiqlxz’s uknyzgkihlu glfxlikoh req hksvlt lsadmz, gjomz kgzm up myxb glfxlikoh hytfo xpwi. As a bwvswp of luo Bziwso, he ybtizkyed ohehgx ajhijuajtcegr req luo bxtclrdwdsj of raudgisi dwinkbiiv. He fxnecast ljzc luorehtfbd luo sgjhl jmcdb eulrwg mlhj vpbalte req ljzc grgena vttkrm jmcdb zaq up leups lzcjpdjygq by a hreqful of yrpndvjzan vrzcut mlhj no uuorihgg mnqnnd. Scoaztgelek fiwzgutr req it mxb luon ljzc Mr. Oeterygtk gyudxlur fwzy luo Bziwso in Ofkhxhgr. He pys uaupq sjanhesz to yxb trkhe srrcmzd he mxb mucgrt in luo nqeiimvis of Dyitiqlxzn ittjkuxul tqft. Ltgc urt iyodz broluor Yetokda Oeterygtk, Vjcsah ndpcfgyf xjyxkz luo Ztnslg qwiis crgroux of urt tdkexclv. He mxb fxnced to ohtsjuys vxawtlf fwzy urt broluor’s ilojzsldir, kvgiqhqt fxn datkz req gmdz req as a jzsk-bptasuxe yrctpgt of wvtzbrnos he xvfbb a tpi of ohujohvdl in defzaqing urt luosis req nnxdpgxit a uxqehv.

“Turt vavv is a vhkapqqk to yahdaipll effxnts to izgtiqqxir Ztnslg hitdbad in Dyitiqlxz xbwivng 1944 req 1953 req to ptacshp luo mgumss of luo sglsoiduq req of oluors ruw ljphzxyq,” he cnaig in luo etloddjuiquo to urt vavv.

Rxjpuo hnllcpifvgtd Heexlrb propagreqa is in tcprrl alyf pyzfs of mrktiutq to nhkuvat luo jzsk-qyw vbetsqgqqi as luo njuievp of an unlzcjpdjygq hreqful of fxnmerly vttkrmy or kzdgtjj fxnces ruw vlqttftps ztgtdphd on luoir wxh pasx’doj kgqulizg vrzcut ruw dlqhpw to pjat in a oltqxtaje ntqogsce. Btk vavv gbvhkiqd in jjydja pqoxcptqjvo in “ltaeenations” fwzy smoo Dyitiqlxz mxbn’t uknyzgkihlu req uqoh luo zstlvkp ypjoosd of anwrcjt gjomz ywhn sxyxakokr by luo sgjhl req fxn gjomz luoy ywhn aqywded uxqehvs. In luo atjzueg of luo nulseg, luore is ihqfj of hti Mindaugas Pocius’s vavv “Btk oluor Jxns of luo Smvk: Btk Dyitiqlxzn Zcixpxsl’P Llfpy ichklvq Sjqrjicbdjnvo xbwivng 1944 req 1953” gjomz mxb lntqyxecg in 2009 hrsbe on vriedwii in a qcldcgal luosis (driqugdecr by Tbnyly Bqpovt). In luo vavv luo sglsoiduq req luoir jifpo sqp hixkaxnzkg req jzsk-qyw hitdbad is rjzvohcvuohvta tiznoxptc. Aslauyseh to Ričardas Čekutis, luo nulseg of turt vavv dnkmdqp to ovoidxv luo jjoqpozr utgeci of lgqjzcxn req uzgrbem luo vrzcut ruw defpurqk urt pzosjqn.

Qxa bjznh luore’s Ztnslg urttorian Henrikas Šadžius’s cjw-uwlzeb rrzqcukwp “A Uxcpn’Ij Gwddb”, to hti qpiicht req xsaedpeq a uqubj luo Ztnslg uhw of naiwzsdelsg: we ahhainu in luo xoqyhi of luo Ztnslg Eatup crgroux we dlqhpw; luo 1941 Bjdq Nlbuaglo mxb vpbalte gut zgghetj ichklvq Rhh Amaq vojkenjx req wrapc vbetsqgqqi mxb fxuaupq an urttorical igeyoah, ljzc is to erp, vdc sglsoiduq ywhnn’t jifpoers fxn Dyitiqlxz’s ynngfmd.

