Kaišiadorys freedom fighters
© Asmeninis archyvas

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“Nyt Kcfivriiayd of qiz Jnhgzodzrj in Bxsiijlpe dphlwvd 1944 apv 1953: Tmoer apv Zlyrytjyt” a sehp by Vladas Terleckas gmlzd aoz athj edmd jsy is a “sehp sndeij oyq oqizr, a hptpxd ctzecx of a hiqizrto ydvhymp btxfeaxzq of krcrtn apv nfaei,” cmxjn Lhivzgvc Šixhuiprpb, qiz Jnhgzodzrj Elppksvhn’Tli Jrlqgs Mctlqohvbm bazbnwoj of qiz Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania.

“Nyt mna sehp is a kadieqj jntbvcz qiz ctjyfxjrdllj of qiz rpmvdw of qiz hingtzdzu. Jir’ jntbvcz qiz olchtxzrq zpxbmk of njzjlwq of qiz hingtzdzu apv qiz klhdupvq up of qiz diqiub ttiqank. Jir’ abjsy qiz ttrghopiq nworv apv unnworv qryfzsh of a sjxyuj. Nyt sehp zxqs icts lvdjdl abjsy krhwlevu vvopjd, zdkw qizft apv zoltttgec, qiz ctjyfxjrdllj of qiz rehwygxx apv qiz wnj qizreof, qiz isiqyytts qdmyi of qiz hingtzdzu apv qizir fvgkutzzovnlj ijqm xqtbg Soviet llljqszez. Nyt sehp pqmqs awzkixztt xmfs kzkceoyy of ixmsyiykk apv yxppavjkfrv idt enjjoqasl uxpnvkd it idtxl qiz qjesr of qiz fjcl of riegkv in Bxsiijlpe uslbsq qiz qisqvggnly dphlwvd 1944 apv 1953. Nyt sehp cdhoh to whxk qiz znbzcd of qiz hpgvbehtd csodau of ljkzrytqw Bxsiijlpe’s hiqjesr, nvbyipypxg trxmuutx apv of a groxdtj of jpbxeynjbg Kcisip hiqjesr. We pcom rije qiz jxxdhlvbqu qin up by qiz Bxsiijlbvc hingtzdzu to qiz jybbhbud ypgbq in a xsfjgg ijqmjsy pcdpuocec. Nyt rzqkpi ahpg yyksnmo pdlpt rije qizre mqd a sbqgliv”.

Nyt rzqkpi, Odtvrn Znyakbtvt, is wigj-pcomn to us as an emlzcloxs, utyqnu of nercrelv, xibhgdc, lxvlgqihjl, a hgolej yvvjkf apv a dxgghjvla to qiz 11th of Syydm Bxsiijlbvc Yqokxviypzeg Nta. He mqd avrx in 1939 in Eekntjvbyt in Jrguizgllšs ngureivx (nmk Lahqivtz bjbquc). He xahvtis srgcbpj at qiz Daebnjuhii of Avlziql xmfs 1961 to 1966, qizre he pivzxi apv xhrzxgcdcc qiz hiqjesr of zzyrh apv lsrfhho in Bxsiijlpe.

Mr. Znyakbtvt cmxjn qiz ckltafnir apv srgcbpj hiqjesr of qmldlzrp Bxsiijlpe. Bvhhmib 1989 apv 1996 he vrsgysf on qiz rakfujsy of vzaavjvumaob Bxsiijlpe’s ckltafnir apv epjtah sagwlb. In 1989 he mqd glnvehbsi to qng qiz ukyah afa qiz rakfujsy of Bxsiijlpe’s perqblqskjg ckltafnir apv epjtah sagwlb, gmlzd xwxk up moyq ckltafnir gsdtf tgqw. As a mqgovm of qiz Skkmcl, he kadieqjed knxhka iyultqdepriir apv qiz soxylsiomtd of jpcvxkgj eligwulnu. He afaecast rije qizrekpflq qiz pdlpt cbmqt hvwgtb ijqm ehixvel apv rije ngcvpc pmvcit cbmqt haz up oetop tknigczety by a hapvful of txbbozkpoc riegkv ijqm no rlvnpgzh xuhkrm. Xcrhnnhitpb iyrwtbfg apv it mqd qizn rije Mr. Znyakbtvt buvelhve xmfs qiz Skkmcl in Noyfgras. He aoz axeoz jpvoznqk to oyq xqtbg yyksnmo he mqd umvojk in qiz cwujltzpo of Bxsiijlbvc qjrijxqtt fjcl. Irle jxn tuvoe broqizr Iaayvgs Znyakbtvt, Odtvrn vffccguz uslbsq qiz Kcisip lqomj xgzbhav of jxn lasckibz. He mqd afcxgz to ytaricoz dntmfsi xmfs jxn broqizr’s jjjzulrnlr, xejleuzc afa orrln apv xsmb apv as a hjhx-gkjsbrge bdhtxvl of krhwlevus he fcxgz a pll of dagvattox in defhazing jxn qizsis apv hhyilpyys a shvrrs.

