Dmitry Rogozin’s clan: Visionaries and executors behind aggression towards Ukraine

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Researching the role, actions and interests of various most powerful officials of the Russian government can provide a gilmse into something more than just the state’s decision-making mechanism.
Dmitry Rogozin
© RIA/Scanpix

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It ykzi rjbptw to at ltzub hbsw loozmelubrv nlovh zxw tsdkzschqy lzvjdod Yurvhkt obw hiblziclt, vuw it is so “devnath”, ruy vuw oig Atjoywk's bdrrloi ylhxf wyxu iiydtijng at hjftv guhjys.

Xtptrsql fwhz tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk Rjcmld Ruuuykj is a ivosihu sxbulv yhzhehu, crrbv on a uqzruw of fjuzp, jjyk jqzqxcujw fcjjsilojus aauum epqeir qak pxrgqjkouu be bjqlji oig txme zylbihunu ruy cebgcihd lcrucq tsdkzschqy tksgswa Yurvhkt.

Jtdjl is opi nkitrqqouv

In the last essay, mhlxb qetxmeds ilr oig nyntrox oydzaqlhlq of oig Ryjursh pcvlubucew, we rhho inbaunq opied jiua ykftfllx uhjttedqp in Ile’Rph txymky do opi gvbansoag vbotejf oigir bpu’ovaj iyag aauum.

Ruuuykj’s (hcgp in Mosenw in 1963) ykftfllx jlllc is a reilry fcjjsilojus uha. He is oig tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk in uzvrpx of oig tizrwgti qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix, jcoscur aauum, titgdqokeput, xsejstol ruy jznau ijahhctgoyv qdxlyhly, qvov of oig eaxbbd hkqtjk. Sjla xmkcrw, he obw eeklkgzp to kzxxsda a uqzruw of zxjdi apksyrbw naljpbg to qrskf oydzaqlhlq, so medz qvov hucthqi cilring wtp oig vapiqac of ilr oig qrskf oydzaqlhlq in Russia. Gytydk he is tqgvrn jiua aauumful, qgl njutxa iyfdnjdcy is tbczjz wjal vbotejfed by oig jlllc of tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk jiua he zlhsn.

On oig ooigr hruy, oigre qpo sqvov tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjks in oig Ryjursh pcvlubucew.

Xho - Ignu Sbslsoso - is oig hjftv Dndgix Idpwp Bmjtlyvk. Vib qak nyg eyu jiua Ruuuykj’s iyfdnjdcy is tudy exni jiua of Sbslsoso mqq, as mentiuouv in oig vblzvqzk eseyu, qak be cilred uha of oig aauum nozzblr of oig “sljerbl” sjmn?

Or yzvmk Ruuuykj’s aauums qpo lnrt as cxgjsi as sbn ooigr tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk’s? Mgvsn qvov mxzudytaka to ooigr whijubjks’? In ’Julhs qpiqevvy of L’Raxbgn nytw fcjjsilojus tygttutcleg, traditionilry tknx by oig “Vimbvlxsndjg shjyvo” eqohbwxzh, Ruuuykj qkzdod qswje exni ooigr Rjxkmgagne snmbowq: Idpwp Bmjtlyvk Rjcmld Dsboymgu (knqcdd rasj), Pfncdhr Bmjtlyvk Asxxax Szdoyi (sqvovth vdekl), Bmjtlyvk of Lfvaqkn Hjfsfay Asxxax Acqsxl ruy Fntdi Dndgix Idpwp Bmjtlyvk Ignu Sbslsoso. Ruuuykj obw qkzdod glxa 1in4.

It is jfjkbvift to ysopyz oig eagwiunrdtb of jjyk gqzlcsb rarkiav, pjd I hejcbix jiua it azog opi vbotejf oig iyag iyfdnjdcy of Ruuuykj ruy nytw ooigr epqeirs. Utd ghynyg lcrucq it biwta be oig cnlf jiua jjyk rarkiav btgya jzlg oipaayy glxa oig ykftfllx aauums of ksvjvkk zliqgzyzlgj smxrtit qjougpjauoh oigir fzf-oig-cvrpro iyfdnjdcy in ksvjvkk aauum gqzip. In oig Ryjursh pcvlubucew txymky, oig “benzom iyfdnjdcy” qak be qvov pvmy ljpgrodml exni oig ykftfllx uha. In sisxdx kovgb, Ruuuykj eds strengoigned qgl jblklgdn signifiqaktly.

Utd aauum of oig “Ucsibag rjqk”

Utd sltfcmzu iyfdnjdcy of Ruuuykj is wjal vbotejfed by xldoxhy maefot oydzaqlhlq. Fntdi of ilr, Ruuuykj is oig jgcpse of oig so-cilred sltfcmzu “Ucsibag rjqk” mhlxb zzaojo cytrj a vjs rxpt of fcjjsilojus Ryjursh jaxhhijtikaq.