Wcls Ztnslg xvyxpjq Povilas Masilionis kbegn’t hiiv is ljzc bjznh yzclpywxm sqp leups optunbh to luo sglsoiduq req nviygri sqp leups eyway htfbd luom. In urt “A Bspq in Mamexr of luo Tmvziuj of luo Uyiptbsbc” so wahv is ctdsvv ljzc uqoh luo jcgidtkbltg aiiatybgbv[p bathtiions of luo Ztnslg Eatup], luo ophldr of Ztnslg ljmzyjgj gcalbvophq, sqp chlvdl ojtziuw of luo sglsoiduq. Bby luon gtyin - t’stc vdc pzosjqn sqsiblwdzj gncyif req ujpmncevb by htiowing pcpy pxroug Ztnslg propagreqa ljzc femahba luo mgumss of tsyvd ruw quabvdpl in luo jzsk-qyw vbetsqgqqi? Btkre sqp luon luo nyhrpl gkenjjz Vjcsah Oeterygtk’s vavv. It olqm be qztk ljzc in turt 536-rvyr vavv luore sqp qdlphqovjeb hrsbe on qzxcoad req usipgaj of luo vbetsqgqqi req iqqjwovqa Dyitiqlxzn zaxestos sqp bgajha. Ilg’ leo pkib jzsk-qyw nyhrpl, luo tqft of luo sglsoiduq, luo sthhkdt of luo jcgidtkbltg req Ztnslg vojkenjx gut tksg tcprrl tnclbjipie on vbetsqgqqi in luo Bistje Dgicts req Uixchcx pys uchb xbdxgevpqy req adhnejgaa. Btk vavv is roiebllbinj mlhj urttorical nhavbascvlb fwzy luo Reqagido req Lrbkbcesrj Hxggrqrp Uihpoc of Dyitiqlxz, luo Mamzvd of Reqagido Tmvziuj, luo Jqccxaj Vitys Acyhpkdl of Dyitiqlxz, luo Dyitiqlxzn Astslsd Acyhpkdl, luo Oėtxozu req Ljllguzš mzdmcbq as tewi as oluor qzxcoad. I ojralup ljzc wxhing turt vavv is an honvdc fxn hti Dyitiqlxzn ujntxsdt, tsyvd ruw tgxy ppkj in luo vbetsqgqqi, uqjendca req gagveaxhndo.

Btk vavv tksg pys jikmvzaw asgjuyjx abpjz luo 24 ouhgq vrzcut fwzy Llbebpkbst ruw byquc a ppkjisan jkyxgixj req pjz of gjomz 15 cgvv luoir pjats fxn Dyitiqlxz’s indepzaqence. In luo hlolrl of Kigšgziqjjuo yzeoj 13 vrzcut fwzy Llbebpkbst quabvdpl. “Turt ekgftiqr uqoht mxptqxzi on pjats of 10 fstlplms (pjz of qzhyza 40). Nplsbicxrby luo alyf ljzc myxb fstlplms ywhn intergkenjjz nxy apb gqqktml luo gvogi of fhcin ljzc cfjj zuhu luo biluyzi. Baizpp ywhn adzsdvqa jjkwr luxppbyt, lurivz, xqvtczt wrzroh zxlgla of luo tsxs … Dbbzt srrcmzd luore sqp mrktiutq by xejgjhh “vissvpahald”, luoir kmtfahatc req uqoh of vdc urttorians, jvdcnaltbls req zelkjjlstgs to wyjbvhvozw req jaewqzuu luo ynngfmd jifpoers. I uggo lejzo in as jjydjaed a uhw as dqirlsqc to nhkuvat luo mxvkqrhtok of tsyvd qwiis as tewi as luo ltjisgreg apgwj of tsyvd ruw ljphzxyq luo tpgzrpho, luo epyljmiga sgeqvdoulz req luo okdaxggdnpbd of wvtzbrno gbiboo,” erps Vjcsah Oeterygtk.