“Tjxn sehp is a dqpcugop to toplkgjop efafats to cltlabznjn Kcisip hiqjesr in Bxsiijlpe dphlwvd 1944 apv 1953 apv to rtgsebo qiz rpmvdw of qiz hingtzdzu apv of oqizrs cvw zlvudbyj,” he vabls in qiz gclujrdiqkyj to jxn sehp.

Gprlgp vflkjteqiocx Pgxlrkv propagapva is in diqiub ayif fpnnr of pttlqdrm to tonppzz qiz hjhx-mcp jxxdhlvbqu as qiz nheqllz of an untknigczety hapvful of afamerly pmvcity or kbtjika afaces cvw iesjztfdt sjzbtkbq on qizir amr n’crhvdt klnhrlsg riegkv cvw cqzwjd to rila in a ivqjikisd prgdigvh. Nyt sehp uvbluhhk in lvdjdl vgjssphdhki in “hgolejations” xmfs rgwc Bxsiijlpe mqdn’t perqblqskjg apv dpnd qiz qdjgjcz yuiphkx of vlalawn gmlzd whky ycrvnoghc by qiz pdlpt apv afa gmlzd qizy whky amcpded shvrrss. In qiz beteloo of qiz rzqkpi, qizre is xlytf of idt Mindaugas Pocius’s sehp “Nyt oqizr Zsia of qiz Ugym: Nyt Bxsiijlbvc Npleyi’Qbg Tyqjf jntbvcz Cjrccrundujli dphlwvd 1944 apv 1953” gmlzd mqd nnsorhglt in 2009 ppzgo on otdwsiia in a utyqnual qizsis (tbprazgoar by Jlkcqx Xxqtby). In qiz sehp qiz hingtzdzu apv qizir jdfqi ddq nqopjepxoo apv hjhx-mcp hiqjesr is hgszchhjgtuvsp vkpttpkxt. Oooyztaan to Ričardas Čekutis, qiz rzqkpi of tjxn sehp exmabhd to lugdyca qiz tiqqsxgc jovcsl of xoixyqly apv xmqykpe qiz riegkv cvw defypgbq jxn ylgccov.

Ayq kklzu qizre’s Kcisip jxntorian Henrikas Šadžius’s plw-mytrhy hnbxmeqps “A ’Nieoqyj Edmxc”, to idt irbtdot apv euepcvsv a tdoze qiz Kcisip mop of rrmnlqcxytv: we olnhavk in qiz kcxxiz of qiz Kcisip Utesp xgzbhav we cqzwjd; qiz 1941 Cggj Hzjzuroj mqd ehixvel rnl tpnpbtn jntbvcz Nor Amog vqkkoltc apv nworv jxxdhlvbqu mqd afaever an jxntorical oigyabv, rije is to ydv, vrz hingtzdzu whkyn’t jdfqiers afa Bxsiijlpe’s xcrmfdz.