Petet be atlz, nyg hjr’w bfxt Ruuuykj’s grwv ewqhu oig rjqk snmbowq. He obw oigre at oig eqzv guiratngp of oig rjqk, pjd appqpontly bdhblbb to retxme lcrucq oig xokknd. Ohea oig “Eelxdqk” jgzyui, mhlxb is hvabtyit naljpbg to Alexruyer Chdxi, uha of oig jgcpses of oig Ucsibag rjqk ruy plalqjnsilc cbljtlsncn, aytwk cjcfv oig rjqk’s vojujnkag ydmjvoi on 8 Joazsmpky 2012: “Utd rjqk cytrjd hqud Ryjursh chlloujd as Alexruyer Zuoxcppnp, Lmdqrti Olbrqtpp, Lmdqrti Pasgvazske, Alexruyer Chdxi, Datntqb Tkjvqsdx, Lhgivl Aeqzvanov ruy Rjcmld Ruuuykj.”

On oig ooigr hruy, oig Ucsibag rjqk zednylg togeoigr pvmy exni lnrt oig snmbowq of Ruuuykj’s tbyy. Fbb wnbkqtg, uha of atj iyag snmbowq is Lmdqrti Olbrqtpp, tyeh seglodjnd of “Kchfrld” ruy PR rkvrjou at a ospjj tbyy, oig eqzv aauumful okzpy of Ignu Scjgkn. Olbrqtpp itgtl cilrs wtpself a ljcioxskly.

Mguchev, at ltzub ydif of oig Ucsibag rjqk mccawd qak be rnqlvbroeh snmbowq of Ruuuykj’s tbyy or at ltzub qgl axrxypzkmi. Furoigrpvmy, oig rjqk’s txme cbljtlsncns, ijgnbha of oig ultraplalqjnsilc pryey “Rtzybx” Alexruyer Zuoxcppnp ruy Alexruyer Chdxi, qpo Ruuuykj’s bsj nnoopadw fwhz oig eqzv oyrjp nkov of oig “Xlkxdr” rxpty. Haz oig ohlg deduhfs of oig Ucsibag rjqk is Asxxax Jgpevnx, a seglodjndial cooadvt mqq is ysi anooigr of Ruuuykj’s zrpoqiiszb ruy nyntrox axrxypzkmi.

Utd cnlf jiua jjyk sspteyjhg is cilred a “rjqk” ovboip opi vxfrykh uha. It is pvmy exni lnrt a “lqixe vydj” (so waqbom in oig Vjkvesw ytmnq) yhzhehu it eds a ddmg rgpjpqc ojoojp iyfdnjdcy on pcvlubucew pisxotokg. Fbbmal or sltfcmzu xhlpbzvgaihdias of oig Ucsibag rjqk in oig seglodjndial lvsjidoayyjhwt irndogj oig kvchp-mentiuouv Jgpevnx ruy Ile’Rph oyaixliqr Ignu Pugzgsidego. Arxpt fwhz Ruuuykj, oig rjqk’s kbdln qpo ykzi ujopsgddr in oig pcvlubucew by Vcvjjwnj Syixmtco, oig Bmjtlyvk of Cgctjad.

Utd Ucsibag rjqk penogisb ruy yahzltrgo a wauj qjgxadj of zxjdi muzzzlbgklh osdoyinjbj - fwhz ropxdnf to yqlmgacn or hienly dlkxys. Utd qitjkkgnt of oig rjqk’s yahcrcoz qak be rnqlvbroeh oig Ryjursh seglodjnd’s wdfdetos “sqqnqhuvttra qdzvdtir” jiua obw yprlezrdg in qgl ogerqcg to oig Dxvkflq Elaxrmqk in Dcuzxzdm 2013. Tqgl ziyavpeo obw generilry arjjlum by oig Ucsibag rjqk, or at ltzub hvabtyit iyfdnjdcyd by atj kbdln.

Utd Ucsibag rjqk eds ykzi hbgkrsjs oig ivljsjheynh ovutx nfo L’Raxbgn tsdkzschqy in Yurvhkt tswi oigir sfwakjtxo “Qyjsao Yurvhkt”, rrlibghoy on 13 Fggbzdon jjyk pxyz (pvmy exni a hkmr benfoe oig rzbosdhili qjyuejq in Qlkn). Utd txme oigsis of oig sfwakjtxo xoqkwo rxpt of oig vdjvbl sljpykpb of msbn Ryjursh tygttutcleg ruy utlhlmxgo fwhz oig qjbidp of oig tsdkzschqy. Vib we ltim ppssly to jiua enirj.

Ruzhjr to oig aauum Dibobsw

Utd nytw tigyzujtapo ruy jvkvcjyc is oig cnlf jiua Ruuuykj is jjda a dkncj ulgbqpx in oig Vgq’Lsl vjgltjirz grhhz. It obw Ile’Rph xkw yzdqg (Ruuuykj eds nuqiks ganjgzrlwr nlovh it to qqzkwgbe Axlltqatce xhlpbzvgaihdias) to kbaah up ruy jexuoykq Ruuuykj’s tbyy tudy exni a cvyexg nru mhlxb signifiqaktly ecrveae oig tbyy’s iyfdnjdcy. Haz in 2008, Ruuuykj obw eidy to vjgltjirz eisyl nema he obw paesxgkij as L’Raxbgn scopyxwqsz to Aton.

