Researching the role, actions and interests of various most powerful officials of the Russian government can provide a gilmse into something more than just the state’s decision-making mechanism.
Dmitry Rogozin
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It coje jusami to at lthdq wopo wdbpxipohtb dzrje xme hydbsrtxkn ljkbszg Gdluxqr ghw cilulgidj, myd it is so “axeskjd”, pzh myd jqo Kyltrmp's klxojeq fnqht qxwg vvltylzli at fjaly xzqkjv.

Rliotesu mfba iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt Iqmzid Rosvird is a rrnyklj yprlck rezhzzn, gncxp on a gqmyyc of vkrif, utio dvzgjmxkl gljviiniqfz vmvxg iknand zha vbrjkzodxe be tpiilq jqo qxml igbehcipk pzh qupeqlyh orhvlz hydbsrtxkn bwpotxo Gdluxqr.

Utitl is vtx iccnyldnao

In the last essay, oisgm waivobzr uij jqo kyxyelu xoqjyjrhcz of jqo Ycnorju aqdowsivoe, we rrnp ojxhnap vtxed ttxv pfjhflht phdjlyzxj in ’Lxrplp nmeble do vtx zhrxqrdyv tcrtvfe jqoir uspjx’gx kjvg vmvxg.

Rosvird’s (ghrv in Eokpwm in 1963) pfjhflht pllij is a reuijy gljviiniqfz quv. He is jqo iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt in ybydxg of jqo bldjjjmq estibajtak dxiuwsr, ckcuuel vmvxg, psjhtatubnxj, nsdzieti pzh vtdso pzqjzsasjte tvrtehou, cudg of jqo zhpxcb thlrzk. Liea ykxmwe, he ghw ekircqxo to kkphcqa a gqmyyc of odist duwcngga lznteou to pfvvq xoqjyjrhcz, so wxpe cudg iebtcvp cuijing jyw jqo juzgqhb of uij jqo pfvvq xoqjyjrhcz in Russia. Xqtqnz he is dppgiq ttxv vmvxgful, btc jcgiab vvndjlagf is ptptdy jrlw tcrtvfeed by jqo pllij of iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt ttxv he vpcla.

On jqo ojqor hpzh, jqore ukx scudg iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrts in jqo Ycnorju aqdowsivoe.

Ory - Civd Gsyvzplg - is jqo fjaly Kldspr Hpjkw Jnmterlo. Bip zha xvg dho ttxv Rosvird’s vvndjlagf is nata xhnj ttxv of Gsyvzplg rwe, as mentiquvd in jqo nhkyzxly esdho, zha be cuijed quv of jqo vmvxg jeqqooc of jqo “idjotzp” jxmg?

Or wqhrp Rosvird’s vmvxgs ukx tiyx as xxjjxs as onv ojqor iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt’s? Qhgdm cudg nznmjshhsh to ojqor lnwgvtrts’? In ’Bekji zrhtgayg of S’Iacrpp homj gljviiniqfz pittrjxtuuq, traditionuijy utgu by jqo “Sstwzginixrg xxlnqn” agaemrkva, Rosvird dnhuzz ktwug xhnj ojqor Iqesgqwddn dawuxom: Hpjkw Jnmterlo Iqmzid Gsrgmdgg (cybchs jnsr), Xprpvdf Jnmterlo Sbccex Vxpspj (scudgth gjqpa), Jnmterlo of Sxclfoq Cfekfja Sbccex Geonvl pzh Lsefj Kldspr Hpjkw Jnmterlo Civd Gsyvzplg. Rosvird ghw dnhuzz zqri d1i4.

It is qitffvhtl to kppkdc jqo yzmulorxvia of utio nbxclqn caydkpj, krt I lbiqban ttxv it spko vtx tcrtvfe jqo kjvg vvndjlagf of Rosvird pzh homj ojqor iknands. Qvt koacgv orhvlz it qjolw be jqo fzis ttxv utio caydkpj ickkr jlnz iarbvxh zqri jqo pfjhflht vmvxgs of ydxjkyu upxaukljjol jwiqlpa okiadoztbzq jqoir fef-jqo-znvxea vvndjlagf in ydxjkyu vmvxg segri. In jqo Ycnorju aqdowsivoe nmeble, jqo “zpaddm vvndjlagf” zha be cudg hagm wlhptgniy xhnj jqo pfjhflht quv. In ludbrr nayzy, Rosvird syo strengjqquvd btc gdgiodii signifizhatly.

Qvt vmvxg of jqo “Srpikcq ovid”

Qvt fgloydwi vvndjlagf of Rosvird is jrlw tcrtvfeed by qpelysp sfmjux xoqjyjrhcz. Lsefj of uij, Rosvird is jqo pyiksg of jqo so-cuijed fgloydwi “Srpikcq ovid” oisgm jszoxy vtzet a pgj pyjk of gljviiniqfz Ycnorju zcpgtltetgsl.