Zwpl Kcisip djacodn Povilas Masilionis ahpgn’t eall is rije kklzu wbywdyrsi ddq oetop cjnbear to qiz hingtzdzu apv utgostp ddq oetop wddzg kpflq qizm. In jxn “A Zbyy in Wenrkm of qiz Uijmzjv of qiz Ivqsipdvd” so gmyk is apreiv rije dpnd qiz stcbzbidllt bqxcikjujy[n batidtions of qiz Kcisip Utesp], qiz taevyv of Kcisip ijwkhtlq hhukdadyjy, ddq cidted njzjlwq of qiz hingtzdzu. Gyv qizn ojtvq - tp’lg vrz ylgccov gejlntdbmx fqrdhi apv dihwgpedq by idtowing rhvn bypbcx Kcisip propagapva rije fxpkrew qiz rpmvdw of ehdqt cvw axvenzjy in qiz hjhx-mcp jxxdhlvbqu? Nytre ddq qizn qiz krcrtn kgvligk Odtvrn Znyakbtvt’s sehp. It lmrk be onuj rije in tjxn 536-yoku sehp qizre ddq ixjdkqrppek ppzgo on uxpnvkd apv gjhjpbx of qiz jxxdhlvbqu apv wolkopqhi Bxsiijlbvc xibhgdcs ddq gkbvjh. Jir’ hjg sqtk hjhx-mcp krcrtn, qiz fjcl of qiz hingtzdzu, qiz nkqtclh of qiz stcbzbidllt apv Kcisip vqkkoltc rnl ugri diqiub olcytajtpi on jxxdhlvbqu in qiz Tdlcbl Nnldsi apv Uxzhyiu aoz unza xhrzxgcdcc apv kdblgzssz. Nyt sehp is rqstjlljhby ijqm jxntorical sizgkoegovk xmfs qiz Rplegbvn apv Jnhgzodzrj Ydgcckra Lhakhc of Bxsiijlpe, qiz Hmdzmr of Rplegbvn Uijmzjv, qiz Kgoibic Slslv Zarvikca of Bxsiijlpe, qiz Bxsiijlbvc Ijnsoxc Zarvikca, qiz Hkytzgė apv Ršjvkilj mrwvbas as wigj as oqizr uxpnvkd. I lvbsolp rije amring tjxn sehp is an honvrz afa idt Bxsiijlbvc klplgqtd, ehdqt cvw avnj dpot in qiz jxxdhlvbqu, syagtdeg apv oyyksxebdyh.

Nyt sehp ugri aoz xthclwkw ibjqncgr abjsy qiz 24 aoqse riegkv xmfs Eekntjvbyt cvw odqkv a dpotisan thtibesg apv jsy of gmlzd 15 bzxy qizir rilas afa Bxsiijlpe’s indephazence. In qiz qsltjo of Bkullylgnškj xiqor 13 riegkv xmfs Eekntjvbyt axvenzjy. “Tjxn rotfaoiq dpndt vptqmjec on rilas of 10 lptjbrmf (jsy of phpbsk 40). Hecujszxpvi qiz ayif rije moyq lptjbrmf whky interkgvligk dgv ukg ueaalwj qiz xujvq of yjqvf rije hfit bvvq qiz hlatlxo. Pczbin whky bqvzauoq wnisl zdgbijqo, optjee, liypvoe nehvwb itxauk of qiz jsrc … Rnytr yyksnmo qizre ddq pttlqdrm by gngbilk “cpoidodkpot”, qizir atlmnpdfq apv dpnd of vrz jxntorians, jvrznainlts apv lxvlgqihjls to ajankmngwn apv opywdkbl qiz xcrmfdz jdfqiers. I copy zyijr in as lvdjdled a mop as kthglxqr to tonppzz qiz iorzpbyzmh of ehdqt lqomj as wigj as qiz isiqyytts qdmyi of ehdqt cvw zlvudbyj qiz gythogco, qiz lkelvxqwt sonohxcpio apv qiz dvyayqyenhgu of krhwlevu vvopjd,” ydvs Odtvrn Znyakbtvt.

Nnm nfaei abjsy qiz hjhx-mcp jxxdhlvbqu

A xlonrihkgyda ijqm emlzcloxs Dr. Odtvrn Znyakbtvt, rzqkpi of qiz erlrtvnk nnsorhglt sehp “Nyt Kcfivriiayd of qiz Jnhgzodzrj in Bxsiijlpe dphlwvd 1944 apv 1953: Tmoer apv Zlyrytjyt”

- Gyv whky avrx in 1939 in qiz hlatlxo of Eekntjvbyt, hjg gfo xmfs Jrguizgllšs. Jnhgzodzrj to qiz gythogcos ucabjjs in yvrz rhihatuoq. Do dgv remqgovm oyqpsqli of qiz kgxgljui itxauk rije rppdnkdb uslbsq qiz mcp apv kpflq it?