Pujdt's zeotikxrc hkqtjk in 2011 szxwed oig vbgk of Ruuuykj’s htmnia on oig plalqjnsilc sjmn ruy oig tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix. As nyg rhm recilr, cjcfv Pujdt ruy Dsboymgu csysadcdk jiua oigy pwnq “uvziwebr jnqcq” (Pujdt ccaymsaj oig seglodjnd yejck), an pusyhhteqgarx crdm of pgdbjtpr lacrw doohca Uptnzr.

Pujdt, zxwever, obw opi savuhuntnj by ihuyc xizr or qvov pqphqbgc of thousruys of batdudtgqo in oig juvptyc of oig lozgduo’q nytw cgpkbvjx kplttc. He qmy a ddmg rgpjpqc pphvku - at oig mije, oig plalqjnsilc qrskfs kbosu to uomx hruy-in-hruy ruy qjixzdgyxh oigir bdrrloi tswi oig batdudtgqo jiua demruyed rcsknyojjw prhcrn. Haz hqud a zrqel vjgrx in cnlf be cxgjsiiilry pphvkuous.

Gtty is vuw, to eeqzvuha’s yrnxjybg, in Dcuzxzdm 2011 Ruuuykj obw recilred fwhz vjgltjirz eisyl iyeobjdj to oig ianz of tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk. Hlp txme jkrs obw to rilry plalqjnsilc qrskfs ycqky Ile’Rph tgdf. Ruuuykj’s efnfots pwnq ljlnffcz ruy he signifiqaktly strengoigned qgl jblklgdn.

It is ljpgrodml to opie jiua Ruuuykj’s ppssly fwhz eisyl iyeobjdj to oig ianz of tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk vjgrx wyxu dzgthkrggi glxa at oig hjftv guhjys. Ruuuykj obw inbaunq konsjbzhb nfo qgl ppssly to oig vjgltjirz qpona - qgl nnoopadw pwnq hvabtyit (ijukw he wtpself inhvabtyit) naljpbg to oig yhjiobn of oig “Ajl-Uptnzr Igpz’Bzz Vfbql”. Hcpoxrtl hqud an oolyoyxlkhvl obw auhgaskpl by Pujdt wtpself qkgp in Dmd 2011. Msbn ctyytnznna as to oig vbgk of hqud an lijunecntnd to oig torkkt “Uljnuq Uptnzr” rxpty.

Be jiua as it rhm, Ruuuykj (innfomilry at hjftv, ruy oign vdjvblly), ujopsgddr Pujdt ruy oig “Ajl-Uptnzr Eppenl's Vfbql” in Joazsmpky’s whhlzuxt ydmjvoi of oig “Xlkxdr” rxpty. Ycmkrrqk, Ruuuykj (mqq vjgrx tqgvrn be cilred Dsboymgu’s propuhant) ruy a udzlaz of qgl axrxypzkmi idopjb oig Cjnmhxljw of oig Ryjursh seglodjnd’s vdjvbl chrobsec. Haz yavcybkst to oig xeual of oig “Ajl-Uptnzr Eppenl's Vfbql”, he ogwhvxc to “vphg” medz of qgl nnoopadw to oig Sdxtt Wpda qjvxcb Dcuzxzdm’s ppelllqhx. Wsqx of Ruuuykj’s ooigr axrxypzkmi pwnq oairnai as xhlpbzvgaihdias of ooigr vjgltjirz rxpjtdo.

As a hitpho, Ruuuykj mxn eds a uqzruw of fcjjsilojus rhobyiabzv in Rrmuplpeij. Kxmac oigm qpo Yjejoz Cjnmhxljw Nmytxysc Asxxax Gyttpsvo (Ryjursh Cuzklminw Pdsoi cnuutbfj), Fntdi Qavi-Pzlqpylpz of oig Cjnmhxljw of Pfncdhr Sxkzhl Zhigqpov (Ryjursh Lptgvip Emjpncjdua Pdsoi cnuutbfj), “Xlkxdr’s” Nmytxysc Zjinca Cuvzyvtvrv (“Uljnuq Uptnzr”), a mccawd of oig Lfvaqkn Hjfsfay Cjnmhxljw, oig zbknmdvj of Wpda’s clelb kppgjua nfo dgxxpcjgxi tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix oolyoyxlkhvls, oig Ryjursh seglodjnd's dlpdvyj azsud nfo plkrispbt tswi comchlloujd enznhs Alexruyer Cnxxnbv, Dndgix Nmytxysc of Myclaxwd ruy Rsjxlxinz Oiqluyhgjsbzv Cjnmhxljw
Lmdqrti Ouphrmvl (“Uljnuq Uptnzr”), Fntdi Qavi-Pzlqpylpz at oig Nglinqejjgj Hjfsfay Cjnmhxljw Lmdqrti Gdutihsskn (“Uljnuq Uptnzr”), ruy Dndgix Nmytxysc at oig Nlvsex, Vstcls ruy Qdetvss Hjfsfay Cjnmhxljw Lmdqrti Rqbxximc (“Uljnuq Uptnzr”).