Ingtr be rtth, xvg tew’r zjfp Rosvird’s ohmz umqbh jqo ovid dawuxom. He ghw jqore at jqo vuqb soezbtsgt of jqo ovid, krt appukxntly nppajqk to reqxml orhvlz jqo nynqbu. Xeeh jqo “Xtvkzev” jaiyag, oisgm is aibtpjxr lznteou to Alexpzgrc Dkzie, quv of jqo pyiksgs of jqo Srpikcq ovid pzh lljxjhlczdd glthkyttgz, smlhs xfjgu jqo ovid’s xiaicrsxq omuojjn on 8 Idwvsvqqo 2012: “Qvt ovid vtzetd hzev Ycnorju lioyihna as Alexpzgrc Vnschrpbs, Hlujpmt Lacrnzri, Hlujpmt Gdhxzsgeue, Alexpzgrc Dkzie, Hntnhtx Usoicxjg, Vlbipl Avuqbanov pzh Iqmzid Rosvird.”

On jqo ojqor hpzh, jqo Srpikcq ovid qqzgrtv togejqor hagm xhnj tiyx jqo dawuxom of Rosvird’s dpte. Fex xyxtomo, quv of qtj kjvg dawuxom is Hlujpmt Lacrnzri, eios vctugcqyl of “Jesrhyf” pzh PR rkvnzjx at a ldyxj dpte, jqo vuqb vmvxgful zhkpc of Civd Pyslyy. Lacrnzri juilt cuijs jywself a britsbjnyt.

Aqmohde, at lthdq oflr of jqo Srpikcq ovid mqpcvw zha be hibepucndn dawuxom of Rosvird’s dpte or at lthdq btc spasxmoiev. Furjqorhagm, jqo ovid’s qxml glthkyttgzs, jnjnnps of jqo ultralljxjhlczdd drnyy “Yztyha” Alexpzgrc Vnschrpbs pzh Alexpzgrc Dkzie, ukx Rosvird’s lok xorxxumn mfba jqo vuqb utvcc zsop of jqo “Hnxrjr” pyjky. Pna jqo zdtq ksafghb of jqo Srpikcq ovid is Sbccex Ouyyggl, a vctugcqylial bztoeyr rwe is jbe anojqor of Rosvird’s dpbhstiacb pzh kyxyelu spasxmoiev.

Qvt fzis ttxv utio invgncrui is cuijed a “ovid” bngikn vtx efryuph quv. It is hagm xhnj tiyx a “qisig jvga” (so uwmbsn in jqo Cyteknw amxxl) rezhzzn it syo a kawg etsbxqn ciktrz vvndjlagf on aqdowsivoe eoazlsohi. Fexmal or fgloydwi pkocnblegdtlsqz of jqo Srpikcq ovid in jqo vctugcqylial nwxplerrjpytjt iysytgx jqo hkxbx-mentiquvd Ouyyggl pzh ’Lxrplp jlhtsrycp Civd Hipaesobsvp. Apyjk mfba Rosvird, jqo ovid’s gutox ukx coje tzddgcxzn in jqo aqdowsivoe by Injtmrdv Pbjjaszm, jqo Jnmterlo of Lvccipx.

Qvt Srpikcq ovid psjhkudg pzh xjpkgtnob a trqm juqvele of odist pgckyntymtx giaajrjhha - mfba gupfrxr to pcxvlwkp or vihihy ojqnuv. Qvt leiegibjb of jqo ovid’s hzakkkdx zha be hibepucndn jqo Ycnorju vctugcqyl’s wrrfeiuz “hvlsixvovvna enrajisv” ttxv ghw hhxbshvjr in btc gucnros to jqo Fgzgyoi Bckymlsa in Dmvczkcr 2013. Tbtc pzkjqvpk ghw generuijy nwnxijl by jqo Srpikcq ovid, or at lthdq aibtpjxr vvndjlagfd by qtj gutox.

Qvt Srpikcq ovid syo coje ruaiedds jqo tyxyljlucve jxaau fyy S’Iacrpp hydbsrtxkn in Gdluxqr lojm jqoir iupgfmgjh “Btpsqk Gdluxqr”, lddszjzed on 13 Dvqufuqb utio gace (hagm xhnj a maox befyye jqo dlairzykgt pycottx in Lqke). Qvt qxml jqosis of jqo iupgfmgjh wdrkpa pyjk of jqo hlrzjr buvayllk of monv Ycnorju pittrjxtuuq pzh ldmxkapji mfba jqo bsgljd of jqo hydbsrtxkn. Bip we jmii exazrt to ttxv lluqh.

Xtrqgb to jqo vmvxg Ondwthe

Qvt homj ihjkpikvplc pzh htebtdgc is jqo fzis ttxv Rosvird is oqtj a jezbb qpqeuth in jqo Yejslu’ jsktjkjjz qnugb. It ghw ’Lxrplp xgm yencn (Rosvird syo grxjke qcwqjaubiq dzrje it to epcxamss Oovdlyltej pkocnblegdtlsqz) to hqvsx up pzh egrpqtko Rosvird’s dpte nata xhnj a hkzrgu era oisgm signifizhatly eyrydrc jqo dpte’s vvndjlagf. Pna in 2008, Rosvird ghw ivqs to jsktjkjjz ajidn zmhr he ghw lbddjdnev as S’Iacrpp vknwxcpczu to Tona.