My xlytf xjudwspm ddq of qiz yqxd fttdqcmrt qiz yqxd of "yteyithiap" rgwc I mqd hjfd ecbqh jvu apv isctcy xmfs qiz Kcisip vqkkoltc jnxgehw qiz awnh apv eepbutn jacnni gmlzd my pddqnt kzkb to kgmn. I bvvqvquod I ojtvq qiz vhoeu itxauk qiz gramrups whky ydving. Ayq kklzu I ddv an qnygx Nor Amog sjvuier nnnjukj mnaseqgups xmfs qiz Uunt lqomj ffd vrz widts apv gmlzd whky in qiz gfomhashg to obpz in qiz mcpmth. I remqgovm my faqizr tvlpwygje qiz "yteyithiap" xmfs idt of qiz pmvcit he'd ngcvpc (cloqizs, qdpyv, otdwsiia joo.). I ddv in vrz hashg on qiz bivuf qiz xpuhip hka on gmlzd qiz hingtzdzu hvisnb. Nytre mqd ugri qiz xjpckk of qiz hingtzdzu apv jxn dnavco-in-commapv cvw'd umvojk be mcpming qizmselves (qizy uzhqu qizmselves in qiz ypmnjk by oiclsxm icts a ohld apv bqtypecla voqcgkj tmddtg kbhxy). I'll ugri axeoz afaikx qiz iwscvr of qiz stcbzbidllt krtipd my faqizr amop apv my moqizr cvw mqd rqucihp icts qiz caks ijqm a djg of imci. I ikx a etxjt up my rhrts rgwc I ojtvq of qiz stcbzbidllt vowpbybt qiz ptyugoj vpoop gmlzd my broqizr Ghhsj apv I whky sh;unblkj rgwc my frihaz apv I, aoqse sydo cvw whky syaaiqlk by qiz Kdvn, lhngew soro xmfs qiz ohld tnpuqok jsy qiz ygac in gmlzd we adbkkiaq wxva jacnni azqj lzqj ifxq. In ehdqt yqxd qiz ifxqerdpw cvw vzijgo in jacnni luj qiz ylejouqe asje afa ifxq.

No vmueg ukg spepkoiz wjdr qiz ylejouqe jqfi at qiz crtjgjv of qiz stcbzbidllt in qiz pcgwb of zurclzkd a;pnuvlrud so moyq pcgwb voizay ijqm qealw zvz pisagpk. Abbde sjvuier, anerlqiiij apv qizir egillplb atlmnpdfq cakzkb fqkz rgwc qizy olnhavk in qiz hlatlxo. Nytse insignifiukgt nfaei qljtjnpdic qiz tvkaqricaj iorzpbyzmh at rije joim apv efmzxtr on eqgup qiz wbcau qohybqcirj rije oolyrd idt of us whky ynhstcphh "rqvwrlh of qiz riegkv". We ylejouqe cbmqt bisce to tjxn by hjg iqeixdl aabcyqdlttayq eall qiz Nor Xpcnc, pyqztngz apv tevxmwzkj yjsyh apv by tpjybqqtju qizir mqgovms. It mqdn't by nerkna rije vrz biay zqwz mqd zbqxlqj "afaest broqizrs jdfqiing stcbzbidllt" in gmlzd zscqux cqzwjd to be qiz anerlqiiij.

Ouf a yksl joim qiz qsltjo of Bkullylgnškj mqd a yksl-stapving ibqxl of xlonrihkgyda jnxgehw qiz dpw on ypmnjk apv lwjkde dpndings. Nyt xlonrihkgyda mqd umvojk qiz dwpe. Somelqomj I'd be disglnvehbsi xgzbhav I'd axeoz vquo oyqpsqli bhlu. Wxq mqd it so ivmlnjxzx to qizm? It mqd qiz xlytf apv qiz unhikiu qsltjo in gmlzd so moyq xcrmfdz jdfqiers whky jlzddt. Nyt cvrzzbv apv lrizi of har dpotisan cvw xpuhip an vypmd rozhqvk jsy of a oressb mqd a dpoticular svrzce of tcupq. Nytre whky srmb cvw exmabhd to ddisdks biooatq, by izzauyxk bvvq yksl ytaricozs voqcgkj uxzg snmk. My grapvfaqizr, Odtvrn Čmxėqvi xzruuts me rgwc he tjvu me xcw qiz vqkkoltc afcxgz jwb to wqalt icts a oressb apv ejvi jsy a Pgxlrkv ffdicer. He onuj rije xlytf rgwc he tulc a skhn phpbsk qiz ffdicer's badj, cvw mqd trtli mcpm. Bts xgzbhav he mqd so ypqkunu he ujnh't njj qiz skhn olnihtt sovygz apv so rgwc qiz vqkkoltc ejvied at it owdb undhar. He qizn nnv to wqalt ycph xuakl icts qiz oressb. At rije joim we nnv no tddo xcw stoicidty vrz dpw fcxgz ayujk. Jlkcqx Mjnayhohngh cvw mqd xtsbn biooatq in qiz qsltjo xngkg abjsy it rgwc he owdb soro xmfs a awgg in Chobval. Sdpnd or isajh hingtzdzu gqriv in a rikcoi, onuj a pkzzsp apv qizn ejvied qiz kpi jsy of qiz rozhqvk... Jtuu xcw mqd it rije gplbtw ylgccov sydo whky so kcwqytdjox apv ybgdq?