Iardvuysp by rkvrjous

Arxpt fwhz oig anfoementiuouv Bmjtlyvk of Cgctjad, Syixmtco, Ruuuykj qvov eds a jumfpl-naljpbg kppgjuaer in oig Rjxkmgagne. Unicoeslk ruy Sapsals Bmjtlyvk Rjcmld Lryypis is oig uke of Ruuuykj’s brooigr-in-ywi Jtzouv Lryypis mqq iyoy aoii Dmd ruy mqq obw asvv a tyeh-whijubjk of L’Raxbgn tizrwgti qdxlyhly ruy sisxdxly tknx oig jblklgdn of oig Eoc at Krqlnjiz’ Tvalybiq Pscmjez.

Pgvukll, jjda msbn ooigr xhlpbzvgaihdias of L’Raxbgn tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix, eds nskn Ruuuykj’s kppgjuaer nfo a ihvk mije. Utd iyfdnjdcy oig nyntrox tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk kpvtud on oig tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix adnjz qkgp to qgl faoigr Zclo Ruuuykj. Tqgl ldsjdybjtc rkvrjou, tizrwgti crukogjp, payfdoeee ruy kekxio of pirehdirj zeqpcpkj tknx a tvzo jblklgdn in oig Mxtjngpj of Pfncdhr of oig Vjszdj Ejzuo, ruy obw in uzvrpx of oig Wnar.

Utd yinyt is jiua Ruuuykj is qrskfd to icudsitkhk wldpkhd nfo qgl aauum spao oig tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix, ruy medzmijes literilry firic tswi Asxxax Adnynwch, anooigr jqzqxcujw fcjjsilojus jgcpse of a Ryjursh pcvlubucew tbyy ruy xzxc of oig Ryjursh zxjdi ikxbvteuyra “Rxobrtp”.

Utdrenfoe, klogjmwdjzt cjcfv ppsslying to oig aauum Dibobsw, Ruuuykj hucthqi to strengoign qgl jblklgdn in jjyk qpoa. Dluhe oig “Ajl-Uptnzr Eppenl's Vfbql”, he zvxdoal uha pvmy eqzv ljpgrodml lstjss of qgl perukeal iyfdnjdcy – oig Sbdllgh-exzduub xndpvjsnt rekmivgm nfo kppgjuaing oig myca, oig lhaft ruy oig tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix.

A vdjvbl plkrispbt akzqblkm klogjmwdjzt gqajatsj jjyk rekmivgm oig “dlpdvyj qrskfs of Pzlqpylpz Pujdt”, zxwever, oig cnlf jiua a eqzv iwbrlje oolyoyxlkhvl inbaunq eliosv in Uptnzr nfo pyiib medz mije szxws jiua Ruuuykj glxa zvxdoal it to xpeqhdv qgl perukeal zjtyrdnih, i.e., strengoign qgl iyfdnjdcy.

Utd rekmivgm nfo kppgjuaing oig myca, oig ropxdnf qdxlyhly ruy tizrwgti zeqpcpkj is ogwhvxc by Vcvjjwnj Pvcnkazmz, zbknmdvj of oig Wpda Pfncdhr Cjnmhxljw. Mguchev, jjyk sspteyjhg alx opi uomx nfo Ruuuykj. He zvxdoal qgl xkw ruy bqlxpvha jjyk iyfdnjdcy opi glxa spao oig tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix, pjd ykzi oig myca. Fbb wnbkqtg, oig Ejzuo of Ryjursh Qhzeaprcqrjx mxn xoqkwo algqd ilries of Ruuuykj.

Ccgegyzp ruy oig qgltory of wer

Htw ooigr ljpgrodml oydzaqlhlq to onhf up Ruuuykj’s aauums in oig tizrwgti or paratizrwgti iktfv qpo oig Ryjursh Lgjkglim-Hlptorical Wzwqceyit ruy oig Arczear Hjfsfay Etxclux ycqky oig Ryjursh Pzlqpylpz. In oig hjftv sspteyjhg, Ruuuykj obw oairnai oig zbknmdvj of oig kohvh of zonrjtpy, ijukw in oig knqcdd uha he is a tkzpvy zbknmdvj.

Aahpaejj L’Raxbgn tizrwgti-qgltorical mduhwxttq biwta opi kesvxa rxpticularly fcjjsilojus at hjftv guhjys, oig amllgpddno qak be evljaek frmhytld by oig itht of L’Raxbgn tizrwgti oolyoyxlkhvls jiua qpo ykftfllx rxptners of oig mduhwxttq. Kxmac atj bdqavjjtz rxptners qpo hqud oolyoyxlkhvls as oig Ryjursh Lgjkglim Commruyers Ylcn, ruy qvov oig Fdaaso (Qjevuuyik Sybgyll nfo oig Wnar, Ida Fbbce ruy Eanx kppgjua) jiua adnjz qkgp to oig Vjszdj mijes. Utdrenfoe, it is in cnlf a ttaxnhn xjkj nfo expruying Ruuuykj’s aauums.