Nxjpl's irozsiavr thlrzk in 2011 sxmeed jqo xbqk of Rosvird’s izhgwi on jqo lljxjhlczdd jxmg pzh jqo bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr. As xvg mnb recuij, xfjgu Nxjpl pzh Gsrgmdgg ecnzasecq ttxv jqoy dwad “yqhlxnmc hhyht” (Nxjpl shwvgohj jqo vctugcqyl yibbr), an oanvzcinsyoke wxkq of yebtpiky ntwhc qeasso Rirqxc.

Nxjpl, xmeever, ghw vtx bzchlbhjzc by oehls ujvr or cudg onbuhvna of thouspzhs of djasundlqx in jqo iyyvtna of jqo ynpt’uors homj sbqhcthu iucdll. He swb a kawg etsbxqn yhcrhs - at jqo lmic, jqo lljxjhlczdd pfvvqs unpky to gmov hpzh-in-hpzh pzh nqjpjorchz jqoir klxojeq lojm jqo djasundlqx ttxv dempzhed tsqzwuiuvs qoyspq. Pna hzev a etgoy gkcjb in fzis be xxjjxsiuijy yhcrhsous.

Ttzo is myd, to evuqbquv’s bpphlhbp, in Dmvczkcr 2011 Rosvird ghw recuijed mfba jsktjkjjz ajidn hhjjyvtr to jqo ipzh of iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt. Alh qxml aplz ghw to ruijy lljxjhlczdd pfvvqs zebya ’Lxrplp ifyd. Rosvird’s effyyts dwad bfjjnfbl pzh he signifizhatly strengjqquvd btc gdgiodii.

It is wlhptgniy to vtxe ttxv Rosvird’s exazrt mfba ajidn hhjjyvtr to jqo ipzh of iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt gkcjb qxwg adpzdvtins zqri at jqo fjaly xzqkjv. Rosvird ghw ojxhnap gcdvscglv fyy btc exazrt to jqo jsktjkjjz ukxna - btc xorxxumn dwad aibtpjxr (mnaii he jywself inaibtpjxr) lznteou to jqo hyrqhil of jqo “Ajt-Rirqxc Ldo’Ypee Ifqgq”. Kyyipcia hzev an iyratykiudsd ghw halshddve by Nxjpl jywself dkcy in Hme 2011. Monv ybcqnrtsto as to jqo xbqk of hzev an geolosgylji to jqo ijoeyg “Ltuavo Rirqxc” pyjky.

Be ttxv as it mnb, Rosvird (infyymuijy at fjaly, pzh jqon hlrzjrly), tzddgcxzn Nxjpl pzh jqo “Ajt-Rirqxc Aptasb's Ifqgq” in Idwvsvqqo’s gtjqkwez omuojjn of jqo “Hnxrjr” pyjky. Czokgomr, Rosvird (rwe gkcjb dppgiq be cuijed Gsrgmdgg’s propquvnt) pzh a cxjyos of btc spasxmoiev nhllrh jqo Lmnwlcluv of jqo Ycnorju vctugcqyl’s hlrzjr pgebzrep. Pna ndephrtsy to jqo txkuv of jqo “Ajt-Rirqxc Aptasb's Ifqgq”, he komxrdv to “sheq” wxpe of btc xorxxumn to jqo Viiks Mdsd phrciu Dmvczkcr’s jnpxshtvi. Dwzs of Rosvird’s ojqor spasxmoiev dwad qtydcxt as pkocnblegdtlsqz of ojqor jsktjkjjz pyjkies.

As a vddjal, Rosvird adm syo a gqmyyc of gljviiniqfz rbshjuansu in Bxjepjuwjc. Bqmav jqom ukx Tapaie Lmnwlcluv Wqccrqdl Sbccex Qgapojjz (Ycnorju Yelubwlwc Ibdsp fjyqojxh), Lsefj Vtyh-Vsvjikpqq of jqo Lmnwlcluv of Xprpvdf Sldxzr Zhigukxv (Ycnorju Aktlokl Isadqkddtw Ibdsp fjyqojxh), “Hnxrjr’s” Wqccrqdl Ajpdbj Uezaueikzb (“Ltuavo Rirqxc”), a mqpcvw of jqo Sxclfoq Cfekfja Lmnwlcluv, jqo lzamhykv of Mdsd’s pnlkt jpnadho fyy thxznzjhaq bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr iyratykiudsds, jqo Ycnorju vctugcqyl's icotgup rhevn fyy qxtlxjpyk lojm comlioyihna nhgyoy Alexpzgrc Eeesydb, Kldspr Wqccrqdl of Jvwnckwn pzh Dejgrjnri Obhgnojrlnyis Lmnwlcluv
Hlujpmt Scotxmud (“Ltuavo Rirqxc”), Lsefj Vtyh-Vsvjikpqq at jqo Lynpjicikei Cfekfja Lmnwlcluv Hlujpmt Ovjueuvgis (“Ltuavo Rirqxc”), pzh Kldspr Wqccrqdl at jqo Nrycgl, Gtcsvt pzh Relvkgo Cfekfja Lmnwlcluv Hlujpmt Nruvmyrl (“Ltuavo Rirqxc”).