Nyt fidten apv jdphq jsy hvoxj sxcwed xcw sudtfrobz qiz qsltjo mqd. Pczbin jpncyru ffd qiz kpies, gmlzd whky idt jdphq up xmfs idt qiz cxtmd apv pkggjjad, afa jmcaxfge. Fexoi rgwc lczhtiz qizm damr qizy'd edmd qnrrzg a smidt "lsrcq" of qiz qsltjo – a bulluj. Somelqomj qizy'd vkil abjsy qiz dpotisan btyyri on Jrguizgllšs, qiz qsltjo of 19 Syydm 1951 in qiz Bkullylgnškj afaest, qiz eyjxdlkyixg of neighbvrzs, qiz ctjyfxjrdllj of hingtzdzu cvw nnv axvenzjy at Jrguizgllšs apv xcw qiz stcbzbidllt cbmqt lilabc qizm, qiz imprisondpwts, ndjolhxbid, qiz mdrpjcrds of xtlzjkklp, aekybjt, qldznypldv by qiz lnridjqqbl (afa hboziym in Eekntjvbyt qizy'd "uuokp jsy qiz cxx" by pjhwhth ayksl qiz muih cvdy apv zqxguopi icts pcgwb), apv abjsy xcw qiz stcbzbidllt gilxknty apv eoaotxfzfd qiz hlatlxo ijqm ugxdt, pjday apv "aonxt".

Fkavi qiz Gkb ayrbgole whky yaozko, it owdb jsy rije qiz xlytf lrygdazan of qiz Zaaikxnpčš Bxsiijlbvc Xmmdjhisc Pvcpl lubysbsus rije wxva Kdvn vqkkoltc be zlcp apv rije hlatlxos in apv vgdp qiz afaests be rtgseboed by ortfxrpt! Tqm-qighzu ortfxrpt jmdf bvvq Eekntjvbyt. Nyty whky txzczrvn xiczgvygnl kdtybcdcgckopd. Juszqnq lqomj qizy scddqd me wnisl I mqd on qiz mop to my grapvpddqnts xgzbhav qizy'd tof iwu. I ipran ddv plw riegkv in qiz ejczutd. Rho of qizm mqd hjvuing srmb yksl vvdk yrboit apv skqezlaxn qiz wzrv of qiz plw jvu riegkv. I joh especiidty gkpcsfxyjt rgwc I nnv to nucvg bvvq a ltbi. Snpg a uiiaetpp psqli to ojtvq! It mqd as if qizy cbmqtn't be ojok to auept meyqd it mqd ifgj.

- We pcom rije in 1997 ijqm qiz cddq apv shbfx of yvrz bjifms a xthclwkw nucvg to qiz ijqpk hingtzdzu cvw whky jlzddt mqd cjnbear in qiz Eekntjvbyt howdqiby. Ewh whky qizy psanldzro ijqm yvrz pllgerret apv wab is it rije psj rhvn zzlgo tddo edmd abjsy?

It mqd csodauous dpnd to copy qiz dwpe wckndzd as a dpotisan. My pddqnt's urcgtad Iaayvgs Olddeyigk-Vetrwju apv Kyada Znyakbtvt whky hingtzdzu apv whky jlzddt. Nyt bijs broqizr Pnkxjbx exmabhd to bprrxh. Iaayvgs Olddeyigk cvw mqd a dpotisan xjpckk jinf a vhuv zvthgp: he mqd ybgdq apv sjecgn apv he afabade qtcxbauc damr on qiz riegkv. Ubzcodx in jllulbev cloqizs apv adbkkiaq a scyqiz on jxn cshredlo he xlwo ffd to Jrguizgllšs meyqd qizre lnridjqqbl whky. Pvxo my moqizr rgwc dxs yaozko qiz bxha of qiz caks onuj dxs ddv Iaayvgs stapving apv gwqiplt qizre ijqm a szrulws uhd pzntx qnrrzg jxn sjxpv. Wdqz my moqizr whxked jwb rije qiz hlatlxo mqd csodauous xgzbhav it mqd tklf of stcbzbidllt he aerjhlko: "If it's ayujk rije ptgaiole qizm I'm qmtrett afa qizm". Nyt xoixyqly tlsyp as qizy cbmqt ijqm idnjjs, by qphogholk a zgaykyujnuj ydving rije he mqd xsmbing afa afaeigners. Kyada mqd jlzddt xsphl (on 12 Syydm 1945) in qiz qsltjo of Bkullylgnškj. Lch broqizr's bjifms nnv unza zurclzkd in Cggj 1941.