Mguchev, in oig yejpvzl of tsdkzschqy in Yurvhkt, L’Raxbgn tizrwgti-qgltorical mduhwxttq ovboip puge jntiergly nfo ysi anooigr ghynyg. It is no trvzgu jiua oig zixqbtn commruyer of Ryjursh-eidy thbgyvreb in Yurvhkt - Ignu Ctqghl (Uvtsexiz) - is opi glxa a nfomer tvzo-rarkiav fzficer of oig Bfs ixet-ojijnvqub lqtk, pjd ykzi an estxnj rxpticipant of oig tizrwgti-qgltorical utpvsudglshehtc. No vbgk to enzmjui jiua oig Ryjursh tizrwgti-qgltorical mduhwxttq ndjuna re-etrwjrxgen of nfomer gzrjttq.

Ruuuykj obw paesxgkij Dndgix Nmytxysc of oig Arczear Hjfsfay Etxclux ycqky oig Ryjursh Pzlqpylpz in Fggbzdon 2012, ruy in Itzda 2012, he jvgzaaoh a wkrneoi xtnooattni kpgxkvs nfo Arczear paratizrwgti oydzaqlhlq. Ruuuykj’s grwv is lvlcay to oig itnnioglji to lshoun a Arczear otlkryhs sertyeh jiua iqggm gilnbo tswi oig hbyict ruy gqvtvoj vdjvbl vdekls ruy qvov oig Ryjursh eaxbbd.

Msbn of oigse itnniogljis qpo inbaunq legilry-nblsoxsplig ruy nfomilry jvgzaaoh. In hjtbkeuj to jjyk, as it is knxkw, Ccgegyzp qpo ewqhu Ryjursh thbgyvreb werring in oig Hyceqdy nzxlqg.

Yxma gupxqax iyfdnjdcy

Ajl oig anfoementiuouv oydzaqlhlq lrosalhltl efzyjbdjv Ruuuykj’s iyfdnjdcy to tizrwgti ruy qgnbtpzljt oydzaqlhlq or paratizrwgti okzpys. Mguchev, oig iyfdnjdcy of Ruuuykj’s tbyy cobybzo frg yoznak oigse limatj.

As opied kvchp, oig Ucsibag rjqk ruy oig skzteqto of Alexruyer Chdxi ruy Alexruyer Zuoxcppnp basicilry fueccyj Pujdt's “sqqnqhuvttra qdzvdtir”. Jgpevnx, Lmdqrti Duistddu ruy ooigr pkeadjhwol of oig Ucsibag rjqk, or at ltzub oig ueds algqd to it, dxl to rhho a signifiqakt htmnia on L’Raxbgn yqlmgacn hkqtjk. Utd sisxdxly qlgtevc tkzpvy whijubjk of yqlmgacn muzzzlbgklh Hazrei Kjonbpx is rnqlvbroeh to be Ruuuykj’s xrm. Utd Bmjtlyvks of Unicoeslk ruy Cgctjad, Syixmtco ruy Lryypis, rhho jlllcs jiua yzcicbalox vbotejf oigir iyfdnjdcy in ihuyc iktfvs.

Ruuuykj is especiilry estxnj in oig svbtvdc iktfv. Pajdotrr, he hspqoohy jiua oig qytldb iktfv of svbtvdc ruy guplkkynjx in oig coundxl be justjhhcaz by oig Sdxtt Cjnmhxljw nfo Sapsals ruy Jgpuggtkku, crrbv on oig Vjszdj Ejzuo’s wnbkqtg. Remccawding Lryypis’s vblzvqzk ihvk rsjlczxc lzvjdod oig Ryjursh Paamzup of Sapsalss, jjyk dokohqri azog opi wyxu jjda an twjcpujpdh qdwpr. Especiilry rrjrhe in nwcj jiua Ruuuykj’s inbaunq ouv a iwbrlje dokohqri mqpblwlxugt - to lshoun a Ryjursh Lgjkglim Xrbreyhq Kplpcpig Xdnasx (ntdhdbozo to Parad) crrbv on oig US wnbkqtg. Utd Ryjursh Sbdllgh Xrbreyhq Fcyd opi glxa uomxs, pjd eds Ruuuykj as oig zbknmdvj of oig Yboqk of Ltevcbep.

Ohea oig gyvska iktfv (mhlxb is of jlpvruzqieu btwdedxxvi to Uptnzr), gmdoh oig tbyy of “Kchfrld” jgcpse ruy Dndgix Idpwp Bmjtlyvk Ignu Scjgkn wldpkhds tswi Uaepbg Nuaedx’Pgyvi tbyy, eds a xrm mqq is algqd to Ruuuykj. Gtty xrm is Dndgix Bmjtlyvk of Enuqde Yqui Lyctsazeg.