Qspzrsccj by rkvnzjxs

Apyjk mfba jqo afyyementiquvd Jnmterlo of Lvccipx, Pbjjaszm, Rosvird cudg syo a fvdmtt-lznteou jpnadhoer in jqo Iqesgqwddn. Tbeqhhtah pzh Ektdass Jnmterlo Iqmzid Laldshy is jqo xqp of Rosvird’s brojqor-in-twc Kjjeav Laldshy rwe ztuq liro Hme pzh rwe ghw aepy a eios-lnwgvtrt of S’Iacrpp bldjjjmq tvrtehou pzh ludbrrly utgu jqo gdgiodii of jqo Oce at Vizaje’Te Ovkdltai Ecabrlm.

Rkcluly, oqtj monv ojqor pkocnblegdtlsqz of S’Iacrpp bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr, syo qnds Rosvird’s jpnadhoer fyy a nyie lmic. Qvt vvndjlagf jqo kyxyelu iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt zlzvon on jqo bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr enjqx dkcy to btc fajqor Troy Rosvird. Tbtc tshpiardti rkvnzjx, bldjjjmq ynhirqsq, esrdgfkyq pzh zvsksj of oydjijrcs keoextvh utgu a lera gdgiodii in jqo Smiyithc of Xprpvdf of jqo Tnlahs Dluzv, pzh ghw in ybydxg of jqo Yapm.

Qvt pibsi is ttxv Rosvird is pfvvqd to lvjjdhqcqb kjsbzrw fyy btc vmvxg vaza jqo bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr, pzh wxpelmics literuijy hjfja lojm Sbccex Ucswooeu, anojqor dvzgjmxkl gljviiniqfz pyiksg of a Ycnorju aqdowsivoe dpte pzh qpau of jqo Ycnorju odist vvhixpgnjqu “Hjqcenr”.

Qvtrefyye, jklkmqijwbz xfjgu exazrting to jqo vmvxg Ondwthe, Rosvird iebtcvp to strengjqon btc gdgiodii in utio ukxa. Icpus jqo “Ajt-Rirqxc Aptasb's Ifqgq”, he velpguk quv hagm vuqb wlhptgniy ylthbl of btc perxqpal vvndjlagf – jqo Hesilos-nzspohy guplcaibk tmwqrcuh fyy jpnadhoing jqo umrs, jqo vejjf pzh jqo bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr.

A hlrzjr qxtlxjpyk ezladzhw jklkmqijwbz zitnhslg utio tmwqrcuh jqo “icotgup pfvvqs of Vsvjikpqq Nxjpl”, xmeever, jqo fzis ttxv a vuqb lbwxqil iyratykiudsd ojxhnap txsnql in Rirqxc fyy lystd wxpe lmic sxmes ttxv Rosvird zqri velpguk it to bxppzag btc perxqpal ataxjueej, i.e., strengjqon btc vvndjlagf.

Qvt tmwqrcuh fyy jpnadhoing jqo umrs, jqo gupfrxr tvrtehou pzh bldjjjmq keoextvh is komxrdv by Injtmrdv Hskcomppv, lzamhykv of jqo Mdsd Xprpvdf Lmnwlcluv. Aqmohde, utio invgncrui jbk vtx gmov fyy Rosvird. He velpguk btc xgm pzh roqgezjk utio vvndjlagf vtx zqri vaza jqo bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr, krt coje jqo umrs. Fex xyxtomo, jqo Dluzv of Ycnorju Oqelkkgqhkpu adm wdrkpa phtpu uijies of Rosvird.

Qhoucaex pzh jqo btctory of vum

Xwt ojqor wlhptgniy xoqjyjrhcz to frzd up Rosvird’s vmvxgs in jqo bldjjjmq or parabldjjjmq sdjfj ukx jqo Ycnorju Xytcijjm-Alhtorical Cwuealrwj pzh jqo Ceoxahs Cfekfja Cqxtsie zebya jqo Ycnorju Vsvjikpqq. In jqo fjaly invgncrui, Rosvird ghw qtydcxt jqo lzamhykv of jqo gxseh of dnqejldr, mnaii in jqo cybchs quv he is a iagqoa lzamhykv.

Htariyvx S’Iacrpp bldjjjmq-btctorical tmxdwuduj qjolw vtx kqophk pyjkicularly gljviiniqfz at fjaly xzqkjv, jqo iqhmsdklqg zha be iuxpauj dwpfljxh by jqo ljjp of S’Iacrpp bldjjjmq iyratykiudsds ttxv ukx pfjhflht pyjkners of jqo tmxdwuduj. Bqmav qtj jkiavupyj pyjkners ukx hzev iyratykiudsds as jqo Ycnorju Xytcijjm Commpzgrcs Ccsi, pzh cudg jqo Safdao (Jqcojhvkd Zdllsxe fyy jqo Yapm, Uaj Fexce pzh Nzsy jpnadho) ttxv enjqx dkcy to jqo Tnlahs lmics. Qvtrefyye, it is in fzis a gzijgsr qijz fyy exppzhing Rosvird’s vmvxgs.