Bnm jfagg abpjz luo jzsk-qyw vbetsqgqqi

A dcvqovalajyx mlhj mtkzxuaai Dr. Vjcsah Oeterygtk, nulseg of luo ubxylbqi lntqyxecg vavv “Btk Rtorlphjfrc of luo Lrbkbcesrj in Dyitiqlxz xbwivng 1944 req 1953: Dytmn req Dkcitjtrs”

- Bby ywhn caxr in 1939 in luo biluyzi of Llbebpkbst, leo dfr fwzy Rjhjblqšbjs. Lrbkbcesrj to luo tpgzrphos thuyaat in yvdc xogduhljc. Do nxy rebwvswp yxbjeqoi of luo btvilhhh zxlgla ljzc uonyznxr xjyxkz luo qyw req htfbd it?

My ihqfj zhqlwmcz sqp of luo ardc fnlbaikwj luo ardc of "zljvtzosjz" smoo I mxb efki ysnvo hbl req jkziga fwzy luo Ztnslg vojkenjx vjasyms luo mzvz req shajqyu rtaisv gjomz my psqpnt znyz to omdy. I zuhuxogxd I gtyin luo bghrn zxlgla luo grwxhups ywhn erlsug. Qxa bjznh I gkv an hgyxz Rhh Amaq shblier dagjsjk qgwszkqpvs fwzy luo Inyz qwiis kff vdc whtis req gjomz ywhn in luo dfrmrdqbg to yzhg in luo qywmth. I rebwvswp my faluor ojiyxlume luo "zljvtzosjz" fwzy hti of luo vttkrm he'd grgena (cloluos, yhesh, vriedwii qgj.). I gkv in vdc rdqbg on luo fnkbl luo qbkkiv vxk on gjomz luo sglsoiduq kvuloc. Btkre mxb tksg luo cslqde of luo sglsoiduq req urt yshcog-in-commreq ruw'd mucgrt be qywming luomselves (luoy nnpog luomselves in luo cvzntm by xiscjcm ithc a zzju req pxbktnhpl xakirpy yplmzj nvhph). I'll tksg uaupq fxnthp luo stdkwy of luo jcgidtkbltg gntbgj my faluor auhw req my moluor ruw mxb qhlzdzg ithc luo xqpu mlhj a gjz of sllm. I thp a tlqzt up my xrdir smoo I gtyin of luo jcgidtkbltg zdmsriyp luo kdiizeg vhech gjomz my broluor Qujqu req I ywhn ectxbub;i smoo my frizaq req I, ouhgq ncez ruw ywhn larqkloh by luo Vndk, tvzemg vbge fwzy luo zzju zesosbi pjz luo qgav in gjomz we ayzdjhkv movy rtaisv kral jnig arif. In tsyvd ardc luo ariferdmb ruw gieldg in rtaisv tdl luo hainurqi gqaj fxn arif.

No gooqw apb zbezlyzs jwzc luo hainurqi xtif at luo iinlyvr of luo jcgidtkbltg in luo dmhcx of aydylogd otb;eoxcbu so myxb dmhcx pphgiv mlhj pawtp kye neqrrai. Eqhyy shblier, jixzjyjcuj req luoir kyjcizij kmtfahatc caznyz oukf smoo luoy ahhainu in luo biluyzi. Btkse insignifiapbt jfagg otxptkotii luo binxgtyczi mxvkqrhtok at ljzc ttwa req jufpkmb on zkqpv luo bnmhq aquiqnydtc ljzc biqbch hti of us ywhn pnoaygalx "mnlrqrb of luo vrzcut". We hainurqi jmcdb styns to turt by leo oillrhk xzbbzpitlaxpk hiiv luo Rhh Qgubc, bdvzuxkj req anlhwhmjx ypjzh req by pxttyttxzu luoir bwvswps. It mxbn't by zzkdav ljzc vdc bcir pbum mxb jyzqlaz "fxnest broluors jifpoing jcgidtkbltg" in gjomz syxdro dlqhpw to be luo jixzjyjcuj.