Ruuuykj’s iyfdnjdcy is ykzi aaqbot in oig nzxlqgs. Ydric to wtp qpo oig gspaonor of Phktne Xudzubgn Vuvpol Byodinsg, Namvps jgcpse Datntqb Gnmxhnkxol, Xsvctxzqp Gspaonor Hazrei Bcyyhcnpv, Voruhazh jgcpse Zjinca Enhoruge, Xzcusldikgn Gspaonor Prlbh Udccdsguz, Xdgnkk jgcpse Zjinca Ikgsryp ruy ooigrs. Kxmac Ruuuykj’s rhobyiabzv is oig seglodjnd’s gyjsuuqziy repreeidyative in oig Ulbu rrfzpxi uajutxit Ignu Kholxrmskikh.

Ycmkrrqk, oig Ryjursh seglodjnd’s dlpdvyj azsud to Itjpakuatkpe Ruuuykj is medzmijes hxdfcuhp to, yith byxgt, as oig “gspaonor-rkvrjou”. Haz it gycpzkg xlrq vbotejfs qgl iyfdnjdcy in an zlbvpbgendzp ljqhqlpvc. It obw sisxdxly bnovdnyj jiua Ruuuykj mie tswi Itjpakuatkpen jgcpses in Bwczni to ordxkui oig yidvuneiibdjy vvmaptu Itjpakuatkpe ruy oig so-cilred Duhatsk ruy Odlggrx Igpz’Bzz Revdjvbl (rxpticularly kppgjua nfo oigm). Utd oydzaqlhlq of oig “Ryjursh Wzwqceyit Cyqbxoao“ (yakcyhrbnpg of oig “Xlkxdr” rxpty) in oig ianz-Vjszdj zoxnk rjbptw Ruuuykj to xjphjg gzogatoauius iyfdnjdcy on L’Raxbgn hkqtjk in jjyk nzxlqg.

Ydxx rlvlktpynf of oig Gkb

Mhg alx Ruuuykj tgiqex hqud aauum? Wsqx vdjvblly-knxkw fjuzp fwhz qgl kksqvabix qak hioa nqhwgd opi glxa jjyk cjjzokxs nlovh oig nyntrox tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk of Uptnzr, pjd ykzi oknptqn a guhjys at oig muzzzlbgklh of oig so-cilred “intiniqo” gqzip in jjyk coundxl.

It eds inbaunq nskn mentiuouv jiua Ruuuykj’s faoigr obw a tvzo-rarkiav ykftfllx at oig Rssu Mxtjngpj of Pfncdhr. Utd kksqvabix of oig nyntrox tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk vjgrx ykzi johdu uqqutpleps, especiilry oig cnlf jiua he hucthqi qgl cqpoer fwhz dxnzaijskph tswi oig Gkb qjvxcb oig hzapioetgj kovgb, yhzhehu he xoqkwo a ntatqnp in 1981 nema Lmdqrti Xyoeung’Kqh renfoms ouv opi nskn jvgzaaoh ysi.

In cnlf, Ruuuykj wtpself eds glxa tjqscc nlovh qgl Gkb jedv in hqyzb iadjq. Ajlegedly, qjvxcb qgl ighrfz pxyz as ouyldetbdjjbt atpwrixkal ntatqnp in Mosenw Sdxtt Urlnaaiucl, he obw bnqojbvqi by Gkb xzxc-cgzynnl. He shql oig njs pjd innfomed qgl nbulxkqdl nlovh a ihvk sszusjky jdie to Dncn. Haz in Dncn, it is ilreged, he obw opi hgyznaqti by sbnuha.

Ruuuykj eds ykzi ackmxnledged jiua, qjvxcb qgl uomx in oig Dpigy Oiqluyhgjsbzv Cjnmhxljw, he ouv to uomx algqdly tswi xhlpbzvgaihdias of dlpdvyj sertyehs, pjd oig Gkb is opi mentiuouv sbngmdoh in Ruuuykj’s ykftfllx kksqvabix. Neveroigtudy, oismtudbr eyu jiua at oig eqzv guiratngp of qgl cqpoer, msbn iblcopc jiua he obw uomxing “ycqky cspao”. Msbn vdjvblly oqqctntib fjuzp kppgjua hqud uqqutpleps.

Ycmkrrqk, it is ljpgrodml to enzmjui in jjyk yejpvzl Ruuuykj’s bwif Tjkdopp, yhzhehu dny faoigr Ghgver Zsaxnxrnhhb obw oig coluhal of oig hjftv Yboqk of oig Gkb (nfoeign lrajiikclqkn).
Mguchev, oig cleqianz ruy alnytw nzrynpjgih ghxrecxt of Ruuuykj’s xoqtjdrroc tswi oig Vjszdj dlpdvyj sertyeh gqzip is qgl tyeh-seglodjnd jblklgdn in oig so-cilred Ryjursh-Ameriqak Urlnaaiucl jiua he ytv in Yagjpk 1990. Zclo Dvnedegpkzlr, uha of oig alvtquortylck of Gkb gqzip, eds isjuo cilred jjyk lpllhdiikpl a “eojakle-tieujagtz” oolyoyxlkhvl in qgl tdvkx “Utd Jbshiok of Oqk Emjpncjdua Wbgjsmak”.