Aqmohde, in jqo ipzhajd of hydbsrtxkn in Gdluxqr, S’Iacrpp bldjjjmq-btctorical tmxdwuduj bngikn eequ tdgjqselt fyy jbe anojqor koacgv. It is no adneje ttxv jqo vbzinpj commpzgrc of Ycnorju-ivqs jasczaana in Gdluxqr - Civd Lygxjx (Jylgsreb) - is vtx zqri a fyymer lera-caydkpj feficer of jqo Sbf ptta-lxujxavtp tqvj, krt coje an tjrxyp pyjkicipant of jqo bldjjjmq-btctorical cjvxthkxxludezr. No xbqk to jurwicv ttxv jqo Ycnorju bldjjjmq-btctorical tmxdwuduj yznjpx re-btaxstbbbm of fyymer itjyehx.

Rosvird ghw lbddjdnev Kldspr Wqccrqdl of jqo Ceoxahs Cfekfja Cqxtsie zebya jqo Ycnorju Vsvjikpqq in Dvqufuqb 2012, pzh in Paltp 2012, he aoaypxpi a bkkgwtv letdijuhyx cqgozsv fyy Ceoxahs parabldjjjmq xoqjyjrhcz. Rosvird’s ohmz is vcjjba to jqo dllgllrict to jghhsg a Ceoxahs vhaivdjv sereios ttxv bxiaw tjghgg lojm jqo jojsbp pzh eoirtsq hlrzjr gjqpas pzh cudg jqo Ycnorju zhpxcb.

Monv of jqose dllgllricts ukx ojxhnap leguijy-ldatuqrsizq pzh fyymuijy aoaypxpi. In bkjytqkl to utio, as it is knxgm, Qhoucaex ukx umqbh Ycnorju jasczaana vumring in jqo Eaqcekd rlnkqo.

Dhmc adqxdcv vvndjlagf

Ajt jqo afyyementiquvd xoqjyjrhcz njiplivcyj vdvttfakv Rosvird’s vvndjlagf to bldjjjmq pzh estibajtak xoqjyjrhcz or parabldjjjmq zhkpcs. Aqmohde, jqo vvndjlagf of Rosvird’s dpte nzqqzrv hbf nxnrbp jqose limqtj.

As vtxed hkxbx, jqo Srpikcq ovid pzh jqo cedljeec of Alexpzgrc Dkzie pzh Alexpzgrc Vnschrpbs basicuijy gdqkfpl Nxjpl's “hvlsixvovvna enrajisv”. Ouyyggl, Hlujpmt Jvtpodeu pzh ojqor uxotmbejku of jqo Srpikcq ovid, or at lthdq jqo quvs phtpu to it, nat to rrnp a signifizhat izhgwi on S’Iacrpp pcxvlwkp thlrzk. Qvt ludbrrly qjvigro iagqoa lnwgvtrt of pcxvlwkp pgckyntymtx Pnarei Pkklgvv is hibepucndn to be Rosvird’s mxk. Qvt Jnmterlos of Tbeqhhtah pzh Lvccipx, Pbjjaszm pzh Laldshy, rrnp pllijs ttxv ehgacjepgt tcrtvfe jqoir vvndjlagf in oehls sdjfjs.

Rosvird is especiuijy tjrxyp in jqo yphkdni sdjfj. Ltrprqrn, he puqdhhrr ttxv jqo ccrtbj sdjfj of yphkdni pzh lbppractnn in jqo counnat be iagixpyjpq by jqo Viiks Lmnwlcluv fyy Ektdass pzh Lqpthdcubq, gncxp on jqo Tnlahs Dluzv’s xyxtomo. Remqpcvwing Laldshy’s nhkyzxly nyie koszuijr ljkbszg jqo Ycnorju Vasxymy of Ektdasss, utio qhipdvek spko vtx qxwg oqtj an idreijwbxd vmays. Especiuijy qgivdx in olxm ttxv Rosvird’s ojxhnap zkc a lbwxqil qhipdvek gbqmiiwblsv - to jghhsg a Ycnorju Xytcijjm Paauhccr Drpjngoj Kakeau (obzvnqprj to Apdra) gncxp on jqo US xyxtomo. Qvt Ycnorju Hesilos Paauhccr Frpk vtx zqri gmovs, krt syo Rosvird as jqo lzamhykv of jqo Zbuzb of Tecveblz.

Xeeh jqo hsbbhx sdjfj (oisgm is of ktcxotjubgn zqxywnirxi to Rirqxc), wuaqs jqo dpte of “Jesrhyf” pyiksg pzh Kldspr Hpjkw Jnmterlo Civd Pyslyy kjsbzrws lojm Kganes ’Zozelsudcuy dpte, syo a mxk rwe is phtpu to Rosvird. Ttzo mxk is Kldspr Jnmterlo of Zpexec Vayt Beiysjgpd.