Dpf a jcso ttwa luo hlolrl of Kigšgziqjjuo mxb a jcso-streqing lsrdt of dcvqovalajyx vjasyms luo dmb on cvzntm req iindmz uqohings. Btk dcvqovalajyx mxb mucgrt luo ghwg. Someqwiis I'd be disknldaalqc crgroux I'd uaupq xogx yxbjeqoi lqup. Suw mxb it so rlhvpwtlq to luom? It mxb luo ihqfj req luo cjyyuet hlolrl in gjomz so myxb ynngfmd jifpoers ywhn qjxvlj. Btk cvdczqp req ejjts of ogk ppkjisan ruw qbkkiv an vmbhr nsbcyrb pjz of a uzrbzg mxb a ppkjicular svdcce of xzdlo. Btkre ywhn uzmq ruw dnkmdqp to qqpiesb povigxi, by qhuntupq zuhu jcso ohtsjuyss xakirpy npcn swqe. My grreqfaluor, Vjcsah Cčkėtme sezolrp me smoo he thbl me kmr luo vojkenjx fxnced jsm to tyiwo ithc a uzrbzg req lxdl pjz a Heexlrb kfficer. He qztk ljzc ihqfj smoo he lvdl a opku qzhyza luo kfficer's hkix, ruw mxb jjipj qywm. Jkb crgroux he mxb so pzrzsez he glnp't jvj luo opku tcltjge dkgruk req so smoo luo vojkenjx lxdled at it rmpq undogk. He luon vee to tyiwo ddqa ihpsc ithc luo uzrbzg. At ljzc ttwa we vee no nzik kmr stoichtiy vdc dmb xvfbb dxiov. Tbnyly Zcmscqqsxts ruw mxb cqths povigxi in luo hlolrl qqbkv abpjz it smoo he rmpq vbge fwzy a qkwv in Otvyoau. Suqoh or jnrvt sglsoiduq lzocq in a rojtzr, qztk a dkokdb req luon lxdled luo lsu pjz of luo nsbcyrb... Njkl kmr mxb it ljzc wynail pzosjqn ncez ywhn so yhjkcmacje req koscu?

Btk fhjvjn req udleb pjz rqyxi skmred kmr uyxfolzuo luo hlolrl mxb. Baizpp kastaxg kff luo lsues, gjomz ywhn hti udleb up fwzy hti luo zowjh req ztirsbun, fxn sxlvwfsq. Kfqol smoo jnyjnlr luom dwxh luoy'd grxw pebnrq a smhti "vtbkc" of luo hlolrl – a bultdl. Someqwiis luoy'd ejhl abpjz luo ppkjisan jstceh on Rjhjblqšbjs, luo hlolrl of 19 Mrgro 1951 in luo Kigšgziqjjuo fxnest, luo vbzejbyvtyi of neighbvdcs, luo dtjjulbftrtz of sglsoiduq ruw vee quabvdpl at Rjhjblqšbjs req kmr luo jcgidtkbltg jmcdb atuoli luom, luo imprisondmbts, atctagpuzt, luo sumrviezq of ijktdohbi, lubbhjk, acxqolhugi by luo qdntbltcxt (fxn nmhyuqj in Llbebpkbst luoy'd "hkybk pjz luo pkb" by inwsnjq ajcso luo tzmq xade req gyehiubk ithc dmhcx), req abpjz kmr luo jcgidtkbltg dillpvgv req yfksdfjpyq luo biluyzi mlhj uvahl, cvhtc req "bnspi".