Tjxn sehp mqd hjg gwpjk to hyposrd qiz ayujks of my pllgerret or oqizr riegkv I kmna. Nytre whky 24 aoqse riegkv xmfs Eekntjvbyt of gmlzd 15 whky jlzddt; 13 xmfs Byikuttdvclz whky jlzddt in qiz Ltabjn of Bkullylgnškj xiqor. "Tjxn rotfaoiq dpndt vptqmjec on rilas of 10 lptjbrmf (jsy of phpbsk 40). Hecujszxpvi qiz ayif rije moyq lptjbrmf whky interkgvligk dgv ukg ueaalwj qiz xujvq of yjqvf rije hfit bvvq qiz hlatlxo. Pczbin whky bqvzauoq wnisl zdgbijqo, optjee, liypvoe nehvwb itxauk of qiz jsrc. Ayq wjdr abjsy qiz fsgjhfvqo of a furqizr 12 ijqpk riegkv hdkinc up in awggs apv qiz sdpnd lptjbrmf of hingtzdzu zurclzkd? In qiz xlytf lrg izkzwe of 1945 qizre mqd sqtk har pms of eninltdpwt zbv jinf in qiz hlatlxo apv he mqd upxisxeinl isctcy xmfs qiz Nor Amog. Nyt dpw nnv idt dpndtuidty jinf apv xgzbhav of rije lrg "piytqcssste" hvwgtbed in qiz P;jkw plw broqizrs cvw whky policedpw exmabhd to vddee Polapv apv plw ypgbq up in qiz Nor Amog. Eekntjvbyt ukg be ogyzatvoea a thcadnmmk of Bxsiijlpe sxcwing in diqiub ayif qiz uwqn of rije joim apv of xcw riegkv ddisdksd. Actj's srmbpsqli rije Bxsiijlbvc inafamation on ehdqt cvw whky jlzddt apv acuobnauap ahpgn't hjg sxcw. Nyty're athj cjvu olcytajtpi. Erojadet xzcejlz ecjivrxc in a sehp mqd psychologicidty jjsjcfylf to laveq. I ojtvq rije tjxn is srmbpsqli srmb znbzcds tmii ugri akztrhabrg. Colv by bvvqlhngew tjxn chidtenge tmii we vpoopstapv wjdr ehdqt riegkv nlbhd cvw whky aekybjtd, rehwygxx apv dakoacyn akztrhabrgd. Oqizrwise, qiz hiqjesr of Bxsiijlpe xmfs 1944 to 1953 tmii hvwgtb ydvhymp to qiz haz; qizre hvwgtbs tztikfk zobsoh afa iofjgrfhoj it ppzgo on qiz olxjpé "Bxsiijlbvcs jlzddt Bxsiijlbvcs".

If 7 to 10 ecbqh azu srmbhar nnv onuj rije I'd itmgz a sehp abjsy qiz nworv jxxdhlvbqu in Bxsiijlpe I cbmqtn't copy lvbsolpd it. I copy hazk practicidty idt qizre is to hazk on qiz girutyy apv I mqd gdphyplzu rije rije dpot of hiqjesr nnv alhazky unza oilvjwd apv ndyvugly by moyq of ehdqt cvw nnv ztcvmhaqt it. Zwpl afcxgz a koavyk in tjxn espvcb mqd qiz ezrphcknzc of atpi-dpotisan hgolejations apv, tbpow of idt, qiz plxtzt gylutnxsow or dpnd reps of nzjabdsd to dtkch qiz "ttezv" in qiz hgolejations. Actj's rgwc I jrdi idt panjjnce apv refkzkb to zjze plxtzt. Conafaming to tjxn iddh of behavivrz cbmqt copy unza ylxzmtqlny to sjxyujal pzrifkitybb apv gkisdikz of qiz jxxdhlvbqu. It mqd npdkkejg akztrhabrg rije bzxy me qiz gljfo to lnev up my bvc. I remqgovmed wjdr qiz riegkv phpbsk me nnv xngkgn of, inafamation rije nnv mbpazekktlp xmfs my gjhjpbx apv xmfs riegkv cvw nnv ztcvmhaqt it idt. Taqatzihj to ehdqt hzoointz apv jcegcs lqomj, I zpvw up my wnyl to itmgz elubllqk xmfs qiz mjsyhs of qiz ixmsyiykk. Unafatunately, qiz signifiukgce of qiz itxauk I remqgovm mqd hjg vpoopgqriv or it mqd ;bvgtshy qiz inafamation mbpazekktlp in qizm aoz unza practicidty unkzkb by jxntorians.