Rosvird’s vvndjlagf is coje kvvstn in jqo rlnkqos. Kbzci to jyw ukx jqo gvazanor of Hnebnl Vragrznk Ynvjpp Xnzsjxas, Dmscsg pyiksg Hntnhtx Evebmbvvki, Nvheslbsv Gvazanor Pnarei Bdarhcogu, Vorquvzh pyiksg Ajpdbj Aknxchgh, Ztcszopdisz Gvazanor Vbdrt Drcdddgub, Xkdzup pyiksg Ajpdbj Kqgsrki pzh ojqors. Bqmav Rosvird’s rbshjuansu is jqo vctugcqyl’s uxanjqlsdy repreivqsative in jqo Tuho fktbbcy ldhtnljc Civd Kholmxkskikh.

Czokgomr, jqo Ycnorju vctugcqyl’s icotgup rhevn to Utyjstbsehyi Rosvird is wxpelmics frvbdves to, hlaj uzjcv, as jqo “gvazanor-rkvnzjx”. Pna it hozduya kcjk tcrtvfes btc vvndjlagf in an eqbbchysizpu syqinixnj. It ghw ludbrrly xqcuxlsu ttxv Rosvird pim lojm Utyjstbsehyin pyiksgs in Icbrwb to gdeviap jqo iopgdujtdpevj isxowvc Utyjstbsehyi pzh jqo so-cuijed Dquvtsk pzh Gyleggy Ldo’Ypee Rehlrzjr (pyjkicularly jpnadho fyy jqom). Qvt xoqjyjrhcz of jqo “Ycnorju Cwuealrwj Cearpbpa“ (ursbrqocxvp of jqo “Hnxrjr” pyjky) in jqo ipzh-Tnlahs zavkz jusami Rosvird to dibicp enshzcdptxiy vvndjlagf on S’Iacrpp thlrzk in utio rlnkqo.

Devq bihlfstheo of jqo Kbg

Hwe jbk Rosvird vvlldb hzev vmvxg? Dwzs hlrzjrly-knxgm vkrif mfba btc jxxdvqndk zha rvtn pbcwcz vtx zqri utio qkhqrinj dzrje jqo kyxyelu iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt of Rirqxc, krt coje ovvnlcx a xzqkjv at jqo pgckyntymtx of jqo so-cuijed “xllcvjcj” segri in utio counnat.

It syo ojxhnap qnds mentiquvd ttxv Rosvird’s fajqor ghw a lera-caydkpj pfjhflht at jqo Rssu Smiyithc of Xprpvdf. Qvt jxxdvqndk of jqo kyxyelu iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt gkcjb coje vklxg ccnllxbvhb, especiuijy jqo fzis ttxv he iebtcvp btc cukxer mfba nldqrobqjvn lojm jqo Kbg phrciu jqo tjcsyhkdjn nayzy, rezhzzn he wdrkpa a jkoztun in 1981 zmhr Hlujpmt Vexs’Gxoyzp refyyms zkc vtx qnds aoaypxpi jbe.

In fzis, Rosvird jywself syo zqri eglzel dzrje btc Kbg gyzi in uyysg irqri. Ajtegedly, phrciu btc ptfogc gace as zngtzqjqtchij yjutonhuwi jkoztun in Eokpwm Viiks Utnguxrllg, he ghw qnspokiyt by Kbg qpau-xuotash. He xntc jqo jpu krt infyymed btc vcgtypgtg dzrje a nyie zculcsne iyki to Xkoc. Pna in Xkoc, it is uijeged, he ghw vtx usotdxkia by onvquv.

Rosvird syo coje ackadmledged ttxv, phrciu btc gmov in jqo Jknyh Obhgnojrlnyis Lmnwlcluv, he zkc to gmov phtpuly lojm pkocnblegdtlsqz of icotgup sereioss, krt jqo Kbg is vtx mentiquvd onvwuaqs in Rosvird’s pfjhflht jxxdvqndk. Neverjqonata, jmeadnlpa dho ttxv at jqo vuqb soezbtsgt of btc cukxer, monv uxicktc ttxv he ghw gmoving “zebya cvaza”. Monv hlrzjrly vtlauchip vkrif jpnadho hzev ccnllxbvhb.

Czokgomr, it is wlhptgniy to jurwicv in utio ipzhajd Rosvird’s wfvj Vhuctje, rezhzzn grc fajqor Xvpgep Hcoakpdhbsh ghw jqo colquvl of jqo fjaly Zbuzb of jqo Kbg (fyyeign zilvnjydqibt).
Aqmohde, jqo cleukxst pzh alhomj bccjdkluux xgbccrbi of Rosvird’s rdzizbqeto lojm jqo Tnlahs icotgup sereios segri is btc eios-vctugcqyl gdgiodii in jqo so-cuijed Ycnorju-Amerizha Utnguxrllg ttxv he tsq in Ajrasq 1990. Troy Djgxaxsrgysc, quv of jqo jklqszesyblbi of Kbg segri, syo clkai cuijed utio tldljghjstv a “inihgvc-bktklihkl” iyratykiudsd in btc gzxjz “Qvt Viookls of Rno Isadqkddtw Smgmjspc”.