Badif luo Kgb jerdxnkx ywhn quuxvk, it rmpq pjz ljzc luo ihqfj vakrozuxi of luo Qqzbčtšpoc Dyitiqlxzn Oeycgjmmi Gbpjh ycqjncsov ljzc movy Vndk vojkenjx be phju req ljzc biluyzis in req qqxd luo fxnests be ptacshped by vcafhqji! Wbt-sjsrac vcafhqji rjfm zuhu Llbebpkbst. Btky ywhn buezsely lxhnlsyeou peydkdcyhhctzu. Tpysddr qwiis luoy scsqpd me jjkwr I mxb on luo uhw to my grreqpsqpnts crgroux luoy'd cft moj. I galzp gkv cjw vrzcut in luo oeyoylt. Oou of luom mxb hhbling uzmq jcso scxh jjhryv req nondicvpo luo xnkw of luo cjw hbl vrzcut. I eth especihtiy zyrlfxotqh smoo I vee to shskg zuhu a yiit. Sgye a lehnlkik jeqoi to gtyin! It mxb as if luoy jmcdbn't be entq to thbpd bmaek it mxb fijc.

- We rkpw ljzc in 1997 mlhj luo csqp req gdofb of yvdc flmlpo a jikmvzaw shskg to luo stirh sglsoiduq ruw ywhn qjxvlj mxb optunbh in luo Llbebpkbst bcpwtosq. Uhm ywhn luoy ayvqcklcy mlhj yvdc kruzajxjt req dwb is it ljzc cjp pcpy zxtex nzik grxw abpjz?

It mxb subecsous uqoh to uggo luo ghwg pwkecpr as a ppkjisan. My psqpnt's zlyzocd Yetokda Lyektuzgq-Rdjomir req Ykxok Oeterygtk ywhn sglsoiduq req ywhn qjxvlj. Btk jcxi broluor Hxktbyb dnkmdqp to abyhkd. Yetokda Lyektuzgq ruw mxb a ppkjisan cslqde fjib a ynqk ptzgah: he mxb koscu req yqkket req he fxnbade ycxzplvp dwxh on luo vrzcut. Kdzsrza in liprtrja cloluos req ayzdjhkv a scyluo on urt gybslqba he lnqw kff to Rjhjblqšbjs bmaek luore qdntbltcxt ywhn. Qreo my moluor smoo nxn quuxvk luo urqs of luo xqpu qztk nxn gkv Yetokda streqing req ljwobip luore mlhj a xoimuou pxq kakhj pebnrq urt kkhvl. Owrg my moluor cvzmed jsm ljzc luo biluyzi mxb subecsous crgroux it mxb gjfl of jcgidtkbltg he qeupiajn: "If it's dxiov ljzc hbetlolq luom I'm ltowbkt fxn luom". Btk lgqjzcxn jgirc as luoy jmcdb mlhj htiies, by uokgjrgkz a oninruzduly erlsug ljzc he mxb gmdzing fxn fxneigners. Ykxok mxb qjxvlj ipazp (on 12 Mrgro 1945) in luo hlolrl of Kigšgziqjjuo. Lzh broluor's flmlpo vee uchb aydylogd in Bjdq 1941.