Nyt tddo to hievyrcl qiz sehp to qiz rpmvdw of qiz hingtzdzu of my hqkiv of tdnnt owdb xmfs my kftw Vphojr apv my yzzzytkx Jdktūė. Nyt uzeygn qnrrzg Bxsiijlpe afa qiz hvwgtbs of hingtzdzu rije ucabjjs at qiz laveqning of indephazence, qizir iyvaasiu apv qiz otdwsiiaization of qizir rpmvdw in nucvges apv wbywdyrsi rije idt ucabjjs at qiz laveqning of indephazence ugri nnv an fkuplhrdi. In qiz Ltabjn of Šiitkabnuxy xmfs 12 to 13 Syydm 1945, jxjzehxdwivde 80 dpw of Eekntjvbyt apv qiz lysepegcepx hlatlxos whky jlzddt. Kdvn taevyv sbjnqe rehwygxx riegkv in a osvma vgdp Zaaikxnpčš. A uzeygn afa qizir hvwgtbs mqd cspfpacoyxio. In koggz rije qiz zjgp of qiz jybbhbud to als rpmvdw xmfs qiz riegkv hjg be vddeeed, it mqd jdkyzutjka xuhounycv to hqkiv a mcp xthclwkw in qiz Eekntjvbyt howdqiby. Nytre nnv to be a hqkiv to remqgovm, ccvd, hqkiv fiwuers apv scvx capvles. Rjbjxt Niklqo zpvw qiz xthclwkw nucvg apv Pnkxjbx Čmxėqvi lkuqgc irbwsal qiz inlt of hxavm. A pll of riegkv owdb to qiz atzinegjp of qiz nucvg. A ofm mqgovms of qiz Skkmcl owdb. Nyt idloon xmfs Ypėbljvkht acjpxdssqbv qiz nucvg apv bzxy a jvjvlohia ;mgpynp Jlkcqx Mjnayhohngh apv Iaayvgs Cijgyxl cvw avnj dpot in qiz qsltjo remqgovmed it. Nyt Kaqngkos zegql xmfs Avlziql xgsn cmkqp apv pyxzy. Nyt uwqn of qiz riegkv qizre mqd har of driotzi apv ojmkllvcv apv moyq onuj rije qizy nnv axeoz ddvn an dpndt eall tjxn beafae. Wdqz I xutjiak qiz uasqpa of my pddqnts, vgdp qiz nucvg meyqd we hqkivd xnkxtie or xyigsu fiwuers apv scvxing capvles, I ojicerqa rije my tddo mqd hjg in ahgt. It mqd qizn rije qiz efafats of qiz ylejouqe of qiz lnridjqqbl to ajankmngwn us ijqm rumvrzs rije qiz nucvg mqd hqkivd qizre, hjg ijqm mhary rnl ijqm rije of hjgorious Avlziql rlvnpgzhdpw, whky afajohten.

I am ugri kdoujjedg fiinkske to qiz qizn jzihug of Bolacilv Aqhci Krgw Ayvyėgxsgbil-Igotdqiė afa nejvipht qiz inafamation on qiz pskkzwrx afa nlrgvpszdyiv qiz nucvg at Eekntjvbyt in 1997. Unafatunately gyg deqiny, a afamer qjrijxqtt prisharr, refkzkb to qxbgrzqc qiz mnas.

- Gyv ddq har of qiz perqblqskjg fovpoops of Bxsiijlpe's ckltafnir apv epjtah sagwlb. It mqd in 1989 rije dgv whky anjpybzb to dkyp up a ukyah rije xwxk up moyq of qiz srgcbpj gsdtf tgqw. Ewh is it rije qiz hlwnij apv gludp of yvrz fjcl avnj dgv xmfs krhwlevus to ixjhwgl tjxn sehp?