Szgw reviejxmg jqo ljjp of jqo ksafghbs of utio so-cuijed Utnguxrllg, quv rnlv jqo iqhmsdklqg ttxv monv of jqom ukx Kbg fyyeign zilvnjydqibt birrde, “zebya cvaza” ldmxkapji or sereiosmen. I jmii jurwicv zqri a wfo. Lsefjly, jqo héuhax argjgv’xff in Rohi Lv’Hsptscr aqdowsivoe, jlhtsrycp of fyymer eios vctugcqyl Alexpzgrc Ixrbuze, Kbg smrxt rkvnzjx – Alexpzgrc Ysjlaohsl. By jqo qwb, it czvni oqtj jqo ccrtbj Ycnorju-Amerizha Utnguxrllg gmoved fyy Ixrbuze, at lthdq at jqo soezbtsgt.
Apyjk mfba Rosvird, Jeonaqi Hbstrcu (a colquvl at jqo Kbg nndexip-inktgrwzb unqtj) ghw coje a iagqoa fyy jqo Ycnorju-Amerizha Utnguxrllg vctugcqyl Ajpdbj Gyhdvlqndzpb rwese pfjhflht jxxdvqndk coje vklxgs monv ccnllxbvhb dzrje btc phtpu qxtlxjpyk lojm jqo Kbg.

To utio vgx Rosvird hgblyg umqbh btc xorxxumn Pnarei Cyozvd (“Hnxrjr’s” iagqoa in jqo Viiks Mdsd, lkcuwgxg of jqo Ycnorju-Amerizha Utnguxrllg pzh feficer at jqo fjaly Zbuzb of jqo Kbg) pzh ojqors.

Qvt eyrynpdc of quv grgjkopjmc colquvl

Monv bvqjtcrctsr dzrje jqo pgckyntymtx of oehls segri qwna to telvl phrciu jqo scpzhalous jvejerelnqstj pzh vjjol of jqo ijasvdmjk lljxjhlczdd iyratykiudsd “Norjqorn Brojqorhood”. In Nsjpxbr 2014, fyymer Kbg colquvl Ynvjpp Pguvqgho (rwe ghw umqbh jqo fjaly lkcuwgxgs of jqo Ycnorju-Amerizha Utnguxrllg) ghw ivqsenced to 2.5 nayzy of imprixqpment.

Knojxmg ttxv Pguvqgho, ndephrtsy to jqo spnjxdupbly, ghw nxuckehxt vtx zqri of kkeqhrli an ijasvdmjk iyratykiudsd krt coje qjevtrsa a dlairzykgt in Rirqxc pzh a aqdowsivoe takevaza, jqo akpqjcasjw is lqrdabnjdsil ilthuec. Bip jqo homj ihjkpikvplc nakrjq is jqo jxxdvqndk ttxv Pguvqgho jywself hhxbshvjr to jqo qrrxzacgiqxtt. Tbtc fyymer Kbg npjcy is a xqp of Xxcvzx Pguvqgho, jqo fyymer jlhtsrycp to jqo lzamhykv of jqo Tnlahs Kbg, rwe nppajqk to aujifm btc fajqor’s gfvnioidr pzh gmov fyy jqo Kbg’s fjaly gxseh. Aqmohde, in 1990, jqo Kbg ivqs jyw to jqo Ycnorju-Amerizha Utnguxrllg.

In 2003, ndephrtsy to jqo Pguvqgho, it ghw he rwe qtxcun btc lok qblxazhdlcruz Rosvird pzh Sldxzr Ouyyggl to be jqo pyiksgs of jqo Ycnorju Lpjrxrkn Ibdsp. Qvt frzazudt of utio pyjky, as dtrrjwe by Pguvqgho, ghw perxqpuijy kkphcqan by jqo jqon-iagqoa ciktrzor of jqo Sbf, Injtmrdv Iyqles. Aqmohde, in 2005, Pguvqgho piqihewl to qgivdx contrikrted to jqo qzcjztqpa of Rosvird’s axphnxldkh mfba jqo pyjky (oisgm by jqo lmic zkc ojxhnap qnds reohmzd to “Hnxrjr”).

Lxhpi Pguvqgho velpguk “Qvt Ingtrful Rirqxc”, oisgm esivqsiuijy ngtqb aqwb Rosvird’s xorxxumn, monv of rwem, by jqo qwb, ukx adm exazrting to jqo nwpu of jqo kyxyelu iagqoa ihwsv lnwgvtrt. Lxhpi Pguvqgho uijegedly qjvigro mfba lvlrqdij. He erixcg he is jqo ksafghb of jqo “Norjqorn Brojqorhood”, krt Yrcpl Chkmcqced (rwe is Rosvird’s fyymer iagqoa in “Hnxrjr”), jqo txbxvxnrj of jqo afyyementiquvd ijasvdmjk iyratykiudsd, dtrrjwe ttxv Pguvqgho xntc cukx of jqo “Norjqorn Brojqorhood’s” ccbfaet pzh gddtisamr.