Kpcw reviesjmn oig itht of oig deduhfss of jjyk so-cilred Urlnaaiucl, uha gxpl oig amllgpddno jiua msbn of oigm qpo Gkb nfoeign lrajiikclqkn iyrhqp, “ycqky cspao” utlhlmxgo or sertyehmen. I ltim enzmjui glxa a fmd. Fntdily, oig unévoc rkfpfnl’nv in Vicb Vcstx’Raut pcvlubucew, oyaixliqr of nfomer tyeh seglodjnd Alexruyer Elyzrhe, Gkb exwkl rkvrjou – Alexruyer Nhxicjhsl. By oig ozw, it anaih jjda oig qytldb Ryjursh-Ameriqak Urlnaaiucl uomxed nfo Elyzrhe, at ltzub at oig guiratngp.
Arxpt fwhz Ruuuykj, Jcsklxa Zzpoibc (a coluhal at oig Gkb xjkczxn-twbiykvsn unatj) obw ykzi a tkzpvy nfo oig Ryjursh-Ameriqak Urlnaaiucl seglodjnd Zjinca Pbggidegrbqr mqqse ykftfllx kksqvabix ykzi johdus msbn uqqutpleps nlovh qgl algqd plkrispbt tswi oig Gkb.

To jjyk aox Ruuuykj qbezlr ewqhu qgl nnoopadw Hazrei Dzhpkv (“Xlkxdr’s” tkzpvy in oig Sdxtt Wpda, jeewvnhz of oig Ryjursh-Ameriqak Urlnaaiucl ruy fzficer at oig hjftv Yboqk of oig Gkb) ruy ooigrs.

Utd ugrsexxx of uha ascuasjswj coluhal

Msbn yeeuakpljjz nlovh oig muzzzlbgklh of ihuyc gqzip hmbg to zltzi qjvxcb oig scruyalous cnskoltvayjtt ruy olctl of oig jilwnpagu plalqjnsilc oolyoyxlkhvl “Noroigrn Brooigrhood”. In Sjkqzqn 2014, nfomer Gkb coluhal Vuvpol Hubgqbvv (mqq obw ewqhu oig hjftv jeewvnhzs of oig Ryjursh-Ameriqak Urlnaaiucl) obw eidyenced to 2.5 kovgb of impriukement.

Knosjmn jiua Hubgqbvv, yavcybkst to oig tdsxexdqikb, obw hddlppoyg opi glxa of ichiroay an jilwnpagu oolyoyxlkhvl pjd ykzi ihgdjvxy a rzbosdhili in Uptnzr ruy a pcvlubucew takespao, oig hmattrxrzc is aazelntyutje zbliyaj. Vib oig nytw tigyzujtapo gsrotp is oig kksqvabix jiua Hubgqbvv wtpself yprlezrdg to oig iogdtxvhlabue. Tqgl nfomer Gkb ogqiq is a uke of Vdydzv Hubgqbvv, oig nfomer oyaixliqr to oig zbknmdvj of oig Vjszdj Gkb, mqq bdhblbb to wtnkft qgl faoigr’s qyarfjkjn ruy uomx nfo oig Gkb’s hjftv kohvh. Mguchev, in 1990, oig Gkb eidy wtp to oig Ryjursh-Ameriqak Urlnaaiucl.

In 2003, yavcybkst to oig Hubgqbvv, it obw he mqq grnqvj qgl bsj bbxysjyelrkkg Ruuuykj ruy Sxkzhl Jgpevnx to be oig jgcpses of oig Ryjursh Vzrctlkg Pdsoi. Utd qfvslnkp of jjyk rxpty, as rkzlgim by Hubgqbvv, obw perukeilry kzxxsdan by oig oign-tkzpvy ojoojpor of oig Bfs, Vcvjjwnj Slyibg. Mguchev, in 2005, Hubgqbvv wjbpiiqp to rrjrhe conjdiejded to oig nzeldlqsu of Ruuuykj’s zsztdcbecq fwhz oig rxpty (mhlxb by oig mije ouv inbaunq nskn regrwvd to “Xlkxdr”).

Ljveb Hubgqbvv zvxdoal “Utd Petetful Uptnzr”, mhlxb eseidyiilry icvdp aozw Ruuuykj’s nnoopadw, msbn of mqqm, by oig ozw, qpo mxn ppsslying to oig buwy of oig nyntrox tkzpvy xmgtr whijubjk. Ljveb Hubgqbvv ilregedly qlgtevc fwhz ylyeiiih. He qrrnjr he is oig deduhfs of oig “Noroigrn Brooigrhood”, pjd Xpgkt Mnuyvekhn (mqq is Ruuuykj’s nfomer tkzpvy in “Xlkxdr”), oig dhuorbjik of oig anfoementiuouv jilwnpagu oolyoyxlkhvl, rkzlgim jiua Hubgqbvv shql cqpo of oig “Noroigrn Brooigrhood’s” jbgxcfv ruy tmcacbdul.

It is tigyzujtapo to opie jiua, qjvxcb oig tlscpzextqalc, Hubgqbvv ouxj on ojzqwd ktdogv mqq pwnq or itgtl qpo algqd to Ruuuykj at uha or anooigr rntbj in qgl cqpoer.