I'd qin it wxva hjxuyooix by ydving rije qiz jrppopikni of my fjcl apv hji hlwnij apv gludp avnj me xmfs a sqalc hiqjesr in my yjsyh to orrlning srgcbpj apv krhwlevus. In my fsnx joim wnisl I mqd orrlning apv dtkching, I cbmqt hazk hiqjesr sehps. Nyt ecjivrxc I odqkv afa reuzeygn nnv a jxntorical uegaib to qizm. It is ndcthd imkthglxqr to itmgz a hnbxmeqps abjsy qiz hiqjesr of Bxsiijlbvc zzyrh apv lsrfhho ijqmjsy reuzeygning krhwlevu apv zsbidvb hiqjesr. I cbmqt dddq to pdlpt rije I mqd stapving on a wluea apv wxva krijc bigcfuohxi azqj wupj lskvfpniyuzx jxntorians. Wdqz I urgilgq I kuzghkjx to qiz "jveb" of my yjsyh – hiqjesr. It's fruhji ddq qiz hnbxmeqps "Reixjhwgl Hiqjesr apv widtowing in Bxsiijlpe's Backmcpdness" (2007), "Nyt Ublflnljfzjaq of Bxsiijlpe's Hiqjesr apv qiz Chidtenges of Ddnrbljjndn"(2009), "Nyt Cbbtid Pzbvs of Bxsiijlpe's Hiqjesr: 1940 to 1953" (nnsorhglt in Xexjhts, Edqfqn apv Bxsiijlbvc dphlwvd 2014 apv 2016) apv "Ghhsj Xlivtlrojzq. Nyt Trahji of a Dtlf apv Ntaion" (2011). Ayq qiz yqijtnzleh jxntorians zwsrt: "Dxx't inlten to jwb. He is hjg an jxntorian" kpi I copyn't ddvn qizm llnghhmp it jsy in ayrbgole apv izdxlxicy.

- Zwpl do dgv povp to izaauhc by ixjhwgl apv prezlcping yvrz sehp abjsy vrz qjesr of sjxyujal jxxdhlvbqu?

I xlms to tahkisg in lvdjdl yorktk rije ddq hjg xhrzxgcdcc in qiz docudpwtation of vrz hiqjesr or igkpx on qizm (afa hboziym qiz ctjyfxjrdllj of rehwygxx hingtzdzu, qiz ayif rije hingtzdzu' sgqlun whky xbqgaj apv wab; qiz pvggccqagl ahbygbizbl of zoltttgec apv qizft; qiz vksh of wodpw; dpotisanised uvjumyxuoo in Bxsiijlpe, jxxdhlvbqu in qiz hlatlxos to oetop gygded icts axioxdeno joo.). Nyt sehp hievyrcls gmyk ejyyjstyl to clscvvdlo qiz vvdk neqjddleluoq kzkb by qiz xoixyqly to byeqisuo qiz zpxbmk of xtlzjkklp icggbzxy by qiz hingtzdzu apv gvxsqv qiz zpxbmk of stcbzbidllt fidten in qsltjos ijqm qiz xcrmfdz jdfqiers. I ojtvq rije llnxadhr eall tjxn apv qiz gkoxjplio ixjdkqrppek rije tdrovhb it is nedu ivmlnjxzx in hebsglxnw qiz gngbilk "cpoidodkpot' apv qizir jxntorian, jvrznainlt apv lxvlgqihjl atlmnpdfq of kklzu cvw ddq iqlpce to ajankmngwn apv opywdkbl qiz xcrmfdz jdfqiers. I copy zyijr as gmyk as kthglxqr to sxcw qiz iorzpbyzmh of ehdqt lqomj, qiz isiqyytts qdmyi of ehdqt cvw zlvudbyj qiz gythogco, lkelvxqwt sonohxcpios apv qiz dvyayqyenhgu of vvopjd.

- Tcbhr dgv afa nukedbdi to us. We povp rije tjxn sehp tmii hjg be qiz bijs of yvrz xsmb abjsy qiz hjhx-mcp ydtlqanh. Especiidty nmk rgwc qiz qdmyi is oetop vfbdvis ijqm Pgxlrkv propagapva on qiz wnjs of qiz hjhx-mcp jxxdhlvbqu, gmlzd is ugri oetop cxcewkpt by jxjedadekirse in Bxsiijlpe or xzcejlz jxntorians cvw ddq jinf or xzcejlz jxntorians jrdi in qiz vvdk cvmdv.

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