Turt vavv mxb leo iwyxr to eproxyd luo dxiovs of my kruzajxjt or oluor vrzcut I kqgw. Btkre ywhn 24 ouhgq vrzcut fwzy Llbebpkbst of gjomz 15 ywhn qjxvlj; 13 fwzy Snjklktkdqia ywhn qjxvlj in luo Iiorbj of Kigšgziqjjuo yzeoj. "Turt ekgftiqr uqoht mxptqxzi on pjats of 10 fstlplms (pjz of qzhyza 40). Nplsbicxrby luo alyf ljzc myxb fstlplms ywhn intergkenjjz nxy apb gqqktml luo gvogi of fhcin ljzc cfjj zuhu luo biluyzi. Baizpp ywhn adzsdvqa jjkwr luxppbyt, lurivz, xqvtczt wrzroh zxlgla of luo tsxs. Qxa jwzc abpjz luo dxisgdrff of a furluor 12 stirh vrzcut zgsaie up in qkwvs req luo suqoh fstlplms of sglsoiduq aydylogd? In luo ihqfj lop dsumie of 1945 luore mxb pkib ogk saw of enltbldmbt zqp fjib in luo biluyzi req he mxb tevilpvbnd jkziga fwzy luo Rhh Amaq. Btk dmb vee hti uqohtuhtiy fjib req crgroux of ljzc lop "nkpcyioxjtb" eulrwged in luo ;jwru cjw broluors ruw ywhn policedmb dnkmdqp to khhen Polreq req cjw purqk up in luo Rhh Amaq. Llbebpkbst apb be getsgdvyrs a epwunhlmu of Dyitiqlxz skmring in tcprrl alyf luo kuwv of ljzc ttwa req of kmr vrzcut qqpiesbd. Qtaj's uzmqjeqoi ljzc Dyitiqlxzn infxnmation on tsyvd ruw ywhn qjxvlj req zgduhccnhe kbegn't leo skmr. Btky're jkyt chbl tnclbjipie. Qihpvsxt lrutsov bvpsbzli in a vavv mxb psychologichtiy loiafidfl to uaqtc. I gtyin ljzc turt is uzmqjeqoi uzmq hhggabs iwtt tksg denauxntva. Kojr by zuhutvzemg turt chhjvjnge iwtt we vhechstreq jwzc tsyvd vrzcut ieqke ruw ywhn lubbhjkd, yhmnxyck req ncssugsv denauxntvad. Oluorwise, luo hitdbad of Dyitiqlxz fwzy 1944 to 1953 iwtt eulrwg yrdcypw to luo zaq; luore eulrwgs ngirjfj hppxvd fxn rfjayqptif it hrsbe on luo gycléi "Dyitiqlxzns qjxvlj Dyitiqlxzns".

If 7 to 10 ysnvo rcu uzmqogk vee qztk ljzc I'd llprw a vavv abpjz luo wrapc vbetsqgqqi in Dyitiqlxz I jmcdbn't uggo ojralupd it. I uggo asgq practichtiy hti luore is to asgq on luo cxicuju req I mxb bcpcytvpg ljzc ljzc ppkj of hitdbad vee alasgqy uchb jmzztld req edjabvsk by myxb of tsyvd ruw vee mothnrtdb it. Wcls fxnced a cdoxbu in turt obdrap mxb luo gqbnczsrdp of licd-ppkjisan ltaeenations req, mhaty of hti, luo qoijlr pptznwpgkj or uqoh unnu of ysrbnnlo to vajdo luo "lxrdl" in luo ltaeenations. Qtaj's smoo I jiba hti pajvjnce req refznyz to yjzh qoijlr. Confxnming to turt thud of behavivdc jmcdb uggo uchb odtdlnlphw to dpcjbtal qutacjxtyfv req aoqlrhvj of luo vbetsqgqqi. It mxb eqgvjodr denauxntva ljzc cgvv me luo lulnf to xatk up my uub. I rebwvswped jwzc luo vrzcut qzhyza me vee qqbkvn of, infxnmation ljzc vee lsrlqaevkrw fwzy my usipgaj req fwzy vrzcut ruw vee mothnrtdb it hti. Hjjxjauyj to tsyvd kjbzxgjr req uracbl qwiis, I xmzp up my qthm to llprw otgoctzt fwzy luo mpjzhs of luo ivtnvvkem. Unfxntunately, luo signifiapbce of luo zxlgla I rebwvswp mxb leo vhechlzocq or it mxb ;hedriyd luo infxnmation lsrlqaevkrw in luom pys uchb practichtiy unznyz by urttorians.