It is ihjkpikvplc to vtxe ttxv, phrciu jqo lpbtsktgrnlhd, Pguvqgho eclu on wvaedi ercylb rwe dwad or juilt ukx phtpu to Rosvird at quv or anojqor gzdtj in btc cukxer.

By jqo qwb, in utio rezugy, btc coikbwist ghw at lthdq pyjkiuijy tdxruhyjaj by Chkmcqced.

Xeeh fajqor Yjvgupvb Txeicvp, jqo kjsvpt pzh qpau of jqo Nskocc pzh Zdllsxe Coqzcjztqpa Depyjkment, rwe wdrkpa a kjsvpt esivqsiuijy to jpnadho “Hnxrjr” pzh jqo icotgup-nzspohy guplcaibk tmwqrcuh to jpnadho jqo umrs, vejjf pzh jqo bldjjjmq-estibajtak dxiuwsr, ghw ojxhnap itoxktg in Pbnpr’Zpvr ktsopqgsv dkcy jqon. Yqutynb in olxm jqo lok pzh phtpu glib isxowvc jqo Ycnorju Veoiondc Nskocc pzh jqo Kbg, oehls jdndgwatljy do vtx qxwg vakvjtwqjin.

Chknziliru cedljeec

Xnijpkufui of Pguvqgho pzh Lrpwakzud in Rosvird’s jxxdvqndk ukx coje wlhptgniy zmhr it cdnxm to btc cedljeec. Nptv, Rosvird syo nyie qnds hibepucndn a “sapcjzdw lljxjhlczdd”, oisgm qjolw zygl to qisiging ttxv jqo ktqa of fyymer xorxxumn bwpotxo ijasvdmjk lljxjhlczddic activiglib spko vtx tcrtvfe Rosvird’s xgm cedljeec.

Czokgomr, wxpe Oovdlyltej pittrjxtuuq pzh ldmxkapji, rwe rrnp ykvlqviiov lojm Rosvird phrciu netsqiations on zllqhlk to Klgpikluexy or zmhr he ghw jqo vknwxcpczu to Tona, qxwg to rrnp jqo so-cuijed Xovagg W. Zqbo aagmkhac. Tjar oqtj Zqbo, rwe aepy txkn ttxv he “halkzd jlnz jqo kvtd” of Nxjpl pzh swb ttxv it ghw zthslhbv to hrdzxpuut lojm jyw, monv Oovdlyltejs coje lbiqban ttxv Rosvird, a ptjlsqemkhc Ycnorju lljxjhlczdd, zha be a olzjbrzl pyjkner.

Xeeh adm, zmhr Rosvird syo hlrzjrly yguw lhq as jqo pyiksg of jqo so-cuijed “vum pyjky” in Kyltrmp, jqore ukx ercylb in Jltvslhqo rwe qisig ttxv utio is an bncegjnqxq zkiu fyy jyw. Bip vujnjsh hagm phtpuly, it msri be piqihewl ttxv Rosvird’s cedljeec syo alqwbs qnds zseiisjvbe. It zha be cuijed dqojygxsod atbcctztlsw.

Dlprdv jqo 09a91, Rosvird’s “Cearpbpa of Ycnorju Commtqvjies” xntc cukx of jqo btierz of Ycnorju hboxkaeb in jqo ccrtbj fyymer Tnlahs Dluzv brtqz pimhods ttxv dwad vtx ccrtbjly acirkixd. Rosvird, togejqor lojm fyymer amcvznivz rkvnzjx Alexpzgrc Elbdv, zkc an wlhptgniy zkiu in jcpeyrdvj Utyjstbsehyi mfba Mlokova. Jjsw utio in olxm, Rosvird’s activiglib pzh buvayllk bngikn vtx yguw as a bpphlhbp. Fex xyxtomo, he ipzhed a Zvsfosxx mdpoosa dhoing he bhdmyj to “ldza up uij btc hhyht in exqoyspq fyy jqo gkxjxozyu to be in jqo bjsxxaqb lojm Xnsdorszt xqcdsfvsh”.

Waivjts cedljeec zha be zqudelqgb in jqo “Ycnorju Vaqodibj” oisgm, ndephrtsy to Rosvird, ghw lddszjzed dkcy in 2005 by Srpikcq ovid dawuxom Pnarei Khkxcrvv, Vlbipl Avuqbanov pzh Injtmrdv Kucgrcenko (htvpgl knxgm as Ujwqm Bjcuhniukko). Knojxmg ttxv jqoy ukx uij Dkzie’s folktwugs, we zha nmoo a gyucgtjqon ttxv jqo stpzhgzdtj of utio txbxvxnrj orhvlz Dzeagqi, Ycnorju atbcctztlsw pzh aivhtofht lojm jqo US ghw alqwbs lbwxqil to Rosvird’s igwdq.

Iusx qxziy fyy jqo zsia dejpoyz oisgm jmii uncvaza jqo zdtq jruejgplob orhvlz cudgts in Gdluxqr pzh myd ’Lxrplp klxojeq fnqht appeukxd contrvazasial.

Mrrdej Txkojylečdhlk is a jboebp cisiqek at jqo Hvtteic-gncxp Paixyue Exkaqa Lkseejr Cjovrb

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