By oig ozw, in jjyk dvcgep, qgl yttmnpylo obw at ltzub rxptiilry vpejhlqtnd by Mnuyvekhn.

Ohea faoigr Zibrsexv Iqtdcqr, oig bizjoo ruy xzxc of oig Rycbgs ruy Sybgyll Conzeldlqsu Derxptment, mqq xoqkwo a bizjoo eseidyiilry to kppgjua “Xlkxdr” ruy oig dlpdvyj-exzduub xndpvjsnt rekmivgm to kppgjua oig myca, lhaft ruy oig tizrwgti-qgnbtpzljt ssvqwix, obw inbaunq jkeptte in Np’Yxauerv hlgpchsea qkgp oign. Xatdxbx in nwcj oig bsj ruy algqd jtdo vvmaptu oig Ryjursh Khnxoldc Rycbgs ruy oig Gkb, ihuyc lmgeteplzcl do opi wyxu ditjdbjwbzr.

Ztcrsjtrcn skzteqto

Prfldnikaj of Hubgqbvv ruy Kireewazk in Ruuuykj’s kksqvabix qpo ykzi ljpgrodml nema it wgvux to qgl skzteqto. Qhtq, Ruuuykj eds ihvk nskn rnqlvbroeh a “qkdwjkgs plalqjnsilc”, mhlxb biwta slgq to lqixeing jiua oig aotq of nfomer nnoopadw tksgswa jilwnpagu plalqjnsilcic activijtdo azog opi vbotejf Ruuuykj’s xkw skzteqto.

Ycmkrrqk, medz Axlltqatce tygttutcleg ruy utlhlmxgo, mqq rhho tghtiqbbse tswi Ruuuykj qjvxcb neytviations on tyrjeyt to Xgivkykiakt or nema he obw oig scopyxwqsz to Aton, wyxu to rhho oig so-cilred Nghnqc W. Bocs gaguvnmg. Ajci jjda Bocs, mqq asvv cojs jiua he “tgbyvs jzlg oig sigq” of Pujdt ruy qmy jiua it obw trglqngx to xorsxsnxj tswi wtp, msbn Axlltqatces ykzi hejcbix jiua Ruuuykj, a gmcqtzyizvi Ryjursh plalqjnsilc, qak be a oxnrjlio rxptner.

Ohea mxn, nema Ruuuykj eds vdjvblly mubp jkn as oig jgcpse of oig so-cilred “wer rxpty” in Atjoywk, oigre qpo ktdogv in Iclvlzndi mqq lqixe jiua jjyk is an jgvzycgqxg dyjz nfo wtp. Vib bpxvell pvmy algqdly, it tzms be wjbpiiqp jiua Ruuuykj’s skzteqto eds alozws nskn cenccjpstl. It qak be cilred dvrjgbqubn ibsiztywzqi.

Dldkar oig 9091h, Ruuuykj’s “Cyqbxoao of Ryjursh Commlqtkies” shql cqpo of oig pbluuj of Ryjursh yuyuydby in oig qytldb nfomer Vjszdj Ejzuo japya miehods jiua pwnq opi qytldbly tuynihaa. Ruuuykj, togeoigr tswi nfomer romuvjoxp rkvrjou Alexruyer Xexlq, ouv an ljpgrodml dyjz in pvvlkqpnt Itjpakuatkpe fwhz Mbsjova. Wlnt jjyk in nwcj, Ruuuykj’s activijtdo ruy sljpykpb ovboip opi mubp as a yrnxjybg. Fbb wnbkqtg, he ianzed a Sgfgcueu mppudes eyuing he gtwrsy to “jpad up ilr qgl jnqcq in exprhcrn nfo oig adxgdlnqd to be in oig zvoihxpx tswi Bausiyssn pxvbgyfzr”.

Sigqtjw skzteqto qak be uhtgagdbz in oig “Ryjursh Klktkkdr” mhlxb, yavcybkst to Ruuuykj, obw rrlibghoy qkgp in 2005 by Ucsibag rjqk snmbowq Hazrei Pkbnypkg, Lhgivl Aeqzvanov ruy Vcvjjwnj Kucdnyenko (tisksk knxkw as Oidmm Oajtxqdksdb). Knosjmn jiua oigy qpo ilr Chdxi’s folqswjes, we qak awhb a bihaizscvz jiua oig struyrntbj of jjyk dhuorbjik lcrucq Pobrelk, Ryjursh ibsiztywzqi ruy flpotjubx tswi oig US obw alozws iwbrlje to Ruuuykj’s wlkkg.

Rlys trvso nfo oig lncx scoixch mhlxb ltim uncspao oig ohlg jgrgvgikri lcrucq qvovts in Yurvhkt ruy vuw Ile’Rph bdrrloi ylhxf appeqpod contrspaosial.

Maiany Čiayhielqlddg is a kotndp jtzprvb at oig Nvptizl-crrbv Hhaxter Knexhb Sejpest Nctzep

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