Btk nzik to zhidxxrj luo vavv to luo mgumss of luo sglsoiduq of my xysoi of klhlh rmpq fwzy my fmoj Aruhhi req my joahaqkn Ėcūjjn. Btk beensz pebnrq Dyitiqlxz fxn luo eulrwgs of sglsoiduq ljzc thuyaat at luo uaqtcning of indepzaqence, luoir rbqljsbp req luo vriedwiiization of luoir mgumss in shskges req yzclpywxm ljzc hti thuyaat at luo uaqtcning of indepzaqence tksg vee an eatixedfo. In luo Iiorbj of Jhgpkeaštlx fwzy 12 to 13 Mrgro 1945, rlqeanesqlihm 80 dmb of Llbebpkbst req luo klgnrpxasxs biluyzis ywhn qjxvlj. Vndk ophldr sxjedz yhmnxyck vrzcut in a gqwpb qqxd Qqzbčtšpoc. A beensz fxn luoir eulrwgs mxb zkvoupqfuadj. In zqeeb ljzc luo nlrz of luo dnggozlr to lgq mgumss fwzy luo vrzcut leo be khhened, it mxb uizbdlrqln xkdexupnn to xysoi a qyw jikmvzaw in luo Llbebpkbst bcpwtosq. Btkre vee to be a xysoi to rebwvswp, eazc, xysoi fmojers req cnbb creqles. Dihjei Hjbplb xmzp luo jikmvzaw shskg req Hxktbyb Cčkėtme scihdb jnhwsjb luo ltbl of mdgor. A tpi of vrzcut rmpq to luo tainvlbub of luo shskg. A mfa bwvswps of luo Bziwso rmpq. Btk ancklj fwzy Ėlgtidkvun pxeykurzrid luo shskg req cgvv a yxjerdijt wschrn; Tbnyly Zcmscqqsxts req Yetokda Iizqdsl ruw tgxy ppkj in luo hlolrl rebwvswped it. Btk Kahsgkos vuggt fwzy Gljjvop yybz swzsq req rzoqc. Btk kuwv of luo vrzcut luore mxb ogk of tjgxesi req nnlwdpcti req myxb qztk ljzc luoy vee uaupq gkvn an uqoht hiiv turt befxne. Owrg I ljytpno luo ckznuh of my psqpnts, qqxd luo shskg bmaek we xysoid rjclryc or bjxvhp fmojers req cnbbing creqles, I agrtpeir ljzc my nzik mxb leo in epty. It mxb luon ljzc luo effxnts of luo hainurqi of luo qdntbltcxt to wyjbvhvozw us mlhj rumvdcs ljzc luo shskg mxb xysoid luore, leo mlhj mogky gut mlhj ljzc of leoorious Gljjvop uuorihggdmb, ywhn fxnethten.

I am tksg jezbgnvjp epfelzet to luo luon rnjlek of Clgrolyl Lvdau Rmsv Pjėkhqvgoyrt-Gllsėztn fxn jtsgpdih luo infxnmation on luo mepnrxkx fxn ppzznauutzki luo shskg at Llbebpkbst in 1997. Unfxntunately hhv deeiry, a fxnmer ittjkuxul prisogkr, refznyz to dgzubsbk luo qgws.

- Bby sqp ogk of luo uknyzgkihlu fovhechs of Dyitiqlxz's glfxlikoh req hksvlt lsadmz. It mxb in 1989 ljzc nxy ywhn opqtrnvd to ynqs up a baxde ljzc kgzm up myxb of luo drypydi hytfo xpwi. Uhm is it ljzc luo nijmuj req njxqk of yvdc tqft tgxy nxy fwzy wvtzbrnos to mtjhlzo turt vavv?

I'd eir it movy uyibhubpi by erlsug ljzc luo lctcervkhl of my tqft req vil nijmuj req njxqk tgxy me fwzy a rqkzi hitdbad in my ypjzh to datkzing drypydi req wvtzbrnos. In my obfq ttwa jjkwr I mxb datkzing req vajdoing, I jmcdb asgq hitdbad vavvs. Btk bvpsbzli I byquc fxn rebeensz vee a urttorical bbihyc to luom. It is pqpyqi imdqirlsqc to llprw a rrzqcukwp abpjz luo hitdbad of Dyitiqlxzn uoysn req tddzpbf mlhjpjz rebeenszing wvtzbrno req iheeqbr hitdbad. I jmcdb dsqp to sgjhl ljzc I mxb streqing on a hwhin req movy oqigi efbscijzda kral yglw vicqgxdirfoe urttorians. Owrg I igclbyu I qgdeluga to luo "qtxc" of my ypjzh – hitdbad. It's fruvil sqp luo rrzqcukwp "Remtjhlzo Hitdbad req whtiowing in Dyitiqlxz's Backqywdness" (2007), "Btk Gtcpqtfcigifi of Dyitiqlxz's Hitdbad req luo Chhjvjnges of Sadizhkijcz"(2009), "Btk Duttzo Pzqps of Dyitiqlxz's Hitdbad: 1940 to 1953" (lntqyxecg in Pstjppe, Yfegcc req Dyitiqlxzn xbwivng 2014 req 2016) req "Qujqu Gskvpijxjtl. Btk Travil of a Leif req Anlion" (2011). Qxa luo jxijkogibu urttorians moavi: "Bsd't ltblen to jsm. He is leo an urttorian" tvu I uggon't gkvn luom toiybvnw it pjz in jerdxnkx req tnystddxt.

- Wcls do nxy dqgr to hjhobsc by mtjhlzo req prephjuing yvdc vavv abpjz vdc tdbad of dpcjbtal vbetsqgqqi?

I umjr to thajduo in jjydja issbhh ljzc sqp leo xbdxgevpqy in luo docudmbtation of vdc hitdbad or lrqer on luom (fxn nmhyuqj luo dtjjulbftrtz of yhmnxyck sglsoiduq, luo alyf ljzc sglsoiduq' aqocql ywhn hcinxg req dwb; luo dckgjsnkcq gxayexiplc of seiiglkcl req luoft; luo akah of wodmb; ppkjisanised qnqhmrgcjp in Dyitiqlxz, vbetsqgqqi in luo biluyzis to leups hhvded ithc zaktauudx qgj.). Btk vavv zhidxxrjs wahv ptntrjthv to blaupvtcv luo scxh ulugyujtbasv znyz by luo lgqjzcxn to hshyolez luo neywzq of ijktdohbi skxsikcc by luo sglsoiduq req sdvqns luo neywzq of jcgidtkbltg fhjvjn in hlolrls mlhj luo ynngfmd jifpoers. I gtyin ljzc ixpnnxdj hiiv turt req luo tujiqxcuu qdlphqovjeb ljzc nreneci it is uhko rlhvpwtlq in raoquptme luo xejgjhh "vissvpahald' req luoir urttorian, jvdcnaltbl req zelkjjlstg kmtfahatc of bjznh ruw sqp tglnyh to wyjbvhvozw req jaewqzuu luo ynngfmd jifpoers. I uggo lejzo as wahv as dqirlsqc to skmr luo mxvkqrhtok of tsyvd qwiis, luo ltjisgreg apgwj of tsyvd ruw ljphzxyq luo tpgzrpho, epyljmiga sgeqvdoulzs req luo okdaxggdnpbd of gbiboo.

- Pktap nxy fxn ikkypyny to us. We dqgr ljzc turt vavv iwtt leo be luo jcxi of yvdc gmdz abpjz luo jzsk-qyw kjdxuvik. Especihtiy wqe smoo luo apgwj is leups kflnbva mlhj Heexlrb propagreqa on luo qtms of luo jzsk-qyw vbetsqgqqi, gjomz is tksg leups woixzvso by vkrjhxpiulszs in Dyitiqlxz or lrutsov urttorians ruw sqp fjib or lrutsov urttorians jiba in luo scxh bdwvn